Self compacting mortars of binary and ternary cementitious blending


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Self compacting mortars of binary and ternary cementitious blending

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME369SELF COMPACTING MORTARS OF BINARY AND TERNARYCEMENTITIOUS BLENDING WITH METAKAOLIN AND FLYASH1N. Krishna Murthy, 2N. Aruna, 3A.V.Narasimha Rao,3I.V.Ramana Reddy,4M.Vijaya Sekhar Reddy(1Engineering Department, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa & Research Scholar,S.V.University, Tirupati, India)(2P.G.Student, Department of Civil Engineering, S.V.U.College of Engg. Tirupati, India)(3Professor Department of Civil Engineering, S.V.University. Tirupati, India)(4HOD, Department of Civil Engineering, SKIT, Srikalahasti, India)ABSTRACTThis paper reports an experimental investigation on the mortar phase test withmini slump cone for self compacting mortar (SCM). Self-compacting concrete has to fulfillcontradictory requirements of high flowing ability when it is being cast and high viscositywhen it is at rest, in order to prevent segregation and bleeding. These requirements make theuse of mineral and chemical admixtures essential for self-compacting concrete. The resultsof an experimental research carried out to investigate the effect of dosages ofsuperplasticizer. The optimization of aqueous solution of modified carboxylic superplasticizer (SP) cum retarder is a high range water reducing agent (HRWRA). The watercontent and the dosage of super plasticizer were determined experimentally for each mortar.Different percentages of cement replacement materials were used in binary and ternaryblends of cement with Metakaolin (MK), Fly ash (FA) and combination of Metakaolin andFly ash (MK+FA) replaced with cement. The SCM mixes had 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,25% and 30% of replacement of cement with Metakaolin, 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%of replacement with class F fly ash and combinations of both Metakaolin and fly ash withMK15+FA10), (MK10+FA20), (MK5+FA30), and (MK20+FA20) water/cementitiousratios by weight (w/cm) 0.32 , 0.36and 0.40. Mortar mixes with w/cm 0.36 showed anincrease in the rate of flow i.e., lower viscosity at each level of SP cum retarder dosage ascompared to that of mixes with w/cm 0.32 and 0.40. A series of mortars were producedINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 369-384© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCIET© IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME370with similar flow properties of spread measured by mini slump cone adequate to produceself-compacting concrete. It is also observed that the mortar mixes having w/cm 0.36 inorder to arrest the bleeding. Practically the mini slump cone test is the best choice for SCMtests to evaluate the mortar spread and its viscosity (T20). Moreover, the experimentalprogram leads to emphasize the effects of the mixing procedure on the rheologicalproperties of cement pastes.Keywords: Metakaolin, Fly ash, Mortar, Mini slump cone, self-compacting mortar, spreadtest.1 INTRODUCTIONStudies on mortar were made using binary and ternary blends of powder materials ofcement and two mineral additives such as Metakaolin, fly ash. The self compactingconcrete was first developed in Japan to improve the reliability and uniformity ofconcrete in 1988 (Okamura, 1999). However, to design a proper SCC mixture is not a simpletask. Various investigations have been carried out in order to obtain rational SCC mix-designmethods. The establishment of methods for the quantitative evaluation of the degree of self-compatibility is the key issue in establishing the mix design system (Noor et al. 1999).Okamura and Ozawa (Okamura, 1999) have proposed a simple mixture proportioningsystem. In this method, the coarse, fine aggregate contents, w/b and percentage of SP dosagekept constant so that self-compactibility can be achieved.Water/powder or Water/Cementitious ratio is usually accepted between 0.9 and 1.0 involume, depending on the properties of the powder (Noor et al. 1999, Sedran et al.1999). InSweden, Petersson and Billberg (1999) & Emborg( 1999) developed an alternativemethod for mix design including the criterion of blocking, void and paste volume as well asthe test results derived from paste rheology studies. Many other investigators have also dealtwith the mix-proportioning problems of SCC (Sedran et al.1999, Bui, Roshavelov,1999). Some design guidelines have been prepared from the acceptable test methods(EFNARC, 2002). Self compacting concrete is also made from the same basic constituentsas conventional concrete, but mix proportions for SCC differ from those of ordinaryconcrete. The Self compacting concrete contains more powder content, less coarseaggregates, high range water reducing superplasticizer (SP) in larger amounts and frequentlya viscosity modifying. The described project was concluded and confirms that the