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Presentations By Rajendran Ananda Krishnan, https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkprettythings

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  1. 1. Quality ProtocalsRajendran Ananda Krishnan https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  2. 2. • Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations• Degree to which performance of a product or service meets or exceeds customer expectation https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  3. 3. Conformance to specificationsFulfilling Customer NeedsDefinition of quality focuses not merely on the manufacturingprocess but also on the process of arriving at the specifications. NessFitness to useZero defects https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  4. 4. Dimensions of QualityPerformance - main characteristics of the product/serviceAesthetics - appearance, feel, smell, tasteConformance - how well product/service conforms to customer’sexpectationsReliability - consistency of performanceFeatures- Additional attributes to enhance the qualityDurability- How long the product lasts before it requires the replacementServiceability- The ease with which the product can be servicedSafety- Assurance to the customer that there are no hazards https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  5. 5. Examples of Quality DimensionsDimension (Product) (Service) Automobile Auto Repair1. Performance Everything works, fit & All work done, at agreed finish price Ride, handling, grade of Friendliness, courtesy, materials used Competency, quickness2. Aesthetics Interior design, soft touch Clean work/waiting area3. Special features Gauge/control placement Location, call when ready Cellular phone, CD Computer diagnostics player
  6. 6. Examples of Quality Dimensions (Cont’d)Dimension (Product) (Service) Automobile Auto Repair5. Reliability Infrequency of breakdowns Work done correctly, ready when promised6. Durability Useful life in miles, resistance Work holds up over to rust & corrosion time7. Perceived Top-rated car Award-winning service quality department8. Serviceability Handling of complaints and/or Handling of complaints requests for information
  7. 7. Service Quality• Tangibles• Convenience• Reliability• Responsiveness• Time• Assurance• Courtesy https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  8. 8. Examples of Service QualityTable 9.4 Dimension Examples 1. Tangibles Were the facilities clean, personnel neat? 2. Convenience Was the service center conveniently located? 3. Responsiveness Were customer service personnel willing and able to answer questions? 4. Time How long did the customer wait? 5. Assurance Did the customer service personnel seem knowledgeable about the repair? 6. Courtesy Were customer service personnel and the cashier friendly and courteous?
  9. 9. Juran’s Quality trilogy (December 24, 1904 – February 28, 2008) Fitness for use Juran’s Trilogy Quality planning- The process of preparing to meet quality goals Quality control- to know when corrective action needed Quality improvement- better ways of doing the things Justifying the need for improvement Identifying specific projects and organizing support for projects Diagnosing causes and providing remedies Providing control mechanisms https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  10. 10. Costs of Quality Quality Costs Control Costs Failure CostsPrevention Appraisal Internal External https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  11. 11. Costs of Quality• Failure Costs - costs incurred by defective parts/products or faulty services.• Internal Failure Costs – Costs incurred to fix problems that are detected before the product/service is delivered to the customer.• External Failure Costs – All costs incurred to fix problems that are detected after the product/service is delivered to the customer. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  12. 12. Costs of Quality (continued)• Appraisal Costs – Costs of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defects• Prevention Costs – All TQ training, TQ planning, customer assessment, process control, and quality improvement costs to prevent defects from occurring https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  13. 13. The Cost of Quality: Sources of Costs  Training  Verification of Design Prevention  Plant and Equipment  Preventing Defects from Happening Maintenance  Qualifying Suppliers  Incoming materials Inspection Appraisal  In-process Inspection  Evaluating Materials and Performance  Final End-item Inspection  Maintenance of test Equipment  Training Internal Failures  Scrap (waste)  Defects that are Discovered In-House  Re-work  Time spent analyzing failures  Tests and re-tests External Failures  Customer Complaints  Defects Discovered by the Customer  Warranty Costs and Field Re-Work  Damaged Image https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  14. 14. The Cost of Quality Distribution of the Costs (10.0%) PreventionInternal and External failures (25.0%) (65.0%) EvaluationReduce Quality Costs by Increasing Prevention Efforts https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  15. 15. Deming’s 14 Points(October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993)Lower pricePDCA CycleProcess improvement and SPC 1. Create constancy of purpose 2. Adopt philosophy of prevention 3. Cease mass inspection 4. Select a few suppliers based on quality( avoid price tag) 5. Constantly improve system and workers 6. Institute worker training 7. Instil leadership among supervisors 8. Eliminate fear among employees 9. Eliminate barriers between departments, groups, staffs10. Eliminate slogans or exhortation11. Remove numerical quotas12. Enhance worker pride13. Institute vigorous training & education programs14. Implement these 13 points https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  16. 16. Basic Quality Tools( 7QC’s)1. Flowcharts2. Check sheets3. Histograms4. Pareto Charts5. Scatter diagrams6. Control charts7. Cause-and-effect diagrams https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  17. 17. BeginA FlowchartCatalog Cal Customer places a call Yes Call back Busy signal Yes No No Specify desired item Lost sale No Alternate No Available selection Yes No Confirm order Lost sale Specify delivery instructions Indicate of payment method End https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  18. 18. Pareto Analysis80% of the Frequencyproblems maybe attributed 80 %to 20% of thecauses. Design Assy. Purch. Other Instruct. Training https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings 12
