It approach for energy management in electrical demand

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It approach for energy management in electrical demand

  1. 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online) IJMVolume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), pp. 20-28© IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.html ©IAEM E IT APPROACH FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN ELECTRICAL DEMAND U. Prasad Faculty, BIT Mesra, Ranchi E-Mail: umeshprasad_bit@rediffmail.com C.K.Panigrahi Professor, School of Electrical Engineering KIIT University, Bhubaneswar E-Mail: panigrahichinmoy@yahoo.co.in P.K.Chattopadhyay Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering Jadavpur University, Kolkata E-Mail: Pk_chattopadhyay@hotmail.com ABSTRACT Every year, the demand of electricity is increasing by 6-8 per cent, while production is not increasing in the same ratio. Due to this reason, the gap between demand and supply is constantly increasing. To reduce this gap, there are two alternative ways: one is to generate more electricity, which requires huge investment and second is to conserve the electricity from utility side that is Demand side. The Demand Side Management is a strong tool for Energy Management and Conservation in industries. This paper explains how conservation and management of electrical energy can be made possible by using computers and advanced metering technologies in industrial sector. Keywords: Demand side management, Time-of-Day tariffs, File transfers Port, Energy Saving Company Organization. 20
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEINTRODUCTION Energy management is the judicious and effective use of energy to maximizeprofits and enhance competitive positions. Some desirable objectives of energymanagement programs include - conserving energy, thereby reducing costs. Cultivatinggood communications on energy matters. Developing and maintaining effectivemonitoring, reporting and management strategies for wise energy usage. Finding new andbetter ways to increase returns from energy management programme from all employees.Reducing the impacts of curtailments, brownouts or any interruption in energy supplies.Review of contract demand and Monitoring to prevent excessive demand power are thekeys for Energy conservation and cost reduction. These are achieved effectively throughIT based Energy Auditing and Energy Management through demand side. Due to itsimplementation it is observed that there is much saving in the wastage of electricity andthereby the reduction in monthly bill of industry. The extra cost for the instrumentationwill be recovered within a short period. Hence it is suggested that IT based EnergyAuditing and Energy Management through demand side in the industrial sector beimplemented at the earliest. In plain and simple terms Energy conservation essentiallymeans effective & efficient utilization of energy by reducing wastages as far aspracticable. Further, for efficient energy conservation it is of vital significance thatEnergy Audit is done in a proper manner. Auditing is the process to identify the wastagesof energy without in any way affecting productivity and growth rate. Through energyconservation 15 to 25% of total energy can be saved in various sectors such asAgriculture, industry etc. This paper makes use of the inferences obtained by carrying outvarious case studies and emphasizes upon the need for conservation and management ofelectrical energy and its optimization using Information Technology.ENERGY IN INDIAN SCENARIO Post independence it has been observed that India’s power requirements hasincreased considerably owing to rapid industrialization. Indian industries especially inthe present scenario of crippling power cuts, rapidly escalating oil pool deficit, fuelshortages, global warming, alarming pollution levels etc. India today faces a peakshortage of about 11-18% and an energy shortage of about 7-11%. Today, energy 21
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEconservation & efficiency are hard core economic and environmental concern for anybusiness house. In India about half of the total consumption of commercial energy is bythe industrial sector. There is tremendous scope of energy saving to the tune of 15-25%.Energy conserved is after all is energy generation; hence there is a need for energymanagement. The Govt. of India has ambitious plans to achieve an addition of about95,000 MW of new power generation capacity by 2012 to meet the current shortfall andalso to achieve the projected growth targets during 10th and 11th Five Years plans. It isestimated that the addition of new capacity will require at least Rs.80 Million/MW forgeneration plant cost as well as associated T and D network cost.ENERGY MANAGEMENT GOALS Energy management is a managerial cum technical activity which aims towardsthe judicious and effective use of energy to maximize profits and enhance competitiveposition in the globally changing competitive environment. Some desirable objectives ofenergy management programs include -Conserving energy, thereby reducing costs.Cultivating good communications on energy matters. Developing and maintainingeffective monitoring, reporting and management strategies for wise energy usage.Finding new and better ways to increase returns from energy management programmefrom all employees. Energy Conservation means achieving the same level of output withsmaller energy inputs. Energy audit is an effective Tool for energy conservation andwaste minimization in industrial undertakings. Energy audit is an official survey/study ofthe energy consumption / processing / supply aspects related with an organization,system, process, plant, equipment. The objectives of the energy audit are to recommendthe steps to be taken by the management for improving the energy efficiencies, reducingthe energy costs and improving the productivity without sacrificing quality, standard ofliving / comforts and environmental balance [6]. To test the electrical system and identifyconservation opportunities, following steps must be carried out by an industry [3]: 22
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEME Form Energy Audit Team. Carry out preliminary Energy Audit. Carry out detailed Energy Audit The energy survey / audit is the first step in collecting all the relevant data for theindustry for which the conservation techniques are to be applied. Data must be obtainedfor each type of energy used and cost incurred by the industry for at least two threeprevious year of the year of study. Also the actual measurements (on site) of the variousenergy devices (motors, lightings etc.) should be included as part of the energysurvey/audit. The energy audit/ survey team has the task to explore the potential areas ofenergy conservation based on the findings of the survey/audit. This could involve energymanagement with motors, lighting, tariff control, power factor management, the use ofenergy efficient devices (motors and lighting), the possibility of cogeneration, and the useof technical awareness and motivation programs for the industry personnel.[4]ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION SECTOR: MAJOROBSTACLESFollowing are the major obstacles which act as a hindrance as far as attainment of energyEfficiency is concerned: • Inefficient pricing of energy which results in inefficient use. • Short term perspective of industries • No Time of Day based tariff mechanism (higher tariff for peak period) in most of the states. • Lack of medium term loan and leasing facilities for energy saving products and devices. • Lack of awareness among energy end-users 23
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEME • Obsolete energy consumption standard (no periodic revisions, labeling is not yet compulsory) • No indigenous R and D efforts for energy efficient technologies.ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS: • Ignorance of what is available in terms of technology and know-how to promote efficiency and proper maintenance. • Bias in favor of encouraging energy provision and usages without similar bias towards efficiency. • Unwillingness to press for full-cost pricing in developing countries usually for understandable social and political reasons. • Poor information about and lack of experience in the energy sector. • Opposition from politicians and public revenue officials to the imposition of earmarked taxes to promote energy efficiency. • Poor linkages between utilities and users and between purchasers and users. • Intellectual property rights, which are intended to reflect the efforts and costs put into developing new ideas, products and processes. • Unwillingness to promote public information campaigns.FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC PARAMETERS: • Difficulty in identifying and calculating savings with precision. Value of, and returns on, existing assets. • Financial accounting and budgeting methods. • Low energy prices, subsidies which encourage marginal demand at minimal cost. • Threshold level of energy and cost savings (below which investments do not seem worth making). • Perceived high capital cost of energy efficient technologies as a barrier for poor, heavily indebted countries. 24
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMETECHNICAL ASPECTS • Non-availability of more advanced technology. • Non-availability of new materials and other substitutes. • Infrastructure limitations. • Tendency towards over sizing/low capacity utilization. • Lack of research, development and demonstration. • Lack of technical and managerial expertise.PROPOSED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE ITBASED ENERGY AUDITING AND MANAGEMENT For quite a few years, utility companies in the advanced countries have beenleveraging Information Technology (IT) for obtaining significant benefits. Much of theinformation used for this purpose is distributed over vast geographical domains and is tobe acquired, transported, processed and presented in real time. The Indian power sectortoo has introduced with mixed successes IT solutions in several areas. The applications,however, have been isolated and sporadic so far. The recent past has seen a dramaticchange in the Indian power sector, historically plagued by low return of investments. Theprospect of intense competition is emerging with the entry of private, including foreignMNC and foreign investment. The outlook for this sector is of a rapid expansion tosupport India’s economic engine. One is now forced to think seriously in terms ofincreasing efficiency by increasing plant load factor (PLF), reducing T&D losses,minimizing power theft and increasing service quality without increasing the manpowerrequirement to remain competitive in the open market. This will require not only themodernization of equipment, but also better planning, supervision, monitoring andcontrol of all activities related to power generation, transmission and distribution andcommercial operations. These systems are developed using a host of enabling core technologies such asthose related to Data Communications, Centralized and Distributed Databases, DecisionSupport, Real-time Computing, Power System Analysis, Geographical InformationProcessing, Graphics and Multimedia, Distributed Process Control, Simulation andForecasting and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Some of these Information 25
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMESystems such as MIS and MMS are generic in structure for all industries, while beingspecific to a power utility in some functional aspects.The primary objectives of all the solutions are three-fold: • Ensure availability of quality power • Ensure high operational efficiency • Maintain ecological balance. IT can play a very vital role in effective energy conservation & energy audit. It isnecessary that the customer has to be made aware of various useful information such asdifferent DSM tools, power factor of industry, different data, peak load etc. Hence it isproposed to implement IT based Energy Auditing and Energy Management programmesand hence to connect computer with various kinds of power meters, to collect andanalyze the appropriate data and to send the information to the customer or energymanager through email or SMS to that industry. The IT-based Energy Auditing andEnergy Management on Demand Side consists of the following steps:STEP 1: Data CollectionSTEP 2: Data MeasurementSTEP 3: Data Analysis through relevant softwares.STEP 4: Advanced Data Management.STEP 5: Network Communication.ADVANCED DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THROUGHSPECIALIZED SOFTWARES After the accurate collection, measurement & analysis is done the availablegraphs and tables generated based upon the available information (via relevantsoftware’s) can be sent to the industry to take corrective action. This data is sent usingdata communication technologies like LAN, WAN, & Internet. From such type ofarrangement, the data is directly made available to the client side. A printer can beconnected through cable to print measurement data. If customer has a media readerconnected to PC, measurement data and settings can be uploaded directly to a PC. Thus,in industry if load is increased above maximum demand, or power factor is changed fromdesired value, or if harmonics are present, then energy auditor or customer can easily 26
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEMEknow the data and its variation, and can easily take corrective action. Thus, energyutilization will be made proper and demand side energy management can be achieved.NETWORK COMMUNICATION VIA WWW Through network communication technologies, Data collection, DataManagement, WEB function, e-mail alarm function, FTP functions are possible. In WEBfunction mode, one can monitor Internet Browser on PC. The alarm from this system canbe sent to PC as an e-mail. In this arrangement, one can send data as a file to PC by usingFTP function. In this arrangement, Energy Auditor can also be used to collect data fromdifferent locations by using measurement instruments through relevant network softwares. In such an arrangement the role of the Web Server is of critical significance. TheWeb server function makes it easy to set up a remote monitoring environment with zerostartup costs. Thus, from this arrangement information regarding different instantaneousvalues, of energy can be saved. Important SMS, e-mail can be sent to industry customer.If one wishes to exchange data between remote LANs (such as between a main-officeLAN and a laboratory LAN), one can connect them through a PSTN line or leased line toform a WAN. This arrangement can transmit the data such as, alarm notificationmessages, power-restoration messages following an outage, memory-full messages,storage-media-full messages, periodic instantaneous values, report data, and otherinformation. Multiple recipients can also be registered. When connected to the Internet,this system can send e-mail anywhere in the world. An e-mail-capable cellular phone canbe used to receive instantaneous remote notification of messages.CONCLUSIONS The energy conservation is critical to any society’s future economic prosperity,industrial development. There exists a lot of scope for energy conservation at all stages inthe industrial sector which is the largest consumer of available commercial energy. Andenergy can be saved by systematic procedure of energy audit, implementation ofrecommendation of energy audit. Though the actual energy conservation techniques andenergy saving equipments to be used vary from industry to industry, the replacement ofexisting equipment with energy conservation equipment should be done after properanalysis of cost benefit analysis and payback period. 27
  9. 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 1, Number 2, July - Aug (2010), © IAEME The solution of energy conservation and cost reduction can be summarized as,Obtaining load curves smoother, Review of contract demand and Monitoring to preventexcessive demand power are the keys for Energy conservation and cost reduction. Theseare achieved effectively through IT based Energy Auditing and Energy Managementthrough demand side. Due to its implementation it is observed that there is much savingin the wastage of electricity and thereby the reduction in monthly bill of industry. Theextra cost for the instrumentation will be recovered within a short period. Hence it issuggested that IT based Energy Auditing and Energy Management through demand sidein the industrial sector be implemented at the earliest.REFERENCES1. Proceedings of International seminar on ‘Energy Audit & Conservation’ of IEEMA, Mumbai, 2001.2. K. R. Kulkarni, S. D. Inamdar, V. L. Sonavane ‘DSM & Energy Audit – Future thrust areas in distribution system’ M. S. E. B. Mumbai.3. Shankar Lal ‘Energy Efficiency & Conservation – Indian Perspective’ IREDA News, Dated 20th June 2003.4. Pabla A. S. ‘Electrical Power Systems Planning’ Mc-Milan India Limited, New Delhi, 1998.5. Proceedings of International seminar on ‘Energy Audit & Conservation’ of IEEMA, Mumbai, 2001.6. Shankar Lal ‘Energy Efficiency & Conservation – Indian Perspective’ IREDA News, Dated 20th June 2003.7. Pabla A. S. ‘Electrical Power Systems Planning’ Mc-Milan India Limited, New Delhi, 1998.8. Paul O Callaghan ‘A comprehensive guide to reducing cost by efficient energy use’ Mc-Graw Hill Book Company, London, 1993.9. Albert Thuman P. E. ‘Plant Engineers & Managers Guide to Energy Conservation’ Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977.10. B. N. Raval ‘GEB’s efforts towards energy conservation through DSM’ G. S. E. B. Baroda. 28

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