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Innovation Benefits Realization for Industrial Research (Part-3)


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Innovation Benefits Realization for Industrial Research (Part-3)

  1. 1. Technology Innovation Management Framework for Industrial Research Part-3 Dr. Iain Sanders January 2005
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  5. 5. Technical Contradiction Analysis Tool Platform 1: (Stages II, Part 5)
  6. 6. PLATFORM 1: II (5) What Resources can Help?  Analytic and Knowledge-based Tools (Examples)  Technical Contradiction Analysis (Knowledge-based Tool): A challenge to be overcome is called a technical contradiction when known alternatives available to improve one aspect of a design do so at the expense of another aspect of the design. In other words, a technical contradiction exists if improving parameter “A” of the system causes parameter “B” to deteriorate (e.g. as a container becomes stronger it becomes heavier). A physical contradiction exists if some aspect of a product or service must have two opposing states (e.g. the product is hot, and it is cold). A table of conflicts (known as a contradiction table or matrix) between 39 design parameters addresses these and similar kinds of problems, by offering 1201 generic problems that were solved using at least one of 40 generic inventive principles (derived from an investigation of 200,000 patents). 6
  7. 7. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradiction Useful Function Useful Function A B Harmful Function 7
  8. 8. PLATFORM 1: II (5) VISUALIZING CONTRADICTIONS Normal Design Tradeoff or Current Bad Performance Barrier Curve Constant Design Capability Parameter A TRIZ Moves Performance Barrier Curve toward the Origin Good Parameter B Good Bad 8
  9. 9. PLATFORM 1: II (5) THE CONTRADICTION TABLE  The first organized form of TRIZ  A little bulky and unwieldy without computerization, but still useful in quick and dirty screening for solutions  Computerized in software products, available on line at various web sites, in many publications  Applies to technical contradictions 9
  10. 10. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CONTRADICTION TABLE • Possible contradictions Undesired 1 2 14 38 39 represented in 39 x 39 table Nonmoving Object Result Moving Object • Intersections of contradicting Productivity Automation (Degraded Weight of Weight of Strength Level of Feature) rows and columns are Feature references to 40 inventive to Improve principles for contradiction Weight of 28, 27, elimination (now extended to 1 Moving Object 18, 40 at least 44 inventive Weight of 2 Nonmoving Object principles) Level of 28 Replace a mechanical system with 38 Automation a non mechanical system 27 An inexpensive short-life object instead 39 Productivity of an expensive durable one 18 Mechanical vibration 40 Composite materials Proposed Solution Pathways: 10
  11. 11. MAPPING CONTRADICTIONS Infinitely FUNCTION: JOIN PHYSICAL OBJECTre-usable Zipper Adaptability Lock-nut velcro braid wire paper-clip rope Self-tapping screw Post-it Lock-nut MIG/TIG Friction epoxy Paper glue staple braze weld bondOne-time nail Required Strength of joinPLATFORM 1: II (5) 11
  12. 12. SYSTEM EVOLUTION TOWARD IDEALITY Infinitely Contradiction Elimination Place your solution on the graph of re-usable Direction Main Useful Attributes to help Identify opportunities Zipper Adaptability Lock-nut velcro braid wire paper-clip rope Self-tapping screw Post-it Lock-nut MIG/TIG Friction epoxy Paper glue staple braze weld bond One-time nail Required Strength of joinPLATFORM 1: II (5) 12
  13. 13. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions - Jet Engine Boeing wanted to install larger engines on a redesigned 737. A larger air intake would reduce ground clearance to unacceptable levels. Contradiction: Increasing air intake reduces ground clearance Control parameter: Intake radius #5 VS. #3 in table 13
  14. 14. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions - Jet Engine Resolve the contradiction by Separation Make the radius large laterally for high air flow. Make the radius smaller downward for high ground clearance. 14
  15. 15. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions Defined Improving one system parameter results in the deterioration of another system parameter. Examples: Strength vs. Light Weight Product Features vs. Simplicity and Ease of Use 15
  16. 16. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Piling Problem Stays in Easy to drive Compromise place 16
  17. 17. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions A A and B are B desirable features of the system. 17
  18. 18. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions A Improving one feature harms the other feature. B 18
  19. 19. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions Improving one B feature harms the A other feature. 19
  20. 20. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions There exists a control feature of the system that ties the A two desirable B features together. C 20
  21. 21. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions When the control feature is small or absent, one of the A features increases while the other B decreases. C 21
  22. 22. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions When the control feature is large or present, the second features increases B while the first A decreases. C 22
  23. 23. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions What we want is c small to give large A A B and c large to give large B. C C 23
  24. 24. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions Resolve by Separation •Space A •Time B •Parts From the Whole C •Upon Condition C 24
  25. 25. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Separation Principles Space Example: Strength vs. Weight of a plastic panel The control parameter is thickness. Reinforcing ribs are placed only where additional strength is needed. 25
  26. 26. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions - Jet Engine Boeing wanted to install larger engines on a redesigned 737. A larger air intake would reduce ground clearance to unacceptable levels. Contradiction: Increasing air intake reduces ground clearance Control parameter: Intake radius 26
