Design for Innovation (D4I) Process for Strategic Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Director Design for Innovation Ltd. Continu...
2 Innovation by Design Typology of Technological Innovations at the Enterprise Level Low High Low High Degree of Managemen...
3
What you don’t know about your customers and your business may be costing you millions!  4 © Design for Innovation, 2007-0...
Competitive Strategies Survival vs. Market Leadership Strategies 5 Creating new adaptable business models Perfecting tradi...
D4I: a Tool for Handling Organized Complexity  Chaotic Simplicity Chaotic Complexity Organized  Simplicity Organized Compl...
Design for X (D4X) Philosophy <ul><li>The Design For X (DfX or D4X) philosophy suggests that a design be continually revie...
Examples of Design for X (DfX) Methods and Corresponding  Functional Requirements (FRs) 8
Introducing a New D4X:  Design for Innovation (D4I) <ul><li>D4I combines three distinct scientific and engineering discipl...
Key Benefits of  Design for Innovation (D4I) <ul><li>D4I provides integrity of design over the entire product development ...
Axiomatic Design - Customer Needs  - Functional Requirements - Design Parameters - Process Variables  - Constraints D4I TR...
D4I Integrated Design for Innovation 12 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Axiomatic Design - Customer Needs  - Functional R...
Axiomatic Design <ul><li>Axiomatic design reduces product development risk, reduces cost and speeds time to market by:  </...
Axiomatic Design for Innovation <ul><li>Design is an interplay between what we want to achieve and how we want to achieve ...
Axiomatic Design Domains Customer Domain Functional Domain Physical Domain Process Domain 15 © Design for Innovation, 2007...
Zigzagging Functional Domain Physical Domain 16 Zig Zag FR1 Cool Food DP1 Refrigerator FR1-1 Temp Range FR1-2 Uniform Temp...
D4I Integrated Design for Innovation 17 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Systems Engineering - Systems Design Hierarchy:  ...
Process Variables (PVs) 18
Evolution of System Materialization through System Life Cycle (Focus of principal effort in each phase is shaded) 19 Selec...
Explanation of Principal Phases of System Life Cycle <ul><li>Needs Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the need for a n...
Systems Engineering / Axiomatic Design Method over Life Cycle 21 Test and evaluate system Validate component construction ...
Design Domains for Various Needs 22 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
Customer Domain  (CN = Customer Needs) <ul><li>The benefit that a customer seeks </li></ul><ul><li>Usually not subject to ...
Customer Needs  from a Systems Engineering Perspective –  Requirements Analysis (Problem Definition) <ul><li>Typical activ...
<ul><li>Customer-Product Interaction Tools for identifying: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unmet and / or idealized market need...
26 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 4. How to shape your product for the future. 3. Product and service functionality.  2....
Functional Domain  (FR = Functional Requirements) <ul><li>Functional requirements of the design solution </li></ul><ul><li...
Functional Requirements  from a Systems Engineering Perspective –  Functional Definition (Functional Analysis & Allocation...
29 Auto Transmission Control motion Commonality   – the function performed by each element can be found in a wide variety ...
Physical Domain (DP = Design Parameters) <ul><li>Elements of the design solution that are chosen to satisfy the chosen fun...
Design Parameters  from a Systems Engineering Perspective –  Physical Definition (Synthesis, Physical Analysis & Allocatio...
System Design Hierarchy 32 SEALS ROCKET NOZZLES THRUST GENERATORS COUPLINGS REACTANT VALVES MATERIAL REACTORS GEARS GEAR T...
33 CONTROL SYSTEM FIRMWARE CONTROL PROCESSING SUPPORT SOFTWARE CONTROL PROCESSING APPLICATION PROGRAM CONTROL SYSTEM OPERA...
Process Domain (PV = Process Variables) <ul><li>Elements in the process domain that characterize the process that satisfie...
Process Variables  from a Systems Engineering Perspective –  Design Validation (Verification, Evaluation) <ul><li>Typical ...
36
Constraints (C) <ul><li>A constraints is a specification of the characteristics that the design solution must possess to b...
