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Kingdoms archaebacteria


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biology : bacteria , 3rd chapter, part2

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Kingdoms archaebacteria

  1. 1. Review <ul><li>Remember from earlier this year that there </li></ul><ul><li>are two broad categories of organisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Prokaryotes – have No membrane bound organelle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Eukaryotes – have membrane bound organelle </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Important Features <ul><li>-all are prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>-all have plasmids (small circular packages of DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>-most have peptidoglycan in their cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>-flagella are made with a globular protein called flagellin- no 9+2 arrangement </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cytosol Granules (Small chunks of food)
  4. 5. Locomotion (Methods of Movement) <ul><li>Bacterial Flagellum- lacks microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Pili- short, thin appendages </li></ul>
  5. 6. Bacteria <ul><li>E. coli </li></ul>E. coli
  6. 7. Nutrition <ul><li>Autotrophs- manufacture organic compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs- use light energy & CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemoautotrophs-use inorganic substances like H 2 S, NH 3 , and other nitrogen compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs- obtain energy by consuming organic compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parasites- get energy from living organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saprobes (saprophytes)- get energy from dead, decaying matter; also called decomposers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Oxygen Preferences <ul><li>obligate aerobes must have oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>obligate anaerobes cannot live in oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen </li></ul>
  8. 9. 2 Bacteria Kingdoms <ul><li>Kingdom Archaebacteria - are ancient bacteria that live in extreme environments </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Eubacteria - are generally referred to as bacteria or germs, and are considered more recent. Most types of bacteria belong in this kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>First appeared approximately 3.7 BYA </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Archaebacteria: <ul><li>do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>have ribosomes similar to eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>have unique lipids in their plasma (cell) membranes </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Archaebacteria also: <ul><li>have some genes that resemble eukaryotic genes </li></ul><ul><li>usually are not pathogenic (they don’t usually make us sick!) </li></ul><ul><li>live in extreme environments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high concentrations of salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extremes of pH and temperature </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. 3 Archaebacterial Groups <ul><li>Methanogens </li></ul><ul><li>Halophiles </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoacidophiles = live in extremely hot, acid environments </li></ul>
  12. 13. Methanogens <ul><li>anaerobic bacteria that get energy by turning H 2 and CO 2 into methane (CH 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>live in mud, swamps, and the guts of cows, humans, termites and other animals </li></ul>
  13. 14. Halophiles <ul><li>are organisms that live in environments with extremely high salt concentrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some extreme halophiles can live in solutions of 35 % salt. (seawater is only 3% salt!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>halophile means “salt loving” </li></ul><ul><li>most halophiles are aerobic and heterotrophic; others are anaerobic and photosynthetic, containing the pigment bacteriorhodopsin </li></ul>
  14. 15. Diversity of Halophilic Organisms <ul><li>halophiles are found in salt lakes, salt marshes, subterranean salt deposits, dry soils, salted meats, hypersaline seas, and salt evaporation pools </li></ul><ul><li>the Red Sea was named after the halobacterium that turns the water red during massive blooms. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Halophile Environments solar salterns Owens Lake, Great Salt Lake, coastal splash zones, Dead Sea
  16. 17. Thermoacidophiles <ul><li>Like temperature and pH extremes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot = up to 110 ºC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold = down to 1 ºC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid = as low as pH 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkali = as high as pH 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>they are chemoautotrophs, using H 2 S </li></ul><ul><li>the first Extremophile was found about 30 years ago </li></ul>
  17. 18. Extreme Temperatures <ul><li>Thermophiles - High temperature = 60-80 0 C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal vents and hot springs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May go hand in hand with chemical extremes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychrophiles - Low temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic and Antarctic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 of Earth’s surface is oceans between 1 0 C & 4 0 C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep sea –1 0 C to 4 0 C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most rely on photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Thermophile Environments Hydrothermal Vents in the ocean, and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park
  19. 20. Psychrophile Environments Alan Hills Ice Field: Antarctica
  20. 21. Thermophile Applications <ul><li>many industrial processes involve temperature extremes, which is a problem for most enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes to work on foods that need to be refrigerated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfumes - most don’t tolerate high temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold-wash detergents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCR reactions </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Chemical Extremes <ul><li>Acidophiles - Acidic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Again thermal vents and some hot springs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alkaliphiles - Alkaline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soda lakes in Africa and western U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Halophiles - Highly Salty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural salt lakes and manmade pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes occurs with extreme alkalinity </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Acidophiles <ul><li>Enzymes used to increase efficiency of animal feeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes help animals extract nutrients from feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more efficient and less expensive </li></ul></ul></ul>Life at High Temperatures, Thomas M. Brock
  23. 24. Acidophile Environments
  24. 25. Alkaliphiles <ul><li>“ Stonewashed” pants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaliphilic enzymes soften fabric and release some of the dyes, giving worn look and feel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detergents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes to dissolve proteins or fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaliphilic enzymes can work with detergents </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Alkaliphile Environments e.g. Mono Lake alkaline soda lake, pH 9, salinity 8%
  26. 27. Examples of Unusual Habitats <ul><li>The bacterium pseudomonas was found living on a desert plant in the Negev Desert. The plant secretes salt through salt glands on its leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus was found in the nasal cavities of desert iguanas. These iguanas have salt glands in their nasal cavities that secrete KCl brine during osmotic stress. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Special Techniques for Survival <ul><li>While external environments are “extreme”, internal cell environments are “normal”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to protect the cell: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles sometimes excrete protective substances and enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidophiles often lack cell wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some moderate halophiles have high concentrations of a solute inside to avoid “pickling” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many microbes contain unusual enzymes </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Interesting Facts <ul><li>The term “red herring” comes from the foul smell of salted meats that were spoiled by halobacterium. </li></ul><ul><li>There have been considerable problems with halophiles colonizing leather during the salt curing process. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Future Applications <ul><li>Many possible applications using halophiles are being explored such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetically engineering halophilic enzymes, encoding DNA into crops to allow for salt tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treatment of waste water </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Summary <ul><li>Now you know something about Extremophiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where they live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how they survive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are interesting because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they have enzymes that work in unusual conditions </li></ul></ul>