Simulation, control and analysis of hts resistive and power electronic fcl

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Simulation, control and analysis of hts resistive and power electronic fcl

  1. 1. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME82SIMULATION, CONTROL AND ANALYSIS OF HTS RESISTIVE ANDPOWER ELECTRONIC FCL FOR FAULT CURRENT LIMITATIONAND VOLTAGE SAG MITIGATION IN ELECTRICAL NETWORKV Yuvaraj1, T Vasanth21Central Power Research Institute, India,2Jurong Shipyard, SingaporeABSTRACTLinear growth of Electrical energy demand in the world resulting in a consistentincrease in the short circuit level in electrical network, which effects in blackout. Usage ofrenewable energy to meet demand without proper synchronization will result in powerquality problems like voltage sag, swell etc. Power System engineers at utility side are facingchallenges of integrating new generation of power and renewable energy into existingelectrical network. The High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTSFCL)and Power Electronic Fault Current Limiter (PEFCL), offers a possible solution to theelectrical network. Power quality problems caused by short circuit and renewable energysources which has been simulated and analysed in this paper. The simulated results areanalysed for the effect of resistive HTSFCL in both single and three phase electrical networkperformance to reduce fault current level and PEFCL for both single and three phaseelectrical network recital for fault current and power quality and also the total harmonicdistortion (THD) is analysed during the fault with MATLAB Simulink.Keywords - Fault Current, HTSFCL, PEFCL, Power Quality, THD, Voltage Sag.I. INTRODUCTIONFault Current Limiters (FCL) designed with high temperature superconductors (HTS)have been explored since 1980’s but a cost, practical and reliable concept has remainedindefinable. There are many designs for FCLs, but the most widely explored have been thosebased on a resistive type and Inductive type. [1], [5]. Fault-current limiters using hightemperature superconductors offer a solution to controlling fault-current levels on utilityINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING& TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 82-94© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJEET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME83distribution and transmission networks. These fault-current limiters, unlike reactors or high-impedance transformers, will limit fault currents without adding impedance to the circuitduring normal operation. [2], [3]Classical current limiters (fuses, electronic power components like SCR, IGBT, etc.,)are available only for low voltages and their response time is limited by the detection time(<1 ms), the delay time (~1 ms) and the limiting time itself (~1 ms). For a high temperaturesuperconducting fault current limiter the limitation is effective in a sub millisecond timewithout detection or external command. [4]The most common is the resistive type: it is based on a high temperaturesuperconducting coil in series with the load and wound to minimize the inductance, offering alow voltage drop in un-faulted operation. Under short circuit conditions the current rises veryquickly up to the critical current. At this time a quench is induced and the normal resistanceof the superconducting cable limits the fault current to a low value, cut afterwards withoutany problem by a circuit breaker. This circuit-breaker must be very fast to reduce the heatdissipation into the superconducting coil. This device is simple and has proved its operation.[6], [7]The solid-state breakers are always embedded into two major useful categories in powersystem devices: i) solid-state transfer switch and ii) solid-state fault current limiter (SSFCL)or Power electronics Fault current limiter (PEFCL). Moreover, the high level of short circuitcurrent becomes the serious problem. It may be damage the electric devices or effect tomachines operation. A fault current let through reactor and a ZnO surge arrestor. It overcamethe limitation of both IGBT FCL and SCR Bridge FCL. [8]This paper was divided into 7 main sections. Section 2 gives the details about faultcurrent limiter. Section 3 explains the types of fault current limiters. Section 4 gives overviewof Power Quality Issues, Consequences and Standards. Section 5 figures out the simulationmodels of HTS FCL/ PEFCL. Section 6 and 7 shows simulation results of single and threephase models and conclusion.II. FAULT CURRENT LIMITERBefore technologies can be considered for the application of limiting a distributedgenerator’s fault current contribution, the operating conditions and requirements of such alimiter must first are established. [5]1. Fault-Current ProblemElectric power system designers often face fault-current problems when expandingexisting buses. Larger transformers result in higher fault-duty levels, forcing the replacementof existing bus work and switchgear not rated for the new fault duty.2. Role of fault current limiterAs mentioned earlier, the role of the FCL is to limit prospective fault current levels toa more manageable level without a significant impact on the distribution system. Consider asimple power system model, as shown in Fig. 1, consisting of a source with voltage Vs,internal impedance Zs, load Zload, and fault impedance Zfault.