  27. 27. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Contradictions - Jet Engine Resolve the contradiction by Separation Make the radius large laterally for high air flow. Make the radius smaller downward for high ground clearance. 27
  28. 28. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Separation Principles Time A B B C A C At time 1, C is small At time 2, C is large 28
  29. 29. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Separation Principles Time Example: Strength vs. Lightweight of a automobile frame The control parameter is thickness. Reinforcing brackets are needed for shipping the vehicles but not for normal operation. The weight degrades fuel economy. The brackets are bolted on at the factory and then removed at the dealership. 29
  30. 30. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Separation Principles Parts From the Whole Large company composed of small semi-autonomous divisions to keep small company responsiveness. 30
  31. 31. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Separation Principles Under Conditions Condition 1, C is small A C B Condition 2, C is large B C A 31
  32. 32. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Separation Principles Under Conditions Example: Privacy Glass There is a liquid crystal film (made by 3M) that can be laminated to a window. When there is no current applied to the film, the film is opaque. When a current is applied, the liquid crystals align and the film is nearly transparent. 32
  33. 33. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Piling Problem Easy to drive Compromise Stays in place 33
  34. 34. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Piling Problem Separation In Space 34
  35. 35. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Piling Problem Separation By Parts From Whole Drive bundles of smaller piles 35
  36. 36. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Piling Problem Separation Under Condition When the pile is turned, it goes down. When the pile is not turning, the threads stop the downward movement 36
  37. 37. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Piling Problem Separation In Time During driving After pile is in position 37
  38. 38. TRIZ IS BASED ON PATTERNS IN THE PATENT DATABASE PLATFORM 1: II (5) Patents *(Worldwide) Key Findings •Definition of inventive problems •Levels of invention •Patterns of evolution •Patterns of invention * Today over 2,000,000 patents have been investigated. 38
  39. 39. PLATFORM 1: II (5) What Has Been Discovered so far…  After investigating over 2 million patents, at least 44 distinct Patterns of Inventive Problem Solving have been discovered for tackling technical contradictions 39
  40. 40. 44 Ways to Improve Technology Characteristics with TRIZ1. Segmentation 12. Equipotentiality 23. Feedback 34. Discarding & Recovering (Fragmentation)2. Removal / Extraction 13. Reverse (“The other way 24. Intermediary (Mediator) 35. Parameters & Properties round”) Changes (Transformation)3. Local Quality 14. Spheroidality – Curved 25. Self-Service and 36. Phase Transition Self-Organization4. Asymmetry 15. Dynamism 26. Copying 37. Thermal Expansion5. Consolidation 16. Partial, Satiated or 27. Inexpensive Short-Lived 38. Accelerated Oxidation Excessive Actions Objects (Dispose) (Strong Oxidants)6. Universality 17. Another Dimension 28. Mechanical Substitution 39. Inert Environment (Atmosphere)7. Nested Structures 18. Mechanical Vibration 29. Pneumatic or Hydraulic 40. Composite Materials Construction8. Anti-Weight 19. Periodic Action 30. Flexible Shells and Thin 41. Multistep (Counterweight) Films9. Preliminary Anti-Action 20. Continuity of Useful 31. Porous Materials and 42. Use of Epenthetic (Insert) (Counter-action) Action (Uninterrupted Membranes Parts Useful Effect)10. Preliminary Action 21. Skipping (Rushing 32. Changing the Colour 43. Match of Impedances Through)11. Beforehand Cushioning 22. Convert Harm into 33. Homogeneity 44. Concentration- (Cushion in Advance) Benefit (Blessing in Dispersion Disguise) 40
  41. 41. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Using these Patterns of Invention 1945: Patent for processing peppers. Force air inside of the peppers. Suddenly reduce the pressure. Seeds and stems separate from pepper body. 41
  42. 42. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Using these Patterns of Invention 1950: Patent for removing the shell of cedar nuts. Under high pressure, water is forced inside of the shells. When the pressure is suddenly reduced, the shells break away. 42
  43. 43. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Using these Patterns of Invention 1950: Patent for removing shells from sunflower seeds. Air is forced inside the shells. When the pressure is suddenly reduced, the shells break away. 43
  44. 44. PLATFORM 1: II (5) AND 27 YEARS LATER….. 1972: Patent for breaking artificial diamonds. Diamonds are placed into a pressure chamber. High pressure forces air into micro fractures. Releasing the pressure suddenly breaks the diamonds into crystals. 44
  45. 45. Pattern: Raise Pressure Slowly ThenSuddenly Release It PLATFORM 1: II (5) • Removing stems from bell peppers • Removing shells from sunflower seeds • Cleaning filters • Unpacking parts wrapped in protective paper • Splitting diamonds along micro-cracks (+27 years after pepper patent) • Producing sugar powder from sugar crystals • And 200 more!!! 45
  46. 46. Pattern: Raise Pressure Slowly ThenSuddenly Release It PLATFORM 1: II (5) Or more generally:Store up energy and suddenly release it Or more generally yet: Store up a resource for later use 46
  47. 47. The 44 Patterns of Technical Inventive Problem Solving