Input Constraints for FRs – Example: Design for Environment (DfE) Focus 38 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Reduce Materia...
D4I Integrated Design for Innovation 39 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 TRIZ Design   <ul><li>- Available Resources  </li...
Examples of Benefits from TRIZ <ul><li>New product development  </li></ul><ul><li>Product enhancement and extension  </li>...
THINKING ANALOGICALLY WITH TRIZ (WITHOUT AN EGO) OPERATORS MY PROBLEM THE WORLD’S PROBLEMS THE WORLD’S SOLUTIONS MY SOLUTI...
42 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 n 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n My Problem My Solution To Corresponding Soluti...
TOOLS BASED ON PATTERNS IN THE PATENT DATABASE  43 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 3,000,000 40,000 Key Findings <ul><li>...
Why the Ideation Process is Different:   Enhancing Decision Making Process via Accelerating Idea Generation Process Starti...
I-TRIZ Ring Containment Problem 45 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
Strategic Alignment of Innovation Priorities with Opportunities <ul><li>Where are we going? ( Axiomatic Design ) </li></ul...
I-TRIZ Problem Formulation Blueprint: fills in what’s missing, linking CNs, FRs, DPs & PVs:  1 st  Level System Hierarchy ...
48 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
49 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
50 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
51 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
<ul><li>QUESTIONS AND INQUIRIES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Iain Sanders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Executive  </li><...
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Managing Complexity in Technology Innovation

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The Design for Innovation (D4I) management process for handling any kind of technology innovation problem.

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  • This presentation provides EGNRET members with an update on APEC-CPI project development. Iain Sanders would like to express his apologies for not being able to attend this meeting due to other commitments. He extends his best wishes and sincerest thanks to all EGNRET members for their support in helping to get this project endorsed and funded by APEC.
  • Achieving Speed and Maintaining Velocity - the Key to Success In the new economy where everything is moving faster and it&apos;s only going to get faster, the new mantra is, &amp;quot;Do it more with less and do it faster&amp;quot;. (Jennings, 2000) In order to get real speed decisions at virtually every level must be made in minutes, not days or weeks. Decisions also have to be made &amp;quot;face-to-face, not memo-to-memo. This means that people have to think on their feet, and that the forests of meaningless paper trails and approvals - so common in large organizations - must be eliminated.&amp;quot; Entrepreneurial Mindset Venture values are different from established corporate shared values. &amp;quot;Entrepreneurial independence demands space for action and trust, while independence in a corporation implies responsibility and control imposed from above. Entrepreneurial speed demands agility, experimentation, adaptation, and rapid response in order to be first to market. Corporate experimentation comprises analysis, review, sober consideration of facts, and willingness sacrifice speed for thoroughness. Entrepreneurial paranoia - competitors are catching up to us - is overshadowed by an essential need to build corporate consensus and minimize perceived risk.&amp;quot; Fast thinking: anticipating the future, spotting trends before others, challenging assumptions, and creating a corporate environment where the best idea - regardless of origin - wins. Fast decision-making: establishing corporate guiding principles, blowing off stifling bureaucratic structures, shuffling portfolios, constantly reassessing everything, and matching the decision to the consequence. Fast to market: getting to the market faster through removing in-built speed-breakers, abandoning traditional visions and missions and launching a crusade instead, owning and exploiting your competitive advantage, getting vendors and suppliers operating on your timetable, staying beneath the radar, and building virtuous circles of speed. Sustaining speed: maintaining velocity through working on your business, injecting the relentless growth attitude into the firm, being ruthless with resources, building a scoreboard that measures activity, staying financially flexible, proving the math, institutionalizing innovation, and staying close to the customer