  3. 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME84Fig 1. Power Circuit Without and With FCLIn steady state,I୪୧୬ୣ ൌ୚౩୞౩ା ୞ౢ౥౗ౚ(1)When a fault occurs in a system,I୤ୟ୳୪୲ ൌ୚౩୞౩ା ୞౜౗౫ౢ౪(2)Where, Z୤ୟ୳୪୲ << Z୪୭ୟୢSince the supply impedance is much smaller than the load impedance, Equation 2shows Zs that the short circuiting of the load will substantially increase the current flow.However, if a FCL is placed in series, as shown in the modified circuit, Equation 3 will holdtrue;I୤ୟ୳୪୲ ൌ୚౩୞౩ା୞ూిైା ୞౜౗౫ౢ౪(3)quation 3 tells that, with an insertion of a FCL, the fault current will now be afunction of not only the source Zs and fault impedance Zfault, but also the impedance of theFCL. Hence, for a given source voltage and increasing ZFCL will decrease the fault currentIfault.III. TYPES OF FAULT CURRENT LIMITERSThis section presents a brief review of the various kinds of FCL that has beenimplemented or proposed. FCL(s) can generally be categorized into three broad types:1) Passive limiters2) Power Electronic type limiters, and3) Hybrid limitersIn the past, many approaches to the FCL design have been conducted ranging from thevery simple to complex designs. A brief description of each category of limiter is givenbelow.
  4. 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME851. Passive limitersFault limiters that do not require an external trigger for activation are called passivelimiters. The current limiting task is achieved by the physics involved in the FCL itself. Thesimplest of all kinds of fault current limiter is the inductor. The current limiting strategy isachieved by inserting impedance. Since current cannot change instantaneously in an inductor,current is therefore limited at the moment of a fault. Fig. 2 shows an inductor in series withthe load and source.Resistive Type Inductive TypeFig 2. Passive LimitersSuperconductor materials lose their electrical resistance below certain critical valuesof temperature, magnetic field, and current density [6]. SFCL(s) work on the principle thatunder steady state, it allows for the load current to flow through it without appreciablevoltage drop across it. During a fault, an increase in the current leads to a temperature riseand a sharp increase in the impedance of the superconducting material. Below are a fewadvantages and disadvantages of using an SFCL:(1) Virtually no voltage drops in steady state.(2) Quick response times and effective current limiting, but(3) Superconducting coils can saturate and lead to harmonics.2. Power Electronic Type limitersRecent developments in power switching technology have made solid state limiterssuitable for voltage and power levels necessary for distribution system applications. PowerElectronics limiters use a combination of inductors, capacitors and Thyristor or IGBT toachieve fault limiting functionality. An example of a solid state limiter is shown in Fig. 3. Inthis type of limiter, a capacitor is placed in parallel with an inductor and a pair of Thyristor.[8] In steady state, the thyristors are turned off and all current flows through the capacitor.The placement of the capacitor is also useful by nature because it provides seriescompensation for the inductive transmission line. Hence, equation 4 holds true:Z୊େ୐ሺ୒୭୰୫ୟ୪ሻ ൌି୨ωେ(4)
  5. 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME86Fig. 3 PEFCL Fig 4. Hybrid LimiterHowever, when a fault occurs the thyristors are switched on, which forces most of thecurrent to flow through the inductor branch. The net FCL impedance seen by the circuit is asfollows.Z୊େ୐ሺ୊ୟ୳୪୲ሻ ൌ୨ω୐ଵିఠమ௅஼(5)Below are a few advantages and limitations of solid state limiters in general:-(1)Provide significant fault current limiting impedance.(2) Low steady state impedance as capacitors and inductors can be tuned for a particularfrequency to show virtually no impedance and voltage drops.(3) Harmonics introduced due to switching devices.(4) Voltage drop introduced during faults.3. Hybrid limitersAs the name implies, hybrid limiters use a combination of mechanical switches, solidstate FCL(s), superconducting and other technologies to create current mitigation. It is a well-known fact that circuit breakers and mechanical based switches suffer from delays in the fewcycles range. Power electronic switches are fast in response and can open during a zerovoltage crossing hence commutating the voltage across its contacts in a cycle. Fig. 4 showsthe circuit arrangement of Hybrid limiter device. [4]The reactance of the capacitor C1 and reactor L is about zero at nominal powerfrequencies. In steady state, the TVS (Triggered Vacuum Switch) and SW2 are in the offstate. SW2 is a quick permanent magnetism vacuum contactor with a 3-10ms closure delay,which prevents TVS from long-time arc erosion. When a fault occurs, a trigger signal is sentto both TVS and the contactor turning on the bypass capacitor C1. This creates a situationwhere the reactor L will limit the fault current immediately. The ZnO arrestor is used for overvoltage protection and capacitor C2 and switch SW1 is set-up as conventional seriescompensationIV. POWER QUALITY ISSUES, CONSEQUENCES AND STANDARDSPower distribution systems, ideally, should provide their customers with anuninterrupted flow of energy at smooth sinusoidal voltage at the contracted magnitude leveland frequency. A power voltage spike can damage valuable components. Power Quality
  6. 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME87problems encompass a wide range of disturbances such as voltage sags/swells, flicker,harmonics distortion, impulse transient, and interruptions. [9]1. Voltage SagVoltage sags can occur at any instant of time, with amplitudes ranging from 10 – 90%and a duration lasting for half a cycle to one minute. The voltage sag is due to start-up ofwind turbine and it causes a sudden reduction of voltage. It is the relative % voltage changedue to switching operation of wind turbine. The decrease of nominal voltage change is givenin Equation 6.=L nkPdPµ∆ (6)Where ∆݀ is relative voltage change, ܲ௡ is rated apparent power, ܲ௞ is short circuitapparent power, and ‫ܮ‬௨ is sudden voltage reduction factor. The acceptable voltage dipslimiting value is 3%.2. HarmonicsThe total harmonic distortion results due to the operation of power electronicconverters. The harmonic voltage and current should be limited to the acceptable level at thepoint of wind energy system connection to the network.V. SIMULATION MODELS OF HTS FCL/ PEFCLFig 5. Simulation ModelIn the simulation model we considered solar energy system for single phase networkand wind energy system for three phase network. Both renewable energy systems will createpower quality problems due to its variation in wind and solar radiation. Sometimes becauseof variation in source also creates some over voltage problems. Here in this paper weconsidered both HTS FCL and PEFCL. HTS FCL is only to minimize the short circuit faultcurrent in the transmission lines. PEFCL is used for both short circuit fault current and powerquality problems like voltage sag and harmonics. We are not considered voltage swell in thisbecause during fault condition voltage swell won’t occur. The simulation model of the systemis shown in Fig. 5.
  7. 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME88We simulated and analysed both HTS FCL and PEFCL based circuit. Comparing bothtypes HTS is reacts fast to limit fault current but quenching time is slow. In case of PEFCLaction is based on the control signal given to the Power Electronics switches but recoverytime is fast. PEFCL based system controls voltage sag and harmonics. Various results areanalysed and discussed in the results section below with before and after fault time.VI. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS1. Single Phase Model ResultsFig. 6 Output V/ I Without HTS FCL/PEFCLFig. 7 Output V/ I With HTS FCLFig. 8 Output V/ I With PEFCLA simple single phase 3.3Kv, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) withoutHigh Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTS FCL) or Power ElectronicFault Current Limiter (PEFCL) and creating fault at exactly 0.2sec has been simulated withMatlab Simulink and the result is shown in Fig. 6 above. From the result it is analysed that atexactly 0.2sec sudden increase in fault current from 200A to 2065A and sudden decrease inoutput voltage from 3.1Kv to 1Kv after creating fault in the electrical network.In the same single phase 3.3Kv, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) HighTemperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTS FCL) is connected and creating
  8. 8. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME89fault at exactly 0.2sec has been simulated with Matlab Simulink and the result is shown inFig. 7 above. From the result it is analysed that at exactly 0.2sec the fault current is reducedfrom 2065A to 380A after creating fault in the electrical network.Single phase 3.3Kv, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) Power ElectronicFault Current Limiter (PEFCL) is connected and creating fault at exactly 0.2sec has beensimulated with Matlab Simulink and the result is shown in Fig. 8 above. From the result it isanalysed that at exactly 0.2sec the fault current is reduced from 2065A to 150A and theoutput voltage is improved from 1Kv to 3Kv i.e., Voltage SAG mitigation has been doneafter creating fault in the electrical network.2. THD Analysis without and with FCLFig. 9 Output Voltage THD Value WithoutPEFCLFig. 10 Output Current THD Value WithoutPEFCLFig. 11 Output Voltage THD Value WithPEFCLFig.12 Output Current THD Value WithPEFCL
  9. 9. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME90Fig. 9 and 10 above shows the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) analysis of thesimple single phase 3.3Kv, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) without PowerElectronic Fault Current Limiter (PEFCL). The THD value of output Voltage and Currentduring fault period after analysis is given by 2.48% and 3.09% respectively.Fig. 11 and 12 above shows the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) analysis of thesimple single phase 3.3Kv, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) with PowerElectronic Fault Current Limiter (PEFCL). The THD value of output Voltage and Currentduring fault period after analysis is given by 0.25% and 0.99% respectively.3. Three Phase Model ResultsA simple three phase 415v, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) withoutHigh Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTS FCL) or Power ElectronicFault Current Limiter (PEFCL) and creating fault at exactly 0.1sec has been simulated withMatlab Simulink and the result is shown in Fig. 13 above. From the result it is analysed thatat exactly 0.1sec sudden increase in fault current from 200A to 1500KA and sudden decreasein output voltage from 340v to 165v after creating fault in the electrical network.Fig. 13 Output V/ I Without HTS FCL/PEFCLFig. 14 Output V/ I With HTS FCLFig. 15 Output V/ I With PEFCL
  10. 10. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME91In the same three phase 415v, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) HighTemperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTS FCL) is connected and creatingfault at exactly 0.1sec has been simulated with Matlab Simulink and the result is shown inFig. 14 above. From the result it is analysed that at exactly 0.1sec the fault current is reducedfrom 1500KA to 213A and the output voltage is improved little from 165v to 195v i.e.,Voltage SAG mitigation has not been done after creating fault in the electrical network.Three phase 415v, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) Power ElectronicFault Current Limiter (PEFCL) is connected and creating fault at exactly 0.1sec has beensimulated with Matlab Simulink and the result is shown in Fig. 15 above. From the result it isanalysed that at exactly 0.1sec the fault current is reduced from 1500KA to 1.7KA and theoutput voltage is improved from 165v to 336v i.e., Voltage SAG mitigation has been doneafter creating fault in the electrical network.4. THD Analysis without and with FCLFig. 16 above shows the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) analysis of the simplethree phase 415v, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) without Power ElectronicFault Current Limiter (PEFCL). The THD value of output Voltage during fault period afteranalysis is given by 1.81% respectively.Fig. 17 above shows the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) analysis of the simplethree phase 415v, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) with Power Electronic FaultCurrent Limiter (PEFCL). The THD value of output Voltage during fault period after analysisis given by 0.68% respectively.Fig. 16 Output Voltage THD Value WithoutPEFCLFig. 17 Output Voltage THD Value WithPEFCL
  11. 11. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME925. Single Phase Combine HTS+PEFCL Model ResultsFig. 18 Output V/ I With HTS+PEFCL Fig. 19 Output Current THD Value WithHTS+PEFCLBasic single phase 3.3Kv, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) with combinedHigh Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTS FCL) and Power ElectronicFault Current Limiter (PEFCL) and creating fault at exactly 0.2sec has been simulated withMatlab Simulink and the result is shown in Fig. 18 above. The output result is analysed bycreating fault at 0.2sec and the fault current is get reduced from 2065A to 143A in the electricalnetwork and sudden decrease in output voltage from 3.1Kv to 2.8Kv. This is better than singlecontroller.6. THD Analysis with HTS+PEFCLFig. 19 above shows the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) analysis of the basic single phase3.3Kv, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) with HTS+PEFCL. The THD value ofoutput Current during fault period after analysis is given by 1.87%. This is slightly higher thansingle controller.7. Three Phase Combine HTS+PEFCL Model ResultsFig. 20 Output V/ I With HTS+PEFCL Fig. 21 Output Current THD Value With HTS+PEFCL
  12. 12. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME93Three phase 415v, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) is connected withcombined High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTS FCL) and PowerElectronic Fault Current Limiter (PEFCL) and creating fault at exactly 0.2sec has beensimulated with Matlab Simulink and the result is shown in Fig. 20 above. From the result it isanalysed that at exactly 0.2sec the fault current is limited to 259A and the output voltage isimproved from 165v to 335v i.e., Voltage SAG mitigation has been done after creating faultin the power system network.8. THD Analysis with HTS+PEFCLFig. 21 above shows the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) analysis of the basic threephase 415v, 200A, 50Hz electrical network (not ideal case) with HTS+PEFCL. The THDvalue of output Current during fault period after analysis is given by 0.02%. This is betterthan single controller.VII. CONCLUSIONSIn this paper simple single phase and three phase, without and with High TemperatureSuperconducting Fault Current Limiter (HTSFCL), Power Electronic Fault Current Limiter(PEFCL) and combined HTS+PEFCL and creating fault at 0.2sec and 0.1sec has beensimulated using Matlab simulink. Output results of the simulation is analysed and the resultsshows that with HTS FCL optimizes only the fault current, but voltage sag mitigation cannotbe done because there is no power electronics devices present in the circuit. And thesimulated PEFCL output results also been analysed and it shows that it is capable ofoptimizing fault current as well as voltage sag mitigation. The combined HTS+PEFCL willlimit fault current as well as voltage sag compensation. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) isanalysed for both single phase and three phase electrical network during fault time and theresults are shown above. The voltage THD has been reduced from 2.48% to 0.23% for singlephase and for three phase voltage THD is reduced from 1.81% to 0.68%. For combinedHTS+PEFCL the THD analysis has been done for both single and three phase electricalnetwork. THD value for single phase electrical network is slightly higher than the singlecontroller i.e., 1.87%. But for three phase electrical network the THD value is much betterthan single controller i.e., 0.02%. From these results we suggest that the single PowerElectronic controller and combined HTS+PEFCL will give best control solution for both faultcurrent and voltage SAG mitigation. And also if power electronic switches are made withsuperconducting material will give more advance solutions for different electrical issues.REFERENCES[1] Swarn S. Kalsi, Member and Alex Malozemoff, Senior Member “HTS Fault CurrentLimiter Concept” Power Engineering Society General Meeting, IEEE 1426 - 1430Vol.2 (2004).[2] Superconducting Fault Current Limiters, Technology Watch 2009, EPRI, (2009).[3] E. Thuries, V. Pham, Y. Laumond, T. Verhaege, A. Fevrier, M. Collet, and M.Bekhaled, “Towards the superconducting fault current limiter,” IEEE Trans. PowerDel., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 801–808, (1991).
  13. 13. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME94[4] P. Tixador et al., ‘Hybrid superconducting a.c. fault current limiter principle andprevious studies’, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp 446-449(1992).[5] http://www.wtec.org/loyola/scpa/04_03.htm.[6] S. Kalsi and A. Malozemoff, ‘Resistive High Temperature Superconductor FaultCurrent Limiter’, the Power Delivery Applications of Superconductivity Task Force,New York, 23-24 (2003)[7] Fabio,T. and Stefano, Q.; “Reducing Voltage Sags through Fault CurrentLimitations”, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 16(1) (2001).[8] T. Kulworawanichpong, “Modeling and Simulation of a Solid-state Breaker forMedium-voltage Feeder Protection using MATLAB’s PowerSystem Blockset”, inProc. 2003 IEEE Bologna PowerTech Conference, pp. 30-35 (2003).[9] Yuvaraj, V., S. N. Deepa, AP Roger Rozario, and Madhusudan Kumar. "ImprovingGrid Power Quality with FACTS Device on Integration of Wind Energy System."In Modelling Symposium (AMS), 2011 Fifth Asia, pp. 157-162, IEEE, 2011[10] B. Korobeynikov, D. Ishcenko, and A. Iscchenko, "Solid-state fault current limiterfor medium voltage distribution systems," in Proc. 2003 IEEE Bologna PowerTechConference, pp. 1468-1473 (2003).[11] M. M. A. Salama, H. Temraz, A. Y. Chikhani, and M. A. Bayoumi, "Fault-currentlimiter with thyristor-controlled impedance," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,vol. 8, pp. 1518-1528, Jul (1993)[12] M. M. R. Ahmed, G. A. Putrus, and L. Ran, "Power quality improvement using asolid-state fault current limiter," in Proc. Transmission and Distribution Conferenceand Exhibition 2002: Asia Pacific. IEEE/PES, pp. 1059-1064 (2002)[13] Premanand.S, K.Vidya, D.Nivea and T.Geethapriya, “Improved Performance Of AsdUnder Voltage Sag Conditions” International Journal of Electrical Engineering &Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 46 - 52, ISSN Print : 0976-6545,ISSN Online: 0976-6553[14] Shubhangi Arbale and Rajesh M Holmukhe, “Monitoring and Analysis of ReliaibilityOf Electrical Distribution System Using Matlab – A Case Study” InternationalJournal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013,pp. 330 - 337, ISSN Print : 0976-6545,ISSN Online: 0976-6553

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