  48. 48. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 1. Segmentation (Fragmentation)A. Divide an object into independent parts  E.G. Multiwire cables  E.G. Replace mainframe computer with personal computers & network  E.G. A cargo ship is divided into identical sections. If necessary, the ship can be made longer or shorter  E.G. Garden hoses can be joined together to form any length needed  E.G. A large air duct has a 90-degree elbow that is segmented to avoid strong turbulence & to improve air flowB. Make an object modular  E.G. Modular furniture, modular computer components, folding wooden ruler  E.G. The pole of a temporary street light consists of a few elements linked by flexible joints for easy transportation & installation  E.G. Quick-disconnect joints in plumbingC. Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation  E.G. Replace solid shades with Venetian blinds  E.G. Use powdered welding metal instead of foil or rod to get better penetration of the joint  E.G. Roller conveyor 48
  49. 49. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 2. Removal / ExtractionA. Separate (extract) an interfering part or property from an object, or single out the only necessary part (or property) of an object  E.G. Place a noisy compressor outside the building where compressed air is used  E.G. Use fibre optics or a light pipe to separate a hot light source from where the light is needed  E.G. Frighten birds away from the airport by using a tape recorder to reproduce a sound known to scare birds. (The sound is thus separated from the birds) 49
  50. 50. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 3. Local QualityA. Change an objects structure from uniform (homogeneous) to non- uniform, change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform  E.G. Doping silicon wafers in special windows prepared in a photolithography process allows for making semiconductor devices from this materialB. Make each part of an object function in conditions most suitable for its operation  E.G. Lunch box with special compartments for hot & cold solid foods & liquidsC. Make each part of an object fulfill a different & useful function  E.G. Pencil with eraser, hammer with nail puller  E.G. Multifunction tool that scales fish & acts as pliers, wire stripper, flathead screwdriver, Phillips screwdriver, manicure set, etc.  E.G. Ultrasonic drill consists of heat conductive head & heat resistant body 50
  51. 51. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 4. AsymmetryA. Change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical  E.G. Asymmetrical mixing vessels or asymmetrical vanes in symmetrical vessels improve mixing (cement trucks, cake mixers, blenders)  E.G. The outer side of a cars tire has a higher strength in order to improve resistance to impact with a curb  E.G. Put a flat spot on a cylindrical shaft to attach a knob securely  E.G. Dust filter membranes have different porosities  E.G. Change from circular O-rings, to oval cross-section, to specialized shapes to improve sealingB. If an object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry  E.G. Use astigmatic optics to merge colours 51
  52. 52. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 5. ConsolidationA. Merge identical or similar objects, assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations  E.G. Personal computers in a network  E.G. Millions of transistors in a single microprocessor chip  E.G. CatamaranB. Make operations contiguous or parallel; bring them together in time  E.G. Link slats together in a Venetian or vertical blinds  E.G. Medical diagnostic instruments that simultaneously analyze multiple blood parameters  E.G. The working element of a rotary excavator has special steam nozzles to defrost & soften the frozen ground  E.G. Mulching lawnmower (demonstrates also Principle 6) 52
  53. 53. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 6. UniversalityA. Make a part or object perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts  E.G. Handle of a toothbrush contains toothpaste  E.G. Childs car safety seat cover converts to a stroller  E.G. Sofa converts into a bed  E.G. Minivans seat adjusts to accommodate seating, sleeping, or cargo carrying  E.G. Charge-coupled device with microlenses on the surface  E.G. PC in a library functions as a reference, instructional aid, news source, etc. 53
  54. 54. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 7. Nested StructuresA. Place one object into another; place each object, in turn, inside the other  E.G. Measuring cups or spoons  E.G. Russian nesting doll (Matrioshka)  E.G. Portable audio system (microphone fits inside transmitter, which fits inside amplifier case)B. Make one part pass through a cavity of the other  E.G. Telescoping radio antenna  E.G. Extending pointer  E.G. Zoom lens  E.G. Mechanical pencil with lead stored inside  E.G. Chairs that stack on top of each other for storage  E.G. Seat belt retraction mechanism  E.G. Retractable aircraft landing gear stow inside the fuselage (also demonstrates Principle 15, Dynamism) 54
  55. 55. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 8. Anti-Weight (Counterweight)A. To counter the weight of an object, merge it with other objects that provide lift  E.G. Inject foaming agent into a bundle of logs, to make it float better  E.G. Boat with hydrofoils  E.G. A rear wind in racing cars that increases pressure from the car to the ground  E.G. Use of helium balloon to support advertising signs or a cable above a river  E.G. Paintbrush with lightweight handle that floatsB. To compensate for the weight of an object, make it interact with the environment (e.g. use aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, buoyancy, & other forces)  E.G. Shape of aircraft wing reduces air density above the wing, increases density below the wing, to create lift. (This also demonstrates Principle 4, Asymmetry)  E.G. Vortex strips improve lift of aircraft wings  E.G. Hydrofoils lift ship out of the water to reduce drag 55
  56. 56. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 9. Preliminary Anti-Action (Counter-Action)A. If it is necessary to do an action with both harmful & useful effects, this action should be replaced with anti-actions to control harmful effects  E.G. Buffer a solution a prevent harm from extremes of pH  E.G. A cutting method using a dish cutter rotating on its geometric axis during the cutting process. In order to prevent vibrations, the dish cutter is charged in advance with forces close in size & direction & directly contrary to the forces arising in cutting processB. Create actions in an object that will later oppose known undesirable working actions  E.G. Pre-stress rebar before pouring concrete  E.G. Reinforced concrete column  E.G. Reinforced shaft made from several pipes which have been previously twisted to a specified angle  E.G. Corrugated & covered paper for cartons is bent in opposite directions. Carton becomes flat when the glue between the papers dries  E.G. Masking before harmful exposure: lead apron covers parts of the body being exposed to X-rays; masking tape to protect the part of an object not being painted 56
