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  1. 1. Exploration<br />World History: Patterns of Interaction & Modern European History<br />
  2. 2. Important Timeline of the European Expansion<br />1419 Portugal’s Prince Henry the Navigator establishes a school of seamanship and navigation.<br />1427-1431 Portuguese explore the Azores (North Atlantic Ocean)<br />1442 The Portuguese establish a slave-trading station in West Africa<br />1488 Bartholomew Diaz rounds Cape of Good Hope<br />1492 Pope Alexander VI establishes the Papal line of Demarcation<br />
  3. 3. Important Timeline of the European Expansion<br />1497-1498 John Cabot explores the Northeast coast of North America<br />1498 Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut on India’s Malabar Coast<br />1499-1500Amerigo Vespucci makes two voyages of exploration along the Atlantic coast of South America<br />1500 Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal<br />1511 The Portuguese take Malacca on the Malay Peninsula<br />
  4. 4. Important Timeline of the European Expansion<br />1513 Ponce de Leon discovers Florida; Vasco de Balboa crosses Panama to the Pacific Ocean<br />1519-1521 An expedition originally led by Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the globe.<br />1524Giovanni de Verrazano explores the coast of North America<br />1532 Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca Empire in Peru<br />
  5. 5. Important Timeline of the European Expansion<br />1534 Jacques Cartier makes his first voyage to Canada<br />1542 The first Portuguese ship reaches Japan<br />1557 The Portuguese establish a trading station at Macao on the Southern Coast of China<br />
  6. 6. By the early 1400s<br />Europeans were ready to venture beyond their borders.<br />The Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and curiosity.<br />
  8. 8. Seeking of greater wealth<br />Desire for new sources of wealth.<br />Trading of spices and luxury goods from Asia (eg. Nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, pepper).<br />Demand for these goods was greater than the supply, merchants could change high prices and thus make great profits.<br />
  9. 9. Spread of Christianity<br />European nations believed that they had a sacred duty not only to continue fighting Muslims, but also to convert non-Christians throughout the world.<br />Bartolomeu Dias says, “to serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do.”<br />
  10. 10. Technological advances<br />Advances in technology made the voyages of discovery possible.<br />1400s-shipbuilders designed a new vessel, the caravel, which is sturdier than earlier vessels. Its triangular sails allowed it to sail effectively against the wind.<br />
  11. 11. PORTUGAL LEADING THE WAY<br />Portugal took the lead in overseas exploration due to strong government support.<br />Who is Prince Henry the Navigator?<br />
  12. 12. Prince Henry the Navigator<br />1394-1460<br />Portuguese infante and patron of Portuguese exploration.<br />He was said to have shown little emotion. (Which suggests his coldness and being distant disposition)<br />No one, in fact, ever saw him to lose his temper.<br />By the time he died, the Portuguese had established a series of trading posts along the shores of Africa. Trade of Gold, ivory, and slaves, then, became important.<br />
  13. 13. Portuguese Sailors<br />Reached the Cape of Good Hope.<br />He also considered sailing to India but his crew was exhausted and food supplies were low. Hence, he went back to Portugal.<br />Reached the port of Calicut in 1498.<br />Amazed by the spices, the rare silks, and the precious gems that filled Calicut’s shops.<br />
  14. 14. SPANISH CLAIMS<br />Portuguese established trading posts along the west coast of Africa, Spain watched with envy.<br />Spanish monarchs desired a direct sea route to Asia. <br />
  15. 15. Christopher Columbus<br />Convinced Spain to finance a plan: finding route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean.<br />October 1492, Columbus reached Caribbean. This would open the way for European colonization of the Americas.<br />
  17. 17. Portugal suspected that Columbus had claimed for Spain lands that Portuguese sailors might have reached first.<br />Pope Alexander VI- stepped in to keep peace between the two nations.<br />Suggested an imaginary dividing line drawn north to south through the Atlantic Ocean.<br />
  18. 18. Line of Demarcation- all lands to the West of the line are for Spain. All lands to the East of the line, Portugal.<br />Treaty of Tordesillas – 1494<br />Both countries agreed to honor the line.<br />
  19. 19. Portugal’s Trading Empire<br />After da Gama’s voyage, Portugal built a trading empire throughout the Pacific Ocean.<br />Goa- a port city on India’s west coast, was made the capital of their trading empire.<br />Portuguese sailed farther east to Indonesia (aka the East Indies) and eventually seizing control of the Strait of Malacca. This gave them control of the Moluccas Islands (aka Spice Islands).<br />
  20. 20. Effects of Portugal’s success in Asia<br />Attracted the attention of other European nations like Spain.<br />In 1521, Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines. <br />In what year did the Spaniards settle in the country?<br />
  21. 21. In the beginning of 1600s, the English and Double Dutch began to challenge Portugal’s dominance over the Indian Ocean trade.<br />Both formed an East India Company to establish and direct trade throughout Asia.<br />Had the power to mint money.<br />Make treatises<br />Raise their own armies.<br />
  22. 22. DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY<br />Richer, more powerful than England’s.<br />Headquarters were at Batavia on the island of Java.<br />Also seized both the port of Malacca and the valuable Spice Islands.<br />In 1600s, Netherlands increased its control over the Indian Ocean trade. Hence, Amsterdam became the leading commercial center.<br />
  23. 23. DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY<br />Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie<br />Richer, more powerful than England’s.<br />Headquarters were at Batavia on the island of Java.<br />Also seized both the port of Malacca and the valuable Spice Islands.<br />In 1600s, Netherlands increased its control over the Indian Ocean trade. Hence, Amsterdam became the leading commercial center.<br />