Cutting Edge eLearning


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One of the requirements of my role at The University of Hong Kong is to keep abreast of what is happening in the eLearning world in order to advise senior management concerning eLearning trends that HKU might need to take into consideration. I made a start in this PowerPoint.

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Cutting Edge eLearning

  1. 1. At the Cutting Edge of eLearning Dr. Iain Doherty Associate ProfessorDirector eLearning Pedagogical Support UnitCentre for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning 26th April 2012
  2. 2. Introduction• Cutting Edge eLearning and HKU• Mobile Devices and Mobile Applications• Tablet Devices and Tablet Applications• iTunes U• YouTube Edu• Virtual Worlds• Serious Gaming• Learning Analytics 2
  3. 3. What is Cutting Edge?• Cutting edge eLearning is eLearning that is at the most advanced stage of development. Cutting edge eLearning is innovative and pioneering. – Innovative and pioneering from a pedagogical perspective but not necessarily from a technological perspective e.g. use of social media; – Innovative and pioneering from both a pedagogical and a technological perspective e.g. use of virtual worlds.• Evidence, evidence, evidence. 3
  4. 4. What is Cutting Edge• Making purposeful use of technologies in teaching means employing technologies for educational benefit: – Educational benefit can be conceived of in terms of improving student learning; – Educational benefit can also be conceived of in terms of enabling students to do things in the learning environment that would not otherwise be possible.• Not mutually exclusive. 4
  5. 5. HKU eLearning Strategy• eLearning Pedagogical Support Unit (EPSU) has a remit to systematically evaluate the efficacy of technologies adopted world wide with respect to the extent to which they enhance teaching and learning.• Also responsible for making recommendations with respect to use of cutting edge technologies at HKU through reviewing what is going on worldwide. 5
  6. 6. HKU eLearning Strategy• Cutting edge eLearning practices might be incorporated into teaching and learning at level 2 or level 3 of HKU’s eLearning strategy: – At level 2 teaching and learning are enriched by the use of technologies; – At level 3 teaching and learning is brought to new heights through the use of technologies. 6
  7. 7. Handheld Devices and Applications• The handheld space contains products such as the iPod Touch and smart phones, devices which fit into the pockets of learners and are able to be taken anywhere as they can stay with the learner. Due to the small physical form factor and therefore small screen size, it is primary used for 1 to 1 learning (Wilson, 2012). 7
  8. 8. Handheld Devices and Applications• “. . . college professors around the country are finding unique ways to use smartphones, as well as highly portable tablet computers like the iPad, that work well in certain situations but do not represent a revolution in educational practice. At least not yet” (Young, 2012). 8
  9. 9. University Wide Applications 9
  10. 10. University Wide Applications• Princeton University’s mobile application -• The University of Michigan mobile application -• University of Virginia mobile application -• Indiana State University - 10
  11. 11. University Warwick 11
  12. 12. University Warwick• 12 Videos on understanding and visualizing the human body.• Videos on reviewing clinical anatomy with 27 films on chest and upper limb.• Spot quizzes with reasoned answers of the type used in examinations.• Not pedagogically innovative and all available on a website.• Rationale is doctors on the go needing access. 12
  13. 13. University Warwick 13
  14. 14. University Warwick• 200 recordings of 150 poets and authors.• Browse archive by writer, period, genre or search titles and descriptions.• Add and maintain a list of favourite authors.• Rate recordings and see ratings from other users.• Not pedagogically innovative but ease of access to content, search function and rating recordings. 14
  15. 15. Agile Devices and Applications 15
  16. 16. Agile Devices and Applications• “I am using the term ‘agile’ here to signal a new technology space in between handheld and portable. Devices which fit this space are particularly useful for teaching and learning purposes, as they offer the flexibility needed for modern learning practices. It has taken the iPad to really cement this space although there will be countless others arriving in the market fairly soon. Whether or not they will offer the right blend of features successfully of course remains to be seen” (Wilson, 2012). 16
  17. 17. Agile Devices and Applications• There is a lot of hype and a lot of subjectivity in claims made about the value of the iPad in education.• Only a limited number of the 200, 000 + applications are specifically educational.• Whether there is actual educational benefit still has to be shown through scholarly research.
  18. 18. Agile Devices and Applications• “Our study suggests that there is a paucity of applications that truly extend capability, much of what these application allow can be done with other devices, and this leads us to conclude that the current trajectory will not revolutionize teaching and learning. The lack of collaboration capabilities underlie this point, as do the overwhelming number of application that are simply drill and practice or focused on delivering content for consumption, not creation or re-use”. Murray, O. T., & Olcese, N. R. (2011). Teaching and Learning with iPads, Ready or Not? TechTrends, 55(6), 42-48. doi:10.1007/s11528-011-0540-6
  19. 19. Pocket Body by Pocket Anatomy 19
  20. 20. Pocket Body by Pocket Anatomy 20
  21. 21. Pocket Body by Pocket Anatomy• University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine 2010 medical students given an iPad.• New iMedEd Initiative at UCIrvine to develop a fully digital curriculum.• Trying to blend technology into an innovative and interactive learning environment to facilitate a move away from traditional lecturing model. 21
  22. 22. Pocket Body by Pocket Anatomy• Loading relevant software to facilitate the learning of anatomy.• Enabling students to share documents with themselves, other students and faculty from inside the lab.• Internet enabled so that students can access external resources and update installed apps. 22
  23. 23. Harrison’s Principles by Inkling 23
  24. 24. Inkling Medical Books• Inkling is a textbook application that was built exclusively for the iPad platform and features media rich interactive textbooks.• Once you download the free Inkling app, you are able to view various textbooks they offer.• Currently have 23 medical books with another dozen listed as being on the way.• An Inkling book e.g. Harrison’s Principles costs $199 US. Hard copy is $100 US. 24
  25. 25. Harrison’s Principles by Inkling• Less Searching – Search function and glossary.• Formative Assessment – Every chapter comes with quizzes and self- assessment tools. – Does this constitute basic drill and practice? – If so not an advance and perhaps a step backwards. 25
  26. 26. Harrison’s Principles by Inkling• Audio and Visual – Inkling content includes high resolution images, audio, and video so we have moved beyond digital page turning.• Social Learning Network – Students can follow other students using their books, see other students’ notes and highlights in real time, create running discussions anywhere, and star the most helpful notes. – Now we are getting somewhere! 26
  27. 27. University of Adelaide• The pilot initiative involves all first-year undergraduate science students receiving a free Apple iPad to use with online curriculum, eliminating up to $1000 in annual textbook costs within three years.• The Faculty of Sciences executive dean, Professor Bob Hill, said the aim was to reinvigorate the learning experience for students studying science at the university and make it more appealing as a highly sought-after and diverse career pathway. 27
  28. 28. University of Adelaide• Student Comment:• “I am curious if this move is backed up by any research? E.g. any studies suggesting that students learn better/faster by processing material off a screen rather than traditional textbooks? What about health implications (reading entire books off a screen can be quite strenuous)? Or is this yet another stunt to lure new customers to their university? ” (Adelaide Now, 2012). 28
  29. 29. Drew University• Drew University students registered for the spring 2012 Wall Street Semester program received an Apple iPad loaded with apps.• The claim is that the iPad will allow students to use the device in ways not yet realized within higher education.• We will see! 29
  30. 30. Drew University• “Pretty much every other school that we’ve researched uses the iPad in a limited way: to read ebooks and take notes,” said Marc Tomljanovich, associate professor of economics and business studies, and director of the Wall Street Semester program. “While our students will certainly use their iPads for both of these purposes, our central learning goal with this technology is to have them access and interpret financial information” (Drew Today, 2012). 30
  31. 31. Duke University• Duke University in Durham, NC is experimenting with the use of Apple iPads in student field research. The Duke Global Health Institute distributes the tablet devices in a masters course that introduces students to methodological techniques used in global health research (Schaffhauser, 2012). 31
  32. 32. Duke University• "With an iPad a student may collect, organize and display data while in the field, allowing them to immediately engage in analyzing and interpreting that data when and where it has greatest meaning.“• This seems potentially useful and an advance over hard copy or a laptop.• Would need to articulate the advances more clearly and test to see how learning is aided. 32
  33. 33. Business Schools• Business Schools such as Harvard are converting all their case studies to tablet format.• Advantages: – 500 pages on a tablet – Searchable – Editable to include up to date information using audio, video and image files 33
  34. 34. iTunes U Application
  35. 35. iTunes U 35
  36. 36. iTunes U 36
  37. 37. iTunes U Application• “The free iTunes U app gives students access to all the materials for a course in a single place. Right in the app, students can: play video or audio lectures, read books and view presentations, see a list of all the assignments for the course and check them off as they’re completed. When teachers send a message or create a new assignment, students receive a push notification with the new information”.• 37
  38. 38. YouTube Channel 38
  39. 39. YouTube Edu 39
  40. 40. YouTube Edu• Create a YouTube Channel.• Become a YouTube Channel partner.• Self-identify in the partner application process as an educational institution.• Content is then automatically considered for inclusion in YouTube Edu.• Is this more than lecturing online?• What are the drivers here – open source content / marketing? 40
  41. 41. Virtual Worlds 41
  42. 42. Virtual Worlds• NMC Virtual Worlds, a not-for-profit program of the New Media Consortium, is a Second Life development provider for educational institutions worldwide. Their mission is to make it easier for colleges, universities, schools, and other learning- focused institutions to use virtual worlds.• 42
  43. 43. Virtual Worlds 43
  44. 44. Virtual Worlds• “The virtual Macbeth island was designed and developed to aid in the teaching of Macbeth to English Literature students both as a standalone experience for individual visitors, and as part of a teacher mediated experience for whole classes. It has long been established that interactive media is instantly engaging to students, and this project was designed to stimulate and provoke interest in the core subject matter and then deliver a rich and memorable experience to aid their understanding of it”. 44
  45. 45. Virtual Worlds• How extensive is use of Virtual Worlds in education?• How much reliable research evidence do we have for the efficacy of Virtual Worlds in Education?• If e.g. students participate in a virtual hospital scenario is that experience transferable to the real world?• Do we need to ask the same questions that we ask of simulation use in education? 45
  46. 46. Game-Based Learning 46
  47. 47. Game-Based Learning• The MIT Education Arcade explores games that promote learning through authentic and engaging play.• TEAs research and development projects focus both on the learning that naturally occurs in popular commercial games, and on the design of games that more vigorously address the educational needs of players.• 47
  48. 48. Game-Based Learning 48
  49. 49. Game-Based Learning• “By representing the simulation through digital gaming conventions, educators can potentially increase engagement while also fostering deeper learning, as learners engage in critical and recursive game play, whereby they generate hypotheses about the game system, develop plans and strategies, observe their results and adjust their hypotheses about the game system”.• Sounds like there might be a hypothesis here! 49
  50. 50. Game-Based Learning• “Experiences in game worlds become experiences that students can draw upon in thinking about scientific worlds, using their intuitive understandings developed in simulated worlds to interpret physics problems. By representing complex scientific content through tangible, experienced nontextually-mediated representations, simulated worlds may also engage reluctant learners in the study of science”.• Sounds like another hypothesis! 50
  51. 51. Game-Based Learning• “The Federation of American Scientists’ involvement in the creation of games for learning focuses on research and empirical studies to better understand what features of games can be used to improve learning outcomes, as well as the creation of guidelines based on that research which will enable the community of developers to build effective educational games”.• 51
  52. 52. Game-Based Learning• These guidelines include: – Understanding the challenges that are crucial for motivation and learning – Understanding how stories/scenarios contribute to motivation and learning – Understanding the impact of immersion and engagement on learner motivation – Linking gaming features to goal orientation 52
  53. 53. Game-Based Learning• And: – Understanding the features of game playing that contribute to development of higher-level thinking skills – Understanding how games can be integrated in classrooms and formal learning environments to support learning goals• 53
  54. 54. Learning Analytics• Learning analytics is about analyzing the wealth of information about students in a way that would allow institutions to make informed adjustments to a student’s learning experience.• Learning analytics draws on new ways of observing patterns in complex data.• The future is now! 54
  55. 55. Learning Analytics• Until recently, research on learning in higher education centered primarily on identifying students who might be at risk of failure in a course or program,• The aim was to design interventions to address short-term issues – lack of engagement due to e.g. failure to manage workload – that might have been impacting on students.• Broader aim now is to be proactive + to pre-empt in order to improve the student learning experience. 55
  56. 56. Learning Analytics• This has implications not simply for individual student performance, but in how educators perceive the processes of teaching, learning, and assessment.• For example, by offering information in real time, learning analytics can support immediate adjustments, suggesting a model of curriculum that is more fluid and open to change. 56
  57. 57. Learning Analytics• The Signals project at Purdue University gathers information from SIS, course management systems, and course grade books to generate a risk level for students.• Similarly, the University of Maryland, Baltimore County supplements their Blackboard course management system with a self-service feedback tool for students and educators called “Check My Activity.” 57
  58. 58. Learning Analytics 58
  59. 59. Learning Analytics 59
  60. 60. Learning Analytics• SNAPP is a software tool that allows users to visualize the network of interactions resulting from discussion forum posts and replies.• The network visualizations of forum interactions provide an opportunity for teachers to rapidly identify patterns of user behavior – at any stage of course progression.• This is useful because . . . ?• Meaning needs to be given to the data = work! 60
  61. 61. Learning Analytics• SNAPP analyses forum postings to provide information on: – The total number of posts (displayed at the top right of the SNAPP report); – The number of posts per user. Future forum statistics planned include a measure of community, thread depth (i.e. the amount of messages responding to an original posting, or “thread”), the average number of posts and social networking centrality measures. – Need to interpret the data to find meaning! 61
  62. 62. Learning Analytics• Other analytics includes: – posting frequency table – lists the number of posts and replies to posts made by each individual; – who has been interacting with whom and who is connecting various groups via an embedded network diagram.• 62
  63. 63. Learning Analytics• E2Coach is built on the Michigan Tailoring System (MTS), an open-source software system built to enable tailored communication. 63
  64. 64. Learning Analytics• E2Coach draws data from many different sources. Primarily, they survey the students at the beginning of the course to find out important academic information, goals for this course, and psycho-social factors.• Additionally, real-time data is fed into E2Coach as the semester progresses. This includes exam scores, Mastering Physics scores, iclicker scores, and enrollment data.•• 64
  65. 65. Learning Analytics• When they combine this knowledge with detailed information about students, including their current status in courses, MTS enables them to deliver individually personalized content to every student – to say to each what they would say if they could sit down with them for a personal chat.• 65
  66. 66. Learning Analytics• Content of the messages is based the collective expertise of students, instructors, and behavior change experts.• They have extensively reviewed literature from the Physics Education community, on Behavioral Change theory, and the Tailoring community.• 66
  67. 67. Learning Analytics 67
  68. 68. Learning Analytics• Developed by the Mazur Group at Harvard University, Learning Catalytics supports peer-to-peer instruction, and provides real-time feedback during class. Faculty can engage students with questions about course material with numerical, algebraic, textual, or graphical responses, and the platform helps group students for follow-up discussions.• 68