  57. 57. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 10. Preliminary ActionA. Perform, before necessary, a required change of an object (either fully or partially). Carry out all or part of the required action in advance  E.G. Pre-pasted wallpaper  E.G. Self-adhesive stamps  E.G. Rubber cement in a bottle is difficult to apply neatly & uniformly. However, if formed into a tape, the proper amount can be applied more easily  E.G. Sterilize all instruments needed for a surgical procedure on a single sealed tray  E.G. World Wide Web search engines (Lycos, Alta Vista) browse through all possible links & create a fast-access index of keywords to Internet locations. The query engine then looks up answers in the local index database instead of directly retrieving web pages, which would take much more timeB. Pre-arrange objects so that they can act from the most convenient place & without losing time for their delivery  E.G. Pre-deposited blade in surgery cast. The blade works during cast removal  E.G. Utility knife blade made with a groove allowing the dull part of the blade to be broken off, restoring sharpness 57
  58. 58. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 11. Beforehand Cushioning (Cushion in Advance)A. Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate the relatively low reliability of an object  E.G. A strip on photographic film that directs the developer to compensate for poor exposure  E.G. Backup parachute. Tape backup of critical data (unreliable computers or power systems)  E.G. Alternate air system for aircraft instruments  E.G. Merchandise is magnetized to deter shoplifting  E.G. Usage of old tires at sharp road turns for safety  E.G. A cover of steel by a material that resists oxidation 58
  59. 59. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 12. EquipotentialityA. In a potential field, limit position changes (e.g. change operating conditions to eliminate the need to raise or lower objects in a gravity field  E.G. Spring-loaded parts delivery system in a factory  E.G. Engine oil in a car is changed by workers in a pit to avoid using expensive lifting equipment  E.G. Locks in a channel between two bodies of water (such as the Panama Canal)  E.G. A device for raising & lowering heavy presses that takes the form of an attachment with a roll-gang fastened to the press table  E.G. "Skillets" in an automobile plant that bring all tools to the right position 59
  60. 60. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 13. Reverse (“The other way round”)A. Invert the actions used to solve a problem (e.g. instead of cooling an object, heat it)  E.G. To loosen stuck parts, cool the inner part instead of heating the outer partB. Instead of an action dictated by the requirements, one implements the opposite action  E.G. Rotate the part instead of the toolC. Make movable parts or the external environment fixed, & fixed parts movable  E.G. Flow water in short pool moving against a swimmer  E.G. Moving sidewalk with standing people. Treadmill (for walking or running in place)  E.G. Abrasively cleaning parts by vibrating the parts instead of the abrasiveD. Turn the object or process “upside down”  E.G. Turn an assembly upside down to insert fasteners (especially screws)  E.G. Empty grain from containers (ship or railroad) by inverting them 60
  61. 61. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 14. Spheroidality - CurvedA. Instead of using rectilinear parts, surfaces, or forms, use curvilinear ones; move from flat surfaces to spherical, from parts shaped as a cube (parallelepiped) to ball-shaped structures  E.G. Use arches & domes for strength in architecture  E.G. A circular landing way in airports with "unlimited" lengthB. Use rollers, balls, spirals, domes  E.G. Spiral gear (Nautilus) produces continuous resistance for weightlifting  E.G. A device for welding pipes into a lattice has electrodes in the form of rotating balls  E.G. Computer mouse uses ball construction to transfer linear two-axis motion into vector motion  E.G. Ballpoint & rollerball pens for smooth ink distributionC. Go from linear to rotary motion, use centrifugal forces  E.G. Linearly move the cursor on computer screen using a mouse or a trackball  E.G. Spinning clothes instead of wringing to remove water  E.G. Use spherical casters instead of cylindrical wheels to move furniture 61
  62. 62. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 15. DynamismA. Allow or design characteristics of an object, external environment, or process to change to be optimal or to find an optimal operating condition  E.G. Adjustable car steering wheel (or seat, back support, mirror position...)B. Divide an object into parts capable of movement relative to each other  E.G. “Butterfly" computer keyword (also shows Principle 7, Nested structures)  E.G. Scissors instead of knife  E.G. A flashlight with a flexible gooseneck  E.G. A transport vessel with a cylindrical body. To reduce the draft of the vessel under full load, the body is composed of two hinged, half-cylindrical parts which can be openedC. If an object / process is rigid or inflexible, make it movable or adaptive  E.G. The flexible boroscope for examining engines  E.G. The flexible endoscope for medical examination  E.G. A strip electrode in an automatic arc welding pre-bent at different angles along its length that allows control of the shape & dimensions of the weld bath during welding 62