  19. 19. Cause & Effect Diagram ( Fish Bone Diagram)It is a line diagram that helps understand the causes of quality issues & effect of those causes. It is a simple tool which resembles the shape of a fish’s bone & therefore also called the fish bone diagram.It helps in discovering all possible causes for a particular effect. The effect examined is some troublesome aspect of product or service quality. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  20. 20. Cause & Effect Diagram ( Fish Bone Diagram) COMMUNICATION SKILLS Incorrect Deliveries ProceduresTransport https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  21. 21. Cause & Effect Diagram ( Fish Bone Diagram) SKILLS COMMUNICATIONPacking Telephone Illiteracyslip not orders not Knowledgelegible recorded Inconsistency in manual Incorrect Incorrect Deliveries database Lack of vehicles Procedures Transport https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  22. 22. SCATTER DIAGRAM• It is figure which helps to visualize the relation between two variables. It helps determine the correlation between two charateristics. The relationship is expressed in terms of scattered points. It only helps in establishing the co- relation eg: The larger the variable X results in lesser Y https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  23. 23. Scatter Diagram 12 10Defects 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 Hours of Training https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings 15
  24. 24. CHECK SHEETSThe check sheets contains a number of cells corresponding to different data categories. The Data need not be necessarily be in numerical form. Check sheets may also contain drawings or design to check locations of failures.The check sheet is a very simple tool that facilitates the conversion from data to useful information. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  25. 25. DayDefect 1 2 3 4A III IIIII IB II I II IIIC IIIII III II IIII https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  26. 26. Control Charts1020 UCL10101000 990 980 LCL 970 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings 18
  27. 27. HISTOGRAMHistogram is generally used to chart frequency of occurrence. It is a graphic representation of variation in a set of data.A histogram is a graph in which the continuous variable is clustered into categories and the value of each cluster is plotted to give a series of bars. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  28. 28. HistogramFrequency Data Ranges https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings 14
  29. 29. The PDSA Cycle PlanAct Do Study https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  30. 30. The Deming Wheel (or P-D-C-A Cycle) 1. Plan Identify problem Develop plan for improvement 4. Act 2. DoInstitutionalize Implement plan improvement on test basisContinue cycle 3. Study / Check Is the plan working https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  31. 31. Quality CirclesA group of employees whose assignment is to identify the problems , formulate solutions and present their results to the management with suggestions for implementation.Support structureSteering CommitteeFacilitatorsCircle memberDeveloping a QC Programme1. Start-up2. Initial problem solving3. Approval of initial suggestions4. Implementation5. ExpansionEx- BHEL, BEL,BFW, Kirloskar Electrical Co, L&T, https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr Durgapuar Steel plant ettythings
  32. 32. Quality Function Deployment (QFD)It is a method of developing a design quality aimed at satisfying the customer and then translating the customer ‘s demand into design targets and major quality assurance points to be used throughout the production phaseIt is tool that helps organizations translate customer requirements into design, process planning and manufacturing specifications using four stage process Links Links Design Links actions to Links Customer attributes to Implementation implementation Needs to actions firms decisions to process plans design can take attributes https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  33. 33.  Customer requirementsEnough space to sit and eat, less time during the peak hours, easy to carry home& quick order processing Importanceless time during the peak hours Product characteristicsTemperature of cooked item, time taken to cook the itemOrder processing time, Thickness of packaging material, numbers of service counters in peak time, no of tables Relationship matrix Tradeoffs++ Strong positive, -- strong negative, Benchmarks X Own company, A- Competitor, B- Competitor B https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr Technical assessment and target values ettythings
