Embedded controller using motion control of motor


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Embedded controller using motion control of motor

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICALISSN 0976 – 6545(Print),International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ENGINEERINGISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) IJEETVolume 3, Issue 3, October - December (2012), pp. 130-136© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com EMBEDDED CONTROLLER USING MOTION CONTROL OF MOTOR Ms. Mrudula A. Mulay Prof. J.G. Rana J.N.E.C. Aurangabad J.N.E.C. Aurangabad ashwinipade@yahoo.co.in jgr@gmail.com ABSTRACT This tutorial paper presents the results of solving speed and position control problems by using embedded controllers. A feature of these controllers is that the sample time is not explicitly included in the integral and derivative control equations. This feature was experimentally tested. In the testing of the integral control with such feature, the controller was applied to a speed regulation problem under the condition of rapidly changing load. In the testing of the derivative control with the same feature, the controller was applied to a ringing removal problem. These controllers performed as expected. All the embedded controllers were implemented in a member of freescale Semiconductors microcontroller family Keywords: Limit Switch, Stepper Motor, microcontroller 89v51 INTRODUCTION All recent industrial development in depend on the automation. For accuracy and other various purposes automation is required in the industry. For doing automation accuracy is important similarly cost required for the desired machine is also an important factor for them. Embedded controller motion control of a machine can be an easy solution for it. If the embedded controller will work for the controlling motion and speed of the motor then it may be very beneficial. Because availability, cost , programming, replacement every thing can be easily possible by using this type of controller. 130
  2. 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEWe are concentrating on motion control of a motor. For using embedded controller for thecontrol action in this particular machine we are controlling the movement of the stepper motor,as well as controlling switching of the AC motor.Complex industry automation as well as complex computer nodes like high-end servers requirean infrastructure for maintenance and control. An off-the-shelf embedded controller is usuallythe first choice for such purposes. This approach is challenged for complex applications by thefact that a large amount of distributed industry standard interfaces has to be controlled and realtime responses have to be provided.WORKING PRINCIPALInitially when we switched ON the system it will check for all drives are at home position. If it isso, then cycle starts. The job is clamped at desired position on the disc. Then stepper motorbelow the disc rotates in the 1200 angle. That is the stepper motor below the disc rotates fromLimit Switch LA to LB.When the job comes in the position i.e. when stepper motor rotate up to the Limit Switch LB itgives the signal to the controller at that time coil-20, coil-21,coil-40 and coil-41 becomes ON.Coil-20, coil-21 is becomes on for the forward movement of the and stepper motor and coil-40and coil-41 is used for the rapid movement of the stepper motor. The stepper motor startsmoving from Limit Switch LS3n to Limit Switch LS2n in a rapid movement.As soon as stepper motor reaches at the Limit Switch LS2n position, the actual job of the ACmotor starts (Drilling, Cutting). This time we are not required the rapid speed. So themicrocontroller will give the instruction to switch OFF the coil 40 and coil 41. By switchingOFF the Coil 40 and coil 41 the stepper motor stops its rapid movement.Motor will moves only in the forward direction for doing the required job. The distance requiredto do the job for a motor is called feed travel. When the motion of the motor comes up to theLimit Switch LS1 then AC motor stops, and coil 30 and coil 31 becomes ON which moves thestepper motor in the reverse direction. As the stepper motor reaches to the Limit Switch LS3, thecoil 30 and coil 31 switched OFF.CIRCUIT OPERATIONThe basic controller device is a 89v51 microcontroller. This is an 8-bit microcontroller. It hasfour input and output ports. This is sufficient for the operation of the system.When the system turns on switching on signal is given to the microcontroller stepper motor startsmoving in the forward direction from limit switch 1 to limit switch 2 until the rotating inductionmotor takes the required speed for the operation, from limit switch 2 to limit switch 3 requiredoperation is done as soon as stepper motor reaches up to limit switch 3 the required signal isgiven to the controller input the direction of the stepper motor changes. It starts rotating in thereverse direction.To drive the stepper motor1,2 the driver IC ULN 2003 is used but, the current and voltage ratingof this stepper motor is very high to drive the motor, Darlington pair of transistors are used toboost the voltage and current. According to the software installed in the microcontroller changes 131
  3. 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEforward and reverse direction of the motor. Here two driver circuits are required to drive the twostepper motor.To switch on the induction motor relay drives the ON/Off control for the motor. During thereverse operation of stepper motor1,2 i. e. when the stepper motor reaches at limit switch 3stepper motor starts moving in the reverse direction through the controller signals at the sametime the controller switch off the induction motor. Means during reverse direction of the steppermotor induction motor is at rest.As soon as stepper motor comes at the limit switch 1 the it gives the signal to the microprocessorand it gives signal to drive the stepper motor3 which is situated under the revolving disk. Thestepper motor moves by the 1200 angle. As the motor moves in the desired angle it stops rotatingstop signal given to the microcontroller.As stepper motor 3 stops rotating again stepper motor 1,2 starts moving in the forward directionand the cycle gets repeated. During the process of the moving the stepper motor in the backwardand forward direction the declamping and clamping of the job is done.STEEPER MOTORSpecification of Stepper MotorsType Torque Kg Voltage Current Weight in Kg. ø L cm Volts Ampere/Phase (Appro.) mm mmSTM 60 6, 12 1.5, 2.5 7.3 108 1651103General Specifications for MachineSr. Feature RemarkNo. 1 M/C Features 1) Mechanical structure - Heavy duty fabricated, stress relieved M/C base which ensures vibration free performance - LM Guide ways 2) Hydraulic power pack Std Assy 3) M/C Fixture stations Single station, separate for similar components if any 4) M/C Noise Minimum noise 5) Visual Indicators Tower lamp will be provided 6) Audio Indicators Optional : Buzzer will be provided after completion of job. 7) M/C Overall dimensions L×W×H = @ 1500 × 1400 × 1700 (in mm) 8) M/C Visualization Acrylic sheets on M/C doors and control panel will be provided 132
  4. 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMESr. Feature RemarkNo. 9) M/C Colour As per requirement 10) Counter for completed components Arrangement for counting of completed components 2 M/C Performance 1) Slide repeatability Within 20 µ (0.02 mm) 2) M/C Cycle time ----- (Tooling selection and Component geometry ) 3) Spindle rpm As applicable 4) Spindle drive By V- belt & pulley 3 Electric Controls 1) Motor REMI make, 2) Control Voltage 24 V D.C. 3) Electrical controlling elements --- 133
  5. 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME Components Data RAPID FEED D1 D2 R1 R2 TOTAL TRAVEL TRAVEL TRAVELMODEL K ROTOR P 1102718 252 157 126 78.5 173 124 49MODEL B ROTOR P 1102312 231 142 115.5 71 180.5 134.5 46NMC ROTOR P 1100413 215 132 107.5 66 185.5 142.5 43JEEP ROTOR - 1100819 290 199.5 145 99.75 151.75 105 46.75YE2 ROTOR P 1101512 231 153 115.5 76.5 175 134.5 40.5CULTUS ROTOR P 1101313 232 152 116 76 175.5 134 41.5MODEL E ROTOR PD 1933 235 152.5 117.5 76.25 175.25 132.5 42.75ISUZU AMB ROT P 1101918 256 163 128 81.5 170 122 48HM ISUZU AMB ROT PD 2197 256 163 128 81.5 170 122 48HM CONTESSA ROTOR 228 134 114 67 184.5 136 48.5 Settable parameters Vc = Cutting Speed ----m/min Vf.= Feed rate --- mm/rev Component= Tool home-Spindle dist.= 134
  6. 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMESlide Rapid rate.=Stepper Full Step/Half Step.Advantage1. Availability :- Embedded controller is easily and widely available in the market.Depending upon the requirement of the application one can select the required number of bitprocessor2. Simulation:- Can simulate easily.By using C- programming, VB, Assembly language programming3. Area required for the embedded controller card in the machine is very compact.Requirement of area for the application is very compact as compared with other controllers.4. On chip ADC is their so not needed to use external ADC. Analog signal is directlyconverted in to the digital form5. Flash Memory :- All microcontrollers are having the flash memory feature so that youcan easily change your program according to your requirement.6. High speed for Low programming overhead7. Simple interface8. Low cost for low-resolutions9. High speed for Low programming overhead10. High throughput: Several bitsare transmitted on one clock transitionDisadvantages1. Data and clock lines can be shared but each device requires a separate Chip Select2. signal, limiting the number of devices in limited I/O systems3. High cost for higher resolutions4. Not all microcontrollers have analog inputs/outputs built-in5. Complicates the circuit design when external ADC or DAC are needed.6. Short distance, few feet maximum.Applications1. Mainly it is used for the dedicated system that is it is used for the motion control of the motor.2. This system can be applicable for doing the cutting or drilling jobs by the requirement of theuserFuture Scope1. Can provide Manual mode2. As per the requirement of the use coolant will be provided3. Can be interrupted by the operator as per requirement 135
  7. 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEREFERENCESWeb Site ReferencesSTEPPER with MC68HC11.htmieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jspdefdeny.jsp.htmwww.bipom.comwww. Teknik.comwww.educypedia.comBook ReferencesEmbedded System - Raj KamalMicroprocessor and interfacing- Mazidi and mazidiMicrocontroller and Programming - A. H. DeshamukhKlein, William, “Circuit Measures Small CurrentsReferenced to High Voltage Rails”,Electronic Design, January 7, 2002. 136