  63. 63. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 16. Partial, Satiated or Excessive ActionsA. If 100 percent of an object is hard to achieve using a given solution method, the problem may be considerably easier to solve by using "slightly less" or "slightly more" of the same method  E.G. Deposit excess chemical for photolithography in semiconductor production, then remove excess by spinning  E.G. Fill, then "top off" when filling the gas tank of a car  E.G. Software: various image encoding algorithms such as JPEG, GIF, etc.  E.G. To obtain uniform discharge of a metallic powder from a bin, the hopper has a special internal funnel, which is continuously overfilled to provide nearly constant pressure 63
  64. 64. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 17. Another DimensionA. Difficulties involved in moving or relocating an object along a line are removed if the object acquires the ability to move in two dimensions (along a plane). Accordingly, problems connected with movement or relocation of an object on one plane are removed by switching to a three-dimensional space  E.G. Infrared computer mouse moves in space, instead of on a surface, for presentations  E.G. Five-axis cutting tool can be positioned where neededB. Use a multi-story arrangement of objects instead of a single-story arrangement. Use a multi-layered assembly of objects instead of a single layer  E.G. Cassette with several CDs to increase music time & variety  E.G. Greenhouse that has a concave reflector on the northern part of the house to improve illumination of that part of the house by reflecting sunlight during the day  E.G. Fourier transform-based software, in which digitized signals are transformed from the time domain to the frequency domain for processing 64
  65. 65. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 17. Another Dimension (Continued)C. Tilt or re-orient the object, lay it on its side  E.G. Dump truckD. Use another side of a given area  E.G. All devices with Mobius beltE. Use optical lines falling onto neighbouring areas or onto the reverse side of the area available 65
  66. 66. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 18. Mechanical VibrationA. Oscillate or vibrate an object  E.G. Electric carving knife with vibrating blades  E.G. Vibrate a casting mold while it is being filled to improve flow & structural propertiesB. If oscillation exists, increase its frequency  E.G. Distribute powder with vibrationC. Use an objects resonant frequency  E.G. Destroy gall stones or kidney stones by ultrasonic resonance  E.G. An instrument for cutting timber without a saw whose pulse frequency is close to the inherent frequency of vibration of the timberD. Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical ones  E.G. Quartz crystal oscillations drive highly accurate clocksE. Use combined ultrasonic & electromagnetic field oscillations  E.G. Mix alloys in an induction furnace 66
  67. 67. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 19. Periodic ActionA. Use pauses between actions to perform similar or different actions; i.e. one action is active during pauses of other action  E.G. The auto-control of a personal computer that runs when the computer is not running other applications  E.G. In cardiopulmonary respiration, breathe for victim once every 5 seconds  E.G. Squeezing of channels in telephone communicationsB. Instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions  E.G. Hitting something repeatedly with a hammer  E.G. Replace continuous siren with pulsed sound  E.G. A flashing warning lamp is more noticeable than one that is continuously litC. If an action is already periodic, change the periodic magnitude or frequency  E.G. Use Frequency Modulation to convey information instead of Morse code  E.G. Replace a continuous siren with sound that changes amplitude & frequency 67
  68. 68. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 20. Continuity of Useful Action (Uninterrupted Useful Effect)A. Continue on actions; make all parts of an object perform UF and / or NF at full load, all the time  E.G. Flywheel (or hydraulic system) stores energy when a vehicle stops, so the motor can keep running at optimum power  E.G. A drill with cutting edges, which permits cutting in forward & reverse directionsB. Eliminate all idle or intermittent actions  E.G. Print during the return of a printer carriage - dot matrix printer, daisy wheel printers, inkjet printers  E.G. Crystal growing machine with permanent raw material supply mechanism 68
  69. 69. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 21. Skipping (Rushing Through)A. Conduct a process or certain stages (e.g. destructible, harmful, or hazardous operations) at high speed  E.G. Use a high speed dentists drill to avoid heating tissue  E.G. Cut plastic faster than heat can propagate in the material to avoid deforming the shape 69
  70. 70. PLATFORM 1: II (5)22. Convert Harm into Benefit (Blessing in Disguise)A. Use harmful factors (particularly harmful effects of the environment or surroundings) to achieve a positive effect  E.G. Use waste heat to generate electric power  E.G. Sand or gravel freezes solid when transported through cold climates. Over-freezing (using liquid nitrogen) makes the ice brittle, permitting pouring  E.G. Recycle waste material from one process as raw materials for anotherB. Eliminate the primary harmful action by adding it to another harmful action to resolve the problem  E.G. Add a buffering material to a corrosive solution  E.G. Use a helium-oxygen mix for diving to eliminate both nitrogen narcosis & oxygen poisoning that are a danger with air & other nitrox mixesC. Amplify a harmful factor to such a degree that it is no longer harmful  E.G. Setting a backfire to eliminate fuel from a forest fire  E.G. When using high frequency current to heat metal, only the outer layer became hot. This negative effect was later used for surface heat-treating  E.G. Application of extremely low temperatures to frozen aggregate materials to speed the process of restoring their flow capability 70
  71. 71. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 23. FeedbackA. Introduce feedback (referring back, cross-checking) to improve a process or action  E.G. Automatic volume control in audio circuits  E.G. The level of liquid is self-adjusted by a floating valve inside a tank  E.G. Feedback inside the software program, analogous to feedback in mechanical or electrical systems, is commonly used to control the operation of various elements  E.G. Signal from gyrocompass is used to control simple aircraft autopilotsB. If feedback is already used, change its magnitude or influence  E.G. Change sensitivity of an autopilot when within 5 miles of an airport  E.G. Change sensitivity of a thermostat when cooling versus heating, since it uses energy less efficiently when cooling 71
  72. 72. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 24. Intermediary (Mediator)A. Use an intermediary carrier article or intermediary process  E.G. Carpenters nail set, used between the hammer & the nail  E.G. Word processors & spreadsheets include conversion filters to read & write files in competitive product formatsB. Merge one object temporarily with another (which can be easily removed)  E.G. Pot holder to carry hot dishes to the table  E.G. To reduce energy loss when applying current to a liquid metal, cooled electrodes & intermediate liquid metal with a lower melting temperature are used  E.G. Suspensions (adhesive parts can be dissolved or burned out) 72
  73. 73. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 25. Self-Service & Self-OrganizationA. Make an object serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions  E.G. A soda fountain pump that runs on the pressure of the carbon dioxide that carbonates the drinks. This assures that drinks will not be flat & also eliminates the need for sensors  E.G. To weld steel to aluminium, create an interface from alternating thin strips of the two materials. Cold - weld the surface into a single unit with steel on one face & copper on the other, then use normal welding techniques to attach the steel object to the interface, & the interface to the aluminium. (This concept also has elements of Principle 24, Intermediary, & Principle 4, Asymmetry)B. The object should service / organize itself & carry out supplementary & repair operations  E.G. Halogen lamps regenerate the filament during use - evaporated material is redeposited  E.G. Software programs employ some form of self-checking to verify their integrityC. Use water resources, energy, or substances  E.G. Use heat from a process to generate electricity, "Cogeneration“  E.G. Use animal waste as fertilizer  E.G. Use food & lawn waste to create compost  E.G. A cone-shaped concrete dam sink in sand on a rivers bottom will seal itself on the event of an earthquake 73
  74. 74. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 26. CopyingA. Instead of an unavailable, expensive, fragile object, use simpler & inexpensive copies  E.G. Virtual reality via computer instead of an expensive vacation  E.G. Use the sound of a barking dog, without the dog, as a burglar alarm  E.G. Modeling stage in design  E.G. Listen to an audio tape instead of attending a seminarB. Replace an object or process with optical copies  E.G. Do surveying from space photographs instead of on the ground  E.G. Photolithography in semiconductor production  E.G. Measure an object by making measurements in the photograph  E.G. The height of tall objects can be determined by measuring their shadows  E.G. Use sonograms to evaluate the health of a fetus, instead of risking damage by direct testingC. If visible optical copies are already used, move to infrared or ultraviolet copies  E.G. Make images in infrared to detect heat sources, such as diseases in crops or intruders in a security system 74
  75. 75. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 27. Inexpensive Short-Lived Objects (Dispose)A. Replace an expensive object with multiple inexpensive objects, comprising certain qualities (such as service life, for instance)  E.G. Use disposable supplies to avoid the cost of cleaning & storing durable objects  E.G. Plastic cups in motels, disposable diapers, many kinds of medical supplies  E.G. Single-roll disposable camera for tourists 75
  76. 76. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 28. Mechanical SubstitutionA. Replace a mechanical means with a sensory (optical, acoustic, taste, or olfactory) means  E.G. Replace a physical fence to confine a dog or cat with an acoustic (electronic) "fence" (signal audible to the animal)  E.G. Use a bad smelling compound in natural gas to alert users to leakage, instead of a mechanical or electrical sensorB. Use electric, magnetic, & electromagnetic fields to interact with the object  E.G. To mix 2 powders, electrostatically charge one positive & the other negative. Either use fields to direct them, or mix them mechanically & let their acquired fields cause the grains of the powder to pair  E.G. To increase the bond between metal coating & a thermoplastic material, the process is carried out inside an electromagnetic field which applies force to the metal  E.G. Application of magnetic fields for reducing oxygen effects of performance of semiconductor wafers 76
  77. 77. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 28. Mechanical Substitution (Continued)C. Change from static to movable fields, from unstructured fields to those having structure  E.G. Early communications used omni-directional broadcasting. We now use antennas with a very detailed structure of the pattern of radiationD. Use fields in conjunction with field-activated particles (e.g. ferromagnetic)  E.G. Heat a substance containing ferromagnetic material by using a varying magnetic field. When the temperature exceeds the Curie point, the material becomes paramagnetic & no longer absorbs heat 77
  78. 78. PLATFORM 1: II (5)29. Pneumatic or Hydraulic ConstructionA. Use gas & liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts (e.g. inflatable, filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic, hydro-reactive)  E.G. Comfortable shoe sole inserts filled with gel  E.G. Store energy from decelerating a vehicle in a hydraulic system, then use the stored energy to accelerate later  E.G. Using reducing air pressure in "vacuum holders"B. Use the Archimedes forces to reduce the weight of an object  E.G. To produce an all-metal shell dirigible without high-priced adjustments, the montage is realized by floating on pontoons in waterC. Use negative or atmosphere pressure  E.G. In order to prevent displacement of friable cargo in a ship, at time of transportation the free surface of cargo is covered by a hermetic rubber-band layer, creating a vacuum which ensures shrinking of the layer by atmospheric pressureD. A spume or foam can be used as a combination of liquid & gas properties with a light weight  E.G. Spume lubricant is used for a stamp instrument  E.G. Cavities of electrical soldering pen are filled by spume mass 78