  34. 34. Quality Management Systems• A QMS can be defined as:“A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance.” The benefits of a QMS• The customers’ requirements – confidence in the ability of the organization to deliver the desired product and service consistently meeting their needs and expectations.• The organizations requirements – both internally and externally, and at an optimum cost with efficient use of the available resources – materials, human, technology and information. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  35. 35. Quality Management Systems A good QMS will:• Set direction and meet customers’ expectations• Improve process control• Reduce wastage• Lower costs• Increase market share• Facilitate training• Involve staff• Raise morale https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  36. 36. ISO 9000• ISO 9000 – Set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance, critical to international business https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  37. 37. ISO 9000 StandardsRequirements• System requirements• Management• Resource• Realization• Remedial https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  38. 38. ISO 9000 StandardsEight Quality management principles1. A customer Focus2. Leadership3. Involvement of people4. A process approach5. A system approach to management6. Continuous improvement7. Use factual approach to decision making8. Mutually beneficial supplier relationships https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  39. 39. Six SigmaA business process for improving quality, reducing costs, and increasing customer satisfaction. – Sigma” is a statistical term which defines the level of Error Free Performance in a process related to services and or product deliveries, in an absolute numbers. – The higher the sigma value, a process will produce lesser and lesser defects.• Statistically – Having no more than 3.4 defects per million• Conceptually – Program designed to reduce defects – Requires the use of certain tools and techniques https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  40. 40. • SIX SIGMA MEANS PRODUCING,DELIVERING PRODUCT AND SERVICES AT A YIELD RATE AND CONFIDENCE LEVEL OF 99.9997%, Continuously. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  41. 41. Defects per YIELDSIGMA LEVEL Million Oppotunities CONFIDENCE LEVEL 6 3.4 99.9997% 5 233 99.977% 4 6210 99.379% 3 66807 93.32% 2 308537 69.2% 1 690000 31% https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
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  43. 43. Six Sigma Team• Top management• Program champions• Master “black belts”• “Black belts”• “Green belts” https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  44. 44. Six Sigma Process• Define• Measure• Analyze• Improve DMAIC• ControlObjectivesReduce defects, costs, product and process variability, delivery time, improve the quality https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  45. 45. Quality AwardsBaldrige Award Deming Prize https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  46. 46. Quality Awards• Instituted to create awareness and interest in quality.• Award given annually to recognize firms that have integrated quality management in their operations. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  47. 47. The Deming Prize• Honoring W. Edwards Deming• Japan’s highly coveted award• Main focus on statistical quality control• Deming prize established by the Japanese and awarded annually to firms that distinguishes themselves with quality management programs• Major focus on SQC https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  48. 48. Deming Prize Winners from India• Five Companies belonging to TVS group• Three auto components companies• 1998:• Sundaram Clayton Ltd- Breaks Division https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  49. 49. Baldrige AwardBaldrige Award annual award given by the U.S government to recognize quality achievements of US companiesNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyPurpose of the award to stimulate Efforts to improve quality To recognize quality achievements Publicize successful programs https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  50. 50. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award• 1.0 Leadership (125 points)• 2.0 Strategic Planning (85 points)• 3.0 Customer and Market Focus (85 points)• 4.0 Information and Analysis (85 points)• 5.0 Human Resource Focus (85 points)• 6.0 Process Management (85 points)• 7.0 Business Results (450 points) https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  51. 51. Benefits of Baldrige Competition• Financial success• Winners share their knowledge• The process motivates employees• The process provides a well-designed quality system• The process requires obtaining data• The process provides feedback https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  52. 52. Quality Awards• Malcom Balridge Award ( Only US companies)• European quality award( Only European companies)• Deming prize( No geographical restrictions) https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  53. 53. European Quality Award• Prizes intended to identify role models – Leadership – Customer focus – Corporate social responsibility – People development and involvement – Results orientation https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  54. 54. Components of Product Quality Control1. Careful consideration of product design specification.2. Adequate inspection procedures for manufactured or assembled products.3. Acceptance procedures for purchased raw materials & material parts.4. Control practices to maintain quality levels in the process stage. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  55. 55. 5.Commitment from all levels of management towards quality.6.Formulation of quality assurance procedures https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings
  56. 56. Objectives of Quality Control1. Increase Sales Volume2. Increased profits3. Improving the company image4. Improving the production system5. Better procurement of materials6. Reduce the cost of inspection & losses https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkpr ettythings