freshproperties defined for mortar phase are adequate to produce self-compacting concretes.However, the results presented in this paper represent only the first step of the projectconcerning the mortar phase of SCC. The use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) hasgrown tremendously since its inception in the 1980s. Different from a conventional concrete,SCC is characterized by its high flow- ability at the fresh state. Among the existing testmethods, slump flow test, using the traditional slump cone, is the most common testingmethod for flow ability (or filling ability). During the test, the final slump flow diameterand T50 (time needed for concrete to reach a spread diameter of 50 cm are recorded).The U-Box and L-Box were used for the evaluation of passing ability. These freshproperties are governed by the rheological properties of the material and some studies havebeen conducted in the lab to investigate the L-box test. Segregation resistance isanother important issue for SCC. Surface settlement test and the penetration test are the twomethods to evaluate the resistance to segregation of SCC in the field. The objective of this
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME371paper is to study a set of test method and performance based specifications for theworkability of structural SCC that can be used for casting highly restricted orcongested sections. Proven combinations of test methods to assess filling capacity andstability are proposed and should be of interest to engineers and contractors using SCC.The flow properties and the formulation is actually one of the key-issues for thedesign of self-compacting concretes (SCC). As an integral part of a SCC, self-compactingmortars (SCMs) may serve as a basis for the design of concrete since the measurement of therheological properties of SCCs is often impractical due to the need for complex equipment.This paper discusses the properties of SCMs with mineral admixtures.Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Metakaolin (MK), and fly ash (FA) were usedin binary (two-component) and ternary (three-component) cementitious blends. Within theframe work of this experimental study, a total of 15 SCMs were prepared having a differentwater-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32, 0.36 and 0.40 and total cementitious materials content maybe variable according to the mineral additives. Then, the fresh properties of the mortars weretested for mini-slump flow diameter, setting time, and viscosity. Test results have shown thatusing of FA and MK in the ternary blends improved the fresh properties and rheology of themixtures when compared to those containing binary blends of FA or MK.1.1 Tests on fresh mortarMortar tests are widely used to design and evaluate SCC. In fact, assessing theproperties of SCM is an integral part of SCC design . EFNARC 2002 (EuropeanFederation of National Trade Associations) is the only available standard which isdedicated to special construction chemicals and concrete systems. It describes various testsinvolved in mortar tests to determine the optimum w/cm and optimum dosage of SP cumretarder. The mini slump cone test to measure the relative slump of the mortar and mini V-funnel test to measure the rate of flow or viscosity of the mortar.In the present investigation, mini slump cone is used to measure the spread ofthe mortar as described in EFNARC 2002.Instead of mini V-funnel test, we have used T20from the mini slump cone test, as an indication of rate of flow or viscosity of the mortarspread as conducted .As T20 indicates the intended viscosity of mortar during this test, it is concludedthat it is the best replacement of mini V-funnel test. Practically, it is very much feasibleto have a single test apparatus to measure both spread and viscosity of mortar so thatrigorous mortar tests can be reduced.2.1. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMAccording to SCC mix design with the available materials. 0%, 5%,10% 15%,20%,25% and 30% of replacement of cement with Metakaolin, 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% ,and40% of replaced with class f fly ash and combinations of both Metakaolin and fly ash withMK15+FA10), (MK10+FA20), (MK5+FA30), and(MK20+FA20) water/cementations ratiosby weight (w/cm) 0.32 , 0.36 and 0.40. It is observed that for the same cementitiousproportions, the optimum dosage of SP cum retarder is the same for the mixes having w/cm0.32, 0.36 and 0.40.
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3722.2. MATERIAL PROPERTIESThis section will present the chemical and physical properties of the ingredients.Bureau of Indian Standards (IS) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)procedures were followed for determining the properties of the ingredients in thisinvestigation.2.2.1. CEMENTOrdinary Portland Cement 43 grade of Zuari brand was used corresponding to IS-8112(1989).The specific gravity of cement is ADDITIVE OR MINERAL ADMIXTUREMetakