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Train management system


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Train management system

  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 52 TRAIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Mr. Bhagya Parekh1 , Mr. Tushar Sawant2 , Mr. Naineel Shah3 , Mr. Rushabh Mehta4 1,3,4 B.E. Student (EXTC), D. J. Sanghvi College, Mumbai 2 M.E. Student (EXTC), D. J. Sanghvi College, Mumbai ABSTRACT The Mumbai Suburban train system, operating approx. 1457 trains & handling approx. 10 Lakh passengers daily, is a high density, high turn around complex network which demands extremely fast & efficient train control system. The manual control is slow, tedious, stressful and doesn't involve holistic operational management. The TMS on Churchgate-Virar section accomplishes Train Control & Information dissemination automatically. Train Management System project envisages “On Line” operation of the existing Train Indicators at various stations and also provision of Passenger information system in the form of Video Display Units at station entrances for indicating train running information to the commuters [1]. The train movement data is picked up from the stations through high-speed modems and fed to a centralized UNIX server, which commands the train movement and triggers the passenger information system. This has increased punctuality & efficiency of train operations, facilitated running more trains and enhanced passenger satisfaction. Keywords: 89S52, Reed Switch, EBISAT I. INTRODUCTION Earlier system of manual exchange of train movement information from to stations and to from control office did not provide much assistance to the Controller to take timely and optimum decision for train controlling in case of any unusual event that puts operations out of gear. Similarly, timely information to the Assistant station Master (ASM) was also not available for ensuring correct displays and announcements. To match high volume traffic of suburban section, there was need to provide ‘ON LINE’ information of train movements to the various Agencies e.g. Controller, ASM etc., who then can take timely and effective steps in case of disruption of the operation. Therefore, a need was felt for provision of Train Management System (TMS). Countdown in Minutes for minute to minute train arrival information to commuters and Automatic Announcements at stations from TMS Control centre is the main aim. The project aims to provide a computerized approach in place of manual one. The scope of the project extends to daily use of local trains for commutation[1]. Train Management System primarily provides for — INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), pp. 52-60 © IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) IJCET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 53 i) Automatic signal control. ii) Automatic train stopping system for rail safety. iii) ‘On line’ display of movements of all trains on video monitors located in control room. iv) Provision of video display units for train arrival information to commuters with countdown in minutes. v) Interfacing with the announcement system for facilitating auto announcements II. OBJECTIVE OF SYSTEM TMS system primarily provides for — 1. ‘ON LINE’ display of movements of all trains with Train Numbers/Rake Nos. on video monitors as well as over view indication panel, located in control room. 2. Interfacing with the train indicator boards at various stations for minute to minute train arrival information to commuters. 3. Provision of video display units for train running information to commuters with countdown in minutes [2]. 4. Interfacing with the announcement system for facilitating auto announcements, automatic recording and retrieval of train movements like Automatic time stamping of the train movements. 5. Generation of MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM reports and statistical data, 6. Compatibility of system for future expansion, to provide remote control operation of signaling interlocking system, providing additional workstations, public display system. III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE TMS is a computer-based system located in the control office, which collects signaling status information status of signals, points, track circuit etc. from the various station interlocking in real time basis. It also collects train identification information like train no., rake, name of crew and platform no. from the train originating station, where it is manually fed. The above information is processed automatically and display regarding various train movements together with status of signals, points, track circuits etc. made available on the controller’s video screen on selective station/section basis. Display information is also available on a big rear view MIMIC indication display located in front of the controller, covering the entire section of Western Railway[6]. Fig 1 TMS Architecture
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 54 Control office equipments shall mainly comprise of A. Master Controller The application servers and the associated unit forming the master control equipment shall be located in the equipment room of the control centre. It is the main processor and heart of train management system, controlling and supervising various activities of the entire system. To access data from all way side station interlocking through common communication link and display status of trains and signaling information. To furnish necessary information to rear video display panel for display of train movements with identification, track circuits, points & signals and alarms etc. The master controller is connected via optical fiber link with all the station signal interlocking through REMOTE TELEMETERING UNIT called EBISAT [7]. The information/status of track circuits, signals, points, route set etc. are transmitted from wayside stations to master controller. B. Operator Terminal Section Controllers are provided with multiple wide screen high-resolution graphic color video terminals with dedicated keyboards, mouse. From this video terminal, controller can see any station from Churchgate to Virar for display of live train movements. Train description can also be entered by the controller from the keyboard. Workstations have been provided with other controllers i.e. Chief Controller, Signal Controller etc. C. MIMIC Wall Type Display Panel For overview of live train movements, track layout, status of points, aspect of signals, level crossing gates etc, Rear Video Projection Screens of M/s BARCO, Belgium have been installed in the TMS Control Room. The real time train movements on the 11 M Rear View Projection Panel are assisting our traffic controllers in efficient management of intense suburban rail operations. Fig 2. MIMIC Wall Display Any yard layout changes occurring can be carried out with ease through software requiring no expensive and time-consuming hardware modifications. (fig.2.)
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 55 IV. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION DETAIL Fig 3 Block Diagram of the Station Controller Microcontroller 89S52 It is the heart of the system which controls its overall working. It polls the input signals from the reed switches placed on tracks[1]. These input signals status are checked and accordingly seven segment display, buzzer and IR transmitter are activated or deactivated. It scans the input and polls status of sensors and if any sensor is open for particular time fail safe system is implemented. It acts as power supply controller for engines by remotely controlling their motion via RF. MAX 232 Interface The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V, and can accept ±30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. Reed Switch The reed switch is an electrical switch operated by an applied magnetic field. It consists of a pair of contacts on ferrous metal reeds in a hermetically sealed glass envelope. The contacts may be normally open, closing when a magnetic field is present, or normally closed and opening when a magnetic field is applied. The reed relay is a type of relay, in which a reed switch is mounted inside a coil [4]. The reed switch contains two magnetisable and electrically conductive metal reeds which have end portions separated by a small gap when the switch is open. The reeds are hermetically sealed in opposite ends of a tubular glass envelope. It is placed in track. It is made active close by placing magnet close to it. A magnetic field causes the contacts to pull together, thus completing an electrical circuit. When engine fitted with magnet passes the reed switch the new magnetic field causes reed switch to go open giving an interrupt to microcontroller. RF Transmitter A 434 MHz ASK transmitter is used to transmit pulses to engine that decided engine’s speed using whip antenna to increase transmitting range.
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 56 NAND Gate Control Two NAND gates are employed to control the IR Transmitters for both track sections respectively. When control input to NAND gate is high, 35KHz pulses are delivered to IR transmitter enabling train to stop when it arrives in line of sight of IR transmitter. IR Transmitter consists array of four IR LEDs driven by transistor amplifier. V. SYSTEM WORKING The Western Railway consist of NODE Sub System- which has a Sun Ultra computer running Node software and other associated equipments like Serial Port Server, Digital Audio Switch , Hub and Router. All are connected with the Track circuit using optical fiber link. Every length of track in a signaled area is split up into logical sections called 'track sections' or ‘blocks’ . For example, on the western line, each track section is about 150m long. 'Absolute block' refers to a system where the track is considered to consist of a series of sections, such that when one train is occupying a section of track no other train is allowed to enter that section. This is the most widely used system for ordinary train routes. In this case, a signal is placed at the start of each track section to indicate whether the section ahead is 'occupied' or 'clear'. The signal will not allow a train to enter the section unless it is 'clear'. Another example is track section containing a set of points. About 1 to 5m of track going into and out of a set of points might be one track section. This section would therefore need to be 'clear' for the points to be changed[3]. For the state of the track sections (clear or occupied) to be used to prevent or allow signals and points to operate, the state must be detected electrically. This is done using 'track circuits'. The requirement of the track circuit is that an electrical relay (electrically controlled switch) be on if the track section is clear, or off if the section is occupied. This relay allows other electrical interlocking systems to 'know' whether that track section is occupied. To allow the relay to be turned on requires a power supply. Essentially, the circuit works by applying a voltage across the two rails in a track section. This voltage powers the relay. If a train enters the section, the wheels and axles make an electrical connection between the two rails and the voltage drops to near zero, turning off the relay. The relay will not turn on again until the last axle of the train has left the section regardless of the train length. Obviously, this system will only work when wooden sleepers are used, as metal sleepers would also make an electrical connection between the two rails, preventing the circuit from working. Fig 4 Track Circuit Then each section is separated from the next using isolating fish-plates. These are usually made of Nylon or Teflon. This is essential so that track detection for each section is separate from the next. While the track section is clear (no train), the two rails in the section are isolated from each other. The current from the supply runs through the resistor, along the rail called the positive rail, and to one side of the relay coil. The other side of the relay coil is connected to earth, completing the
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 57 circuit. Thus, when no train is on the track, the relay is turned on. When a train is in the section whether it be one axle or one hundred axles, the current flows from the power supply, through the resistor and to one end of the positive rail. From this point, the most conductive path to earth is through the axle(s) and to the earth rail. Negligible current flows through the relay and so the relay is turned off. The following diagram shows the two different current paths - one in green when the track section is clear, the other in red when the track section is occupied. Fig 5 Track Circuit Showing Current Path The purpose of the ballast resistor is to limit the amount of current flowing when the section is occupied. Without the resistor, the circuit becomes almost a dead short across the supply and the supply would fail. The resistor is usually a high power variable resistor. The reason we use variable resistors is so that the resistance can be set high enough to keep current flow low, but low enough to allow enough current for the relay to turn on. Each track section has its own ballast resistor and relay [4]. The power supply is used by more than one track circuit - the positive connects many ballast resistors and the negative connects to the continuous earth rail, and to each relay. VI. FLOWCHART OF THE SYSTEM Fig 6 Station Controller Flowchart
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 58 Fig 7 Station Controller Flowchart Cont Fig 8 Train Controller Flowchart
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 59 VII. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS The various states of the indicators in the GUI are as indicated above. An initialization run is carried out to ensure system synchronization. Once synchronized, the GUI indicates the location of the train in one of the six segments of the track. The corresponding indicator changes from red to green whenever the train passes over one of the six reed switches. Also the GUI signals are synchronized to switch simultaneously with the actual signals. Thus the GUI provides an overview of the entire train system. Moreover an emergency button is provided to switch off and restart the entire system in case of unexpected circumstances.
  9. 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 60 VIII. CONCLUSION The “TRAIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM” aims to automate operation of railway signaling and train monitoring. It shows two track sections of a line to demonstrate – Automatic Signaling, Automatic Train Stopping System, Announcement, Expected In Minutes, Train Monitoring on PC. The train movement control is achieved using wireless remote control. One more important feature is the ‘fail safe’ system and ‘centralized power control’ that enables emergency ‘Shut Down’ during danger or unavoidable circumstances. Thus the "TRAIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM "acts as a BRIDGE between railway system and customers. IX. FUTURE SCOPE We use wireless control for train movement. The current system uses wired medium to relay status of signals to monitoring unit. This can be made wireless by removing all the complexities of wiring as well as enabling the use of the wired medium for optimized communication purpose. The wireless system can also be efficiently used to control the speed of the trains. The flexibility of this project provides the scope to use the system in similar track-based systems like the metro. Also the entire system is automated requiring little or no human input. This would make it possible to implement a complete automated train system in the near future with the driver simply supervising the train’s movements. This would greatly increase the efficiency of the entire train system. The implementation of wireless TRAIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM can one day revolutionaries the Western Railways to Wireless Western Railways (WWR). X. REFERENCES [1]. Western Railway Train Management System manual. [2]. “A Train Control System in Model Based Real Time System Design” IEEE 2003. [3]. Indian Railways, India, Operating Manual, 1987 [4]. Indian Railways, India, Train Management System Document [5]. S. C. Saxena and S. P. Arora, 'A Textbook of Railway Engineering',2000 [6]. ERTMS/ETCS-Class 1.GSM-R Interfaces:Class 1 Requirements. Subset-093 V.2.3.0. [7]. Tianhua Xu, Shu Li and Tao Tang. Reliability Analysis of Data Communication Subsystem in Train Control System.Journal Of BEIJING JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY.31.NO.5,october, 2007. [8]. [9]. Kamlesh Kumar Singh, “Broadband Internet in Trains”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 519 - 530, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [10]. N. Sivakumar, Dr. P. Sivaraman, N. Tamilselvan and Dr. R. Sevukan, “Digital Content Management System: A Conceptual Framework”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 16 - 24, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.