  79. 79. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 30. Flexible Shells and Thin FilmsA. Use flexible shells & thin films instead of three-dimensional structures  E.G. Use inflatable (thin film) structures as winter covers on tennis courts  E.G. Coating glass windows with sapphire for high-temperature applicationsB. Isolate the object from the external environment using flexible shells & thin films  E.G. Float a film of bipolar material (one end hydrophilic, one end hydrophobic) on a reservoir to limit evaporation  E.G. For shipping fragile products, air bubble envelopes or foam-loke materials are used 79
  80. 80. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 31. Porous Materials & MembranesA. Make an object porous or add porous elements (inserts, coatings, etc.)  E.G. Drill holes in a structure to reduce the weight  E.G. To avoid pumping coolant to a machine, some parts are filled with a porous material soaked in a coolant liquid. The coolant evaporates when the machine is working, providing short-term uniform cooling  E.G. Porous wafers for GaAs devicesB. If an object is already porous, use the pores to introduce a useful substance or function  E.G. Use a porous metal mesh to wick excess solder away from a joint  E.G. Store hydrogen in the pores of a palladium sponge. (Fuel "tank" for the hydrogen car - much safer than storing hydrogen gas) 80
  81. 81. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 32. Changing the ColourA. Change the colour of an object or its external environment  E.G. Use safe lights in a photographic darkroomB. Change the transparency of an object or its external environment  E.G. Use photolithography to change transparent material to a solid mask for semiconductor processing. Similarly, change mask material from transparent to opaque for silk screen processingC. In order to observe objects or processes that are difficult to see, use coloured additives. If such additives are already used, employ luminescence traces  E.G. Fluorescent additives during UV spectroscopy  E.G. A water curtain used to protect steel mill workers from overheating blocked infrared rays but not the bright light from the melted steel. A colouring was added to the water to create a filter effect while preserving the transparency of the water 81
  82. 82. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 33. HomogeneityA. Make objects interacting with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties)  E.G. Make the container out of the same material as the contents, to reduce chemical reactions  E.G. The surface of a feeder for abrasive grain is made of the same material that runs through the feeder, allowing a continuous restoration of the surface  E.G. Make parts of semiconductor equipment from silicon 82
  83. 83. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 34. Discarding and RecoveringA. Dissociation-Association: this principle allows division & coalition on the molecular level  E.G. Use alloys prepared by molecular beam epitaxy in opto-electronic devices  E.G. Use some materials as a working body for sidebars of binary cycle of energy equipment. These materials can dissociate during the warming semi-cycle with absorbing heat & associate back during the cooling semi-cycle with the extraction of same portions of energyB. Discard (by dissolving, evaporating, etc.) portions of an object that have fulfilled their functions or modify these directly during operation  E.G. Use a dissolving capsule for medicine  E.G. Biodegradable plastics  E.G. Rocket boosters separate after serving their function  E.G. Sprinkle water on cornstarch-based packaging; it reduces its volume by more than 1000X!C. Conversely, restore consumable parts of an object directly in operation  E.G. Self-sharpening lawn mower blades  E.G. Automobile engines that give themselves a "tune-up" while running 83
  84. 84. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 35. Parameters & Properties Changes (Transformation)A. Change an objects physical aggregate state (e.g. to a gas, liquid, or solid)  E.G. Freeze the liquid centers of filled candies, then dip in melted chocolate, instead of handling the messy, gooey, hot liquid  E.G. Transport oxygen, nitrogen, or petroleum gas as a liquid, instead of a gas, to reduce volumeB. Change the concentration or consistency ( see also Principle 44 below)  E.G. Liquid hand soap is concentrated & more viscous than bar soap at the point of use, making it easier to dispense in the correct amount & more sanitary when shared by several people  E.G. As a rule, the resistivity of semiconductors changes by concentration of impuritiesC. C. Change the degree of flexibility (see also Principle 15 above)  E.G. Use adjustable dampers to reduce the noise of parts falling into a container by restricting the motion of the containers walls  E.G. Vulcanize rubber to change its flexibility & durability 84
  85. 85. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 35. Parameters & Properties Changes (Transformation) - ContinuedD. Change the temperature  E.G. Raise the temperature above the Curie point to change a ferromagnetic substance to a paramagnetic substance  E.G. Raise the temperature of food to cook it. (Changes taste, aroma, texture, chemical properties, etc.)  E.G. Lower the temperature of medical specimens to preserve them for later analysis  E.G. Dry objects by hot air  E.G. ThermocoupleE. Change other characteristics of a technique  E.G. Sphingometer 85
  86. 86. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 36. Phase TransitionsA. Use phenomena that occur during phase transitions (e.g. volume changes, loss or absorption of heat, etc.)  E.G. Heat pumps use the heat of vaporization & heat of condensation of a closed thermodynamic cycle to do useful work  E.G. Crystallization  E.G. Superconductivity 86
  87. 87. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 37. Thermal ExpansionA. Use thermal expansion (or contraction) of materials  E.G. Fit a tight joint together by cooling the inner part to contract, heating the outer part to expand, putting the joint together, & returning to equilibrium  E.G. To control the expansion of ribbed pipes, they are filled with water & cooled to a freezing temperatureB. If thermal expansion is being used, use multiple materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion  E.G. The basic leaf spring thermostat: 2 metals with different coefficients of expansion are linked so that the object bends one way when warmer than normal & the opposite way when cooler. To control the opening of roof windows in a greenhouse, bimetallic plates are connected to the windows, so temperature change bends the plates, causing the window to open or close  E.G. A lid of a hothouse is controlled by hinged hollow pipes with spreading water inside. The center of gravity of the pipes shifts with a change in temperature & therefore the pipes raise & lower the lid 87
  88. 88. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 38. Accelerated Oxidation (Strong Oxidants)A. Replace common air with oxygen-enriched air  E.G. Scuba diving with non-air mixtures have high concentration of oxygen for extended enduranceB. Replace enriched air with pure oxygen  E.G. Cut at a higher temperature using an oxy-acetylene torch  E.G. Treat wounds in a high pressure oxygen environment to kill anaerobic bacteria & aid healingC. Expose air or oxygen to ionizing radiation  E.G. Ionize air to trap pollutants in an air cleaner for ultra-cleanrooms (class 100 & better in the semiconductor industry)D. Use ionized oxygen  E.G. Ionize oxygen to increase the speed of semiconductors surface oxidationE. Replace ozonized (or ionized) oxygen with ozone  E.G. Speed chemical reactions by ozone 88
  89. 89. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 39. Inert Environment (Atmosphere)A. Replace a normal environment with an inert one  E.G. Prevent degradation of a hot metal filament by using an argon atmosphere  E.G. Prevent cotton from catching fire in a warehouse by treating it with inert gas while being transported to the storage area  E.G. Foam is used to isolate a fire from oxygen in airB. Add neutral parts or inert additives to an object  E.G. Increase the volume of powdered detergent by adding inert ingredients. This makes it easier to measure with conventional tools 89
  90. 90. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 40. Composite MaterialsA. Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials  E.G. Composite (Copper-Ceramic-Copper) substrates for power semiconductors have high thermal conductivity & high electrical insulation  E.G. Military aircraft wings are made of composites of plastics & carbon fibers for high strength & low weight  E.G. Composite ferro-electrics for high-frequency applications are smaller, lighter, & more reliable than traditional parts 90
  91. 91. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 41. Multi-stepA. Efficiency of action increases due to consequent usage of a group of uniform objects instead of the single object  E.G. A multicylinder combustion engine  E.G. Thousands of cells in a power MOSFET transistor 91
  92. 92. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 42. Use of Epenthetic (Insert) PartsA. Overcome problems in fabricating an object by using some temporary insert during the manufacturing process, deleting the insert when finished  E.G. During fabrication of semiconductor devices, the surface at some operations is protected by photoresistors or silicon dioxide  E.G. Bullet casings are ejected after the gun fires 92
  93. 93. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 43. Match of ImpedancesA. During design, determine the input impedance level & set the system internal impedance to that input signal. If an exact match is impossible, minimize losses by amplifying or attenuating the input signal or dispersing the input signal via a few channels, each of whose impedance can be matched with the system impedance  E.G. System impedance (complex resistance) matches input impedance to provide a maximum transfer of energy across systems, such as electrical, fiber optics, hydraulic, gas, information & transmission lines, measurement apparatus, & devices with distributed parameters 93
  94. 94. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 44. Concentration-Dispersion Concentration / Dispersion is a systems transformation method consisting of a set of objects (at least two), managing their mutual arrangement & relative quantity - a concentration can be absolute (expressed by number of objects in unit of volume or in the given spatial area) & relative (expressed by the relation of number of the given objects to total number of all objects in the given area). The essence of the Dispersion sub-Principle is partially crossed with essence of Splitting & Removal Principles, as well as the Concentration sub-Principle with the Association & Local Quality Principles; however, they are not reduced to each other. On the other hand, a part of this Principle is included in Principle 35 94
  95. 95. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 44. Concentration-Dispersion (cont.)A. Concentrate essential resources, elements, actions in a key place & moment of time in order to achieve the purpose (e.g. increase technique effectiveness)  E.G. Sublimated food products, encyclopedias, notebook computers versus desktop computersB. If concentrated objects or actions cause undesirable effects, they should be disseminated, dispersed in space and / or time  E.G. Preparing food from concentrates, thermal treatment of semiconductors after ion implantation, harmful effects of medical drugs at high concentrations, activation of diffusion Typical ways of realizing this Principle  E.G. Changing distance between objects or interval of time between actions  E.G. Changing quantity of objects in given area or distribution density of objects in space  E.G. Changing amount of objects – dilution  E.G. Expanding / convoluting a flow in different or same directions  E.G. Moving from or to the center 95