  • What is Competitive Strategy? Competitive strategy means deliberately choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value. These activities are the basis of your competitive advantage. What are the New Realities and New Survival Strategies? In today&apos;s tidal wave of global economic, technological, and social change, the name of the game for your company is survival. You are not going to survive in this new economy through technology innovation alone. Growing numbers at all levels believe that, to have a better chance of success, organizations need to engage the energy, creativity and intelligence of the whole workforce and involve other stakeholders, like customers, suppliers, investors and community. If you are going to withstand relentless and constantly growing global competition, you need to be different and radically change the way of doing business. You have to give up the old hierarchical, adversarial approach which wastes individual talents and saps energy in unproductive conflict. Instead you need to create a new management model, switch from management to leadership, manage change, build trust, drive out fear of failure and create productive partnerships in which everyone can offer their unique knowledge and talents. Knowledge-based Competition The need for strategic organizational learning has become more apparent as a form competitive rivalry known as knowledge-based competition has emerged. This emphasis on knowledge as a competitive weapon is entirely in keeping with the currently dominant view of business strategy – resource-based model or resource-based view (RBV) of firms. The RBV focuses on your organization&apos;s internal resources and capabilities as the key to is success and competition. One of the key resources that your organization can draw upon in establishing a sustainable competitive advantage over your rivals is superior knowledge. A modern knowledge-based enterprise, as opposed to old industrial enterprise, is defined not by products and services it produces at any given time, but by the specific process, networking, or marketing and selling know-how it brings to the competitive market. Therefore, the knowledge your firm possesses, develops, acquires, and enhances represents the basis for competition.
  • This presentation provides EGNRET members with an update on APEC-CPI project development. Iain Sanders would like to express his apologies for not being able to attend this meeting due to other commitments. He extends his best wishes and sincerest thanks to all EGNRET members for their support in helping to get this project endorsed and funded by APEC.
  • This presentation provides EGNRET members with an update on APEC-CPI project development. Iain Sanders would like to express his apologies for not being able to attend this meeting due to other commitments. He extends his best wishes and sincerest thanks to all EGNRET members for their support in helping to get this project endorsed and funded by APEC.
  • This presentation provides EGNRET members with an update on APEC-CPI project development. Iain Sanders would like to express his apologies for not being able to attend this meeting due to other commitments. He extends his best wishes and sincerest thanks to all EGNRET members for their support in helping to get this project endorsed and funded by APEC.
  • This presentation provides EGNRET members with an update on APEC-CPI project development. Iain Sanders would like to express his apologies for not being able to attend this meeting due to other commitments. He extends his best wishes and sincerest thanks to all EGNRET members for their support in helping to get this project endorsed and funded by APEC.
  • This presentation provides EGNRET members with an update on APEC-CPI project development. Iain Sanders would like to express his apologies for not being able to attend this meeting due to other commitments. He extends his best wishes and sincerest thanks to all EGNRET members for their support in helping to get this project endorsed and funded by APEC.
  • Managing Complexity in Technology Innovation

    1. 1. Design for Innovation (D4I) Process for Strategic Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Director Design for Innovation Ltd. Continuous Growth for Sustainable Competitive Advantage 1 TAPPING YOUR UNTAPPED POTENTIAL DESIGN FOR INNOVATION (D4I)
    2. 2. 2 Innovation by Design Typology of Technological Innovations at the Enterprise Level Low High Low High Degree of Management Degree of Leadership and Contribution to Competitiveness Unplanned Improvements Continuous Incremental Innovation Radical Innovation Strategic Accelerated Systematic Innovation
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4. What you don’t know about your customers and your business may be costing you millions! 4 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 For example : technology, product & service value-creation For example : The best customer solutions to maximize your customers’ profitability For example : Your business model is now obsolete, limiting your effectiveness and ability to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage
    5. 5. Competitive Strategies Survival vs. Market Leadership Strategies 5 Creating new adaptable business models Perfecting traditional business model Business Innovation Enterprise-wide BPM Functional improvements Process Innovation Radical Incremental Technology Innovation Systemic Linear Innovation Building distinctive capabilities Building resources Strategic Growth Focus Building Your Competitive Advantage New product categories & New brands New attributes & Line extensions Product Innovation Customer intimacy Customer service Customer Satisfaction Differentiation and positioning Mass marketing Marketing Strategy Creating higher customer value Low cost/benefit ratio Customer Value Winning and Retaining Customers LEADERSHIP STRATEGY Targeting market leadership SURVIVAL STRATEGY Staying alive Entry ticket to the competition game OUR FOCUS
    6. 6. D4I: a Tool for Handling Organized Complexity Chaotic Simplicity Chaotic Complexity Organized Simplicity Organized Complexity Simple Differentiation Complex Differentiation Integration Order Integration Chaos Relatively simple condition with low levels of organization, such as during periods of low demand, or the system is at the point of giving up efforts to cope effectively Innovation & experimentation pursued without restraint & accountability. Diversity overload: resources & focus depleted, efforts duplicated, errors & conflicts Dominates when forces for control and order prevail at the cost of new ideas and approaches – stability attained tends to be rigid and authoritarian Handles healthy progress through experimentation, learning, & integration achieved by moving concurrently toward higher levels of complexity & order 6 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 innovation supports overall system improvement, shares knowledge & facilitates self-correction D4I
    7. 7. Design for X (D4X) Philosophy <ul><li>The Design For X (DfX or D4X) philosophy suggests that a design be continually reviewed from the start to the end to find ways to improve production and other aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of these techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shorter production times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer production steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smaller parts inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more standardized parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simpler designs that are more likely to be robust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they can help when expertise is not available, or as a way to reexamine traditional designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proven to be very successful over decades of application </li></ul></ul>7 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    8. 8. Examples of Design for X (DfX) Methods and Corresponding Functional Requirements (FRs) 8
    9. 9. Introducing a New D4X: Design for Innovation (D4I) <ul><li>D4I combines three distinct scientific and engineering disciplines: </li></ul><ul><li>Axiomatic Design </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) </li></ul>INVENTIVE PROBLEM SOLVING (TRIZ) SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AXIOMATIC DESIGN WHAT? HOW? HOW WELL? VERIFY 9 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    10. 10. Key Benefits of Design for Innovation (D4I) <ul><li>D4I provides integrity of design over the entire product development lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>D4I provides alignment of strategic objectives with tasks executed, and outcomes achieved </li></ul><ul><li>D4I coordinates, prioritizes and integrates the “directions of innovation” pursued with the value creation sought (through their implementation) </li></ul>10 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    11. 11. Axiomatic Design - Customer Needs - Functional Requirements - Design Parameters - Process Variables - Constraints D4I TRIZ Design Appropriate Technologies Appropriate Systems - Available Resources - Scientific Effects - Substance-Field Analysis - System Operators - ISQ - Ideal Vision - Problem Formulation - Innovation Algorithm - Resolve Contradictions - Evolution Patterns Systems Engineering - Systems Design Hierarchy: Systems, Sub- systems, Components, Sub- components, Parts D4I Integrated Design for Innovation Appropriate Solutions - System Lifecycle Stages: Needs Analysis, Concept Exploration, Concept Def. Adv. Dev., Eng. Design, Integration & Eval. Design for Innovation (D4I) “ Creating New Possibilities for Better Results” © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 11
    12. 12. D4I Integrated Design for Innovation 12 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Axiomatic Design - Customer Needs - Functional Requirements - Design Parameters - Process Variables - Constraints
    13. 13. Axiomatic Design <ul><li>Axiomatic design reduces product development risk, reduces cost and speeds time to market by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalizing the conceptual design process into a continuous and measurable activity driven by requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating the state of the design to all stakeholders at the earliest possible moment, well before traditional CAD documentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving quality of design by analyzing and optimizing design architectures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing explicit traceability from Customer Needs to Requirements to Design Logic to Design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly documenting and communicating the logical ‘How and why’ of a design, not just the ‘What’ of CAD documentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitting design issues to be identified early and resolved without the cost of design-build-test-redesign cycles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing project management with the dependency structure of the design, enabling optimal scheduling and risk mitigation. </li></ul></ul>13 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    14. 14. Axiomatic Design for Innovation <ul><li>Design is an interplay between what we want to achieve and how we want to achieve it. </li></ul>14 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 What we want to achieve How we want to achieve it The definition of design
    15. 15. Axiomatic Design Domains Customer Domain Functional Domain Physical Domain Process Domain 15 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Customer Needs (CNs) Functional Requirements (FRs) Design Parameters (DPs) Process Variables (PVs) WHAT? HOW? Concept Design Phase WHAT? HOW? Product Design Phase WHAT? HOW? Process Design Phase
    16. 16. Zigzagging Functional Domain Physical Domain 16 Zig Zag FR1 Cool Food DP1 Refrigerator FR1-1 Temp Range FR1-2 Uniform Temp DP1-1 Temp Sensor DP1-2 Fan System
    17. 17. D4I Integrated Design for Innovation 17 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Systems Engineering - Systems Design Hierarchy: Systems, Sub-systems, Components, Sub-components, Parts - System Lifecycle Stages: Needs Analysis, Concept Exploration, Concept Definition, Advanced Development, Engineering Design, Integration & Evaluation
    18. 18. Process Variables (PVs) 18
    19. 19. Evolution of System Materialization through System Life Cycle (Focus of principal effort in each phase is shaded) 19 Select or adapt Visualize Part Design Define functions Visualize Sub-component Integrate Design, test Validate, specify construction Select, define functions Visualize Component Integrate, test Validate selected subsystems Define config-uration Define functions Visualize Subsystem Test & evaluate Validate concept Define selected concept Explore concepts Define operational objectives System Integration & Evaluation Engineering Design Advanced Development Concept Definition Concept Exploration Needs Analysis Phase Level
    20. 20. Explanation of Principal Phases of System Life Cycle <ul><li>Needs Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the need for a new system. It addresses the questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is there a valid need for a new system?” and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is there a practical approach to satisfying such a need?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept Exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines potential system concepts in answering the questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What performance is required of the new system to meet the perceived need?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is there at least one feasible approach to achieving such performance at an affordable cost?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selects the preferred concept. It answers the question: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What are the key characteristics of a system concept that would achieve the most beneficial balance between capability, operational life, and cost?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary purpose involves the identification and reduction of development risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engineering Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed engineering design of the system punctuated by formal design reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration & Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of integrating the engineered components of a complex system into functioning whole, and evaluating the system’s operation in a realistic environment. </li></ul></ul>20 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    21. 21. Systems Engineering / Axiomatic Design Method over Life Cycle 21 Test and evaluate system Validate component construction Test critical subsystems Simulate, validate system effectiveness Validate performance requirements Validate needs, feasibility Design Validation Specify test equipment Specify sub-component construction Specify component construction Select components, architectures Visualize components, architectures Visualize subsystems, technology Physical Definition Define functional tests Define part functions Define sub-component functions Define component functions Define subsystem functions Define system functions Functional Definition Analyze requirements Analyze design requirements Analyze functional requirements Analyze performance requirements Analyze operational requirements Analyze Needs Requirements Analysis System integration, Prototype test, Operational evaluation Component engineering, Component test, Reliability engineering Risk abatement, Subsystem demonstration, Component design requirements Trade-off analysis, Functional architecture, Subsystem definition Concept synthesis, Feasibility experiments, Requirements definition System studies, Technology assessment, Operational Analysis Phase Activities / Step Integration & Evaluation Engineering Design Advanced Development Concept Definition Concept Exploration Needs Analysis Phase
    22. 22. Design Domains for Various Needs 22 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    23. 23. Customer Domain (CN = Customer Needs) <ul><li>The benefit that a customer seeks </li></ul><ul><li>Usually not subject to re-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>First domain to specify </li></ul>23 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    24. 24. Customer Needs from a Systems Engineering Perspective – Requirements Analysis (Problem Definition) <ul><li>Typical activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembling and organizing all input conditions, including requirements, plans, and milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the “whys” of all requirements in terms of operational needs, constraints, environment, or other higher-level objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifying the requirements of what the system must do, how well it must do it, and what constraints it must fit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting inadequacies and quantifying the requirements wherever possible </li></ul></ul>24 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    25. 25. <ul><li>Customer-Product Interaction Tools for identifying: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unmet and / or idealized market needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products and services usage and relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product and service functionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to shape your product for the future </li></ul></ul></ul>25 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    26. 26. 26 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 4. How to shape your product for the future. 3. Product and service functionality. 2. Products and services usage & relationships. 1. Unmet and / or idealized market needs. Remember the Future Give Them a Hot Tub Spider Web 20/20 Vision Buy a Feature Speed Boat The Apprentice Product Box Me and My Shadow Prune the Product Tree Start Your Day Show and Tell Tools / Pur-pose
    27. 27. Functional Domain (FR = Functional Requirements) <ul><li>Functional requirements of the design solution </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum set of requirements that completely characterize the design objectives for a specific need </li></ul><ul><li>Should be “solution neutral” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of functions, not solutions </li></ul></ul>27 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    28. 28. Functional Requirements from a Systems Engineering Perspective – Functional Definition (Functional Analysis & Allocation) <ul><li>Typical activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translating requirements (why) into functions (actions, tasks) that the system must accomplish (what) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partitioning (allocating) requirements into functional building blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining interactions among functional elements to lay a basis for their organization into a modular configuration </li></ul></ul>28 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    29. 29. 29 Auto Transmission Control motion Commonality – the function performed by each element can be found in a wide variety of system types. Refrigerator Control temperature Solar Cell Array Generate electricity Singularity – each functional element should fall largely within the technical scope of a single engineering discipline. Reciprocating Engine Generate torque Turbojet Engine Generate thrust Significance – each functional element must perform a distinct and significant function, typically involving several elementary functions. Energy – provide energy or propulsive power to the system Servo Actuator Control position Welding Machine Join material Commonality – the function performed by each element can be found in a wide variety of system types. Milling Machine Form material Autoclave React material Singularity – each functional element should fall largely within the technical scope of a single engineering discipline. Shipping Container Store material Airframe Support material Significance – each functional element must perform a distinct and significant function, typically involving several elementary functions. Material – provide system structural support or enclosure, or transform the shape, composition, or location of material substances Printer Output Data Magnetic Disk Store Data Commonality – the function performed by each element can be found in a wide variety of system types. Word Processor Control Processing Operating System Control System Singularity – each functional element should fall largely within the technical scope of a single engineering discipline. Computer CPU Process Data Keyboard Input Data Significance – each functional element must perform a distinct and significant function, typically involving several elementary functions. Data – analyze, interpret, organize, query, and/or convert information into forms desired by the user or other systems TV Tube Output Signal Image Processor Process Signal Commonality – the function performed by each element can be found in a wide variety of system types. Radio Receiver Receive Signal Radar Antenna Transduce Signal Singularity – each functional element should fall largely within the technical scope of a single engineering discipline. FM Radio Transmitter Transmit Signal TV Camera Input Signal Significance – each functional element must perform a distinct and significant function, typically involving several elementary functions. Signal – generate, transmit, distribute, and receive signals used in passive or active sensing and in communication Application (Examples) Element Function Selection Criteria Class Function
    30. 30. Physical Domain (DP = Design Parameters) <ul><li>Elements of the design solution that are chosen to satisfy the chosen functional requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Should define in terms of a metric </li></ul>30 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    31. 31. Design Parameters from a Systems Engineering Perspective – Physical Definition (Synthesis, Physical Analysis & Allocation) <ul><li>Typical activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizing a number of alternative system components representing a variety of design approaches to implementing the required functions, and having the most simple practical interactions and interfaces among structural subdivisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting a preferred approach by trading-off a set of predefined and prioritized criteria (measures of effectiveness) to obtain the best “balance” among performance, risk, cost, and schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborating the design to the necessary level of detail </li></ul></ul>31 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    32. 32. System Design Hierarchy 32 SEALS ROCKET NOZZLES THRUST GENERATORS COUPLINGS REACTANT VALVES MATERIAL REACTORS GEARS GEAR TRAINS POWER TRANSFER ALGORITHMS LIBRARY UTILITIES DATABASE PROGRAMS LED CATHODE RAY TUBES DATA DISPLAYS TRANSFORMER SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS SIGNAL DISPLAYS SIGNAL NETWORKS DATABASES MATERIAL PREPARATION ENGINES COMMUNICA-TION SYSTEMS INFORMATION SYSTEMS MATERIAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS AEROSPACE SYSTEMS PARTS (EXAMPLES) SUB-COMPONENTS (EXAMPLES) COMPONENTS (EXAMPLES) SUB-SYSTEMS (EXAMPLES) SYSTEMS (EXAMPLES)
    33. 33. 33 CONTROL SYSTEM FIRMWARE CONTROL PROCESSING SUPPORT SOFTWARE CONTROL PROCESSING APPLICATION PROGRAM CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERATE ELECTRICITY SPECIAL ENERGY SOURCE CONTROL TEMPERATURE COOLING UNIT CONTROL TEMPERATURE HEATING UNIT GENERATE THRUST JET ENGINE GENERATE TORQUE ROTARY ENGINE THERMOMECHANICAL CONTROL MOTION POWER TRANSFER DEVICE REACT MATERIAL MATERIAL REACTOR FORM / JOIN MATERIAL MATERIAL PROCESSING MACHINE STORE MATERIAL CONTAINER SUPPORT MATERIAL FRAMEWORK MECHANICAL INPUT / OUTPUT DATA DATA INPUT / OUTPUT DEVICE TRANSDUCE SIGNAL TRANSDUCER STORE DATA DATA STORAGE DEVICE GENERATE ELECTRICITY ELECTRIC GENERATOR INPUT DATA INERTIAL INSTRUMENT ELECTROMECHANICAL GENERATE ELECTRICITY OPTICAL POWER GENERATOR FORM MATERIAL HIGH ENERGY OPTICS DEVICE OUTPUT SIGNAL / DATA DISPLAY DEVICE STORE DATA OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICE INPUT SIGNAL OPTICAL SENSING DEVICE ELECTRO-OPTICAL VARIOUS SPECIAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENT PROCESS SIGNAL / DATA COMMUNICATION PROCESSORS PROCESS SIGNAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR PROCESS DATA DATAPROCESSOR TRANSMIT SIGNAL TRANSMITTER RECEIVE SIGNAL RECEIVER ELECTRONIC (DERIVED FROM) FUNCTIONAL ELEMENT(S) DESIGN COMPONENTS (EXAMPLES) DESIGN ELEMENT CATEGORY
    34. 34. Process Domain (PV = Process Variables) <ul><li>Elements in the process domain that characterize the process that satisfies the design parameters </li></ul>34 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    35. 35. Process Variables from a Systems Engineering Perspective – Design Validation (Verification, Evaluation) <ul><li>Typical activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing models of the system environment (logical, mathematical, simulated, physical) reflecting all significant aspects of the requirements and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulating or testing and analyzing system solution(s) against environmental models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterating as necessary to revise the system model or environmental models, or to revise system requirements if too stringent for a viable solution until the design and requirements are fully compatible </li></ul></ul>35 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    36. 36. 36
    37. 37. Constraints (C) <ul><li>A constraints is a specification of the characteristics that the design solution must possess to be acceptable to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints can enter any domain </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints may be: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predefined – Input Constraints or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configured – System Constraints </li></ul></ul></ul>37 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    38. 38. Input Constraints for FRs – Example: Design for Environment (DfE) Focus 38 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Reduce Material Usage Fewer / Cleaner Prod-uction Consumables Recyclable Materials Safer Incineration Less Production Waste Recycled Materials Material Recycling Lower / Cleaner Energy Consumption Lower “Embodied Energy” Materials Product Re-manufacturing Fewer Production Steps Renewable Materials Design for Disassembly Alternative Prod-uction Techniques Optimize Production Techniques Cleaner Materials Optimize Material Use Reuse of Product Optimize End-of-Life System Energy-efficient Logistics Strong User-product Relationship Reduce Energy & Consumable Waste Energy-efficient Transport Mode Modular Product Structure Cleaner Consumables & Auxiliary Products Less / Cleaner / Re-usable Packaging Optimize Distribution System Facilitate Easy Maintenance & Repair Reduce Use of Consumables Provide a Service Increase Reliability and Durability Cleaner Energy Sources Increase Shared Use Optimize Product Functions Lower Energy Consumption Reduce Impact During Use Dematerialization New Concept Development Integrate Product Functions Physical Optimization Specific Directions DfE Strategy Specific Directions DfE Strategy Specific Directions DfE Strategy
    39. 39. D4I Integrated Design for Innovation 39 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 TRIZ Design <ul><li>- Available Resources </li></ul><ul><li>- Scientific Effects </li></ul><ul><li>- Substance-Field Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- System Operators </li></ul><ul><li>- ISQ - Ideal Vision </li></ul><ul><li>- Problem Formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation Algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve Contradictions </li></ul><ul><li>- Evolution Patterns </li></ul>
    40. 40. Examples of Benefits from TRIZ <ul><li>New product development </li></ul><ul><li>Product enhancement and extension </li></ul><ul><li>Defect resolution and prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Production process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic product and technology research </li></ul><ul><li>Market barrier elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property protection </li></ul>40 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    41. 41. THINKING ANALOGICALLY WITH TRIZ (WITHOUT AN EGO) OPERATORS MY PROBLEM THE WORLD’S PROBLEMS THE WORLD’S SOLUTIONS MY SOLUTION 41 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 TAPPING YOUR UNTAPPED POTENTIAL DESIGN FOR INNOVATION (D4I) PATTERNS OF INVENTION
    42. 42. 42 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 n 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n My Problem My Solution To Corresponding Solutions Many Typical Problems Many Typical Recommendations for Solutions (Knowledge base) A large number of typical problems are available for consideration. These operators help to narrow the search to a manageable range of typical problems For each typical problem, there are one or more potential solutions Prism of Analytical tools TAPPING YOUR UNTAPPED POTENTIAL DESIGN FOR INNOVATION (D4I)
    43. 43. TOOLS BASED ON PATTERNS IN THE PATENT DATABASE 43 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 3,000,000 40,000 Key Findings <ul><li>Definition of inventive problems </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of invention </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of invention </li></ul>Patents (Worldwide) TAPPING YOUR UNTAPPED POTENTIAL DESIGN FOR INNOVATION (D4I)
    44. 44. Why the Ideation Process is Different: Enhancing Decision Making Process via Accelerating Idea Generation Process Starting Point Practical Deadline An EXHAUSTIVE Set of Options Forced Decision Point Number of Options Required to Make a Reasonable Decision Possible Options Time Gradual Accumulation of Practical Knowledge 44 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09 Confident Decision Point Rapid Development of Practical Knowledge
    45. 45. I-TRIZ Ring Containment Problem 45 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    46. 46. Strategic Alignment of Innovation Priorities with Opportunities <ul><li>Where are we going? ( Axiomatic Design ) </li></ul>2. What can we use? ( Systems Engineering) 3. How do we use it? (Ideation TRIZ ) 46 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    47. 47. I-TRIZ Problem Formulation Blueprint: fills in what’s missing, linking CNs, FRs, DPs & PVs: 1 st Level System Hierarchy DP CN FR PV 47 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    48. 48. 48 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    49. 49. 49 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    50. 50. 50 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    51. 51. 51 © Design for Innovation, 2007-09
    52. 52. <ul><li>QUESTIONS AND INQUIRIES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Iain Sanders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design for Innovation Ltd. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile: +64 273 566 401 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web: www.designforinnovation.com </li></ul></ul>52 TAPPING YOUR UNTAPPED POTENTIAL DESIGN FOR INNOVATION (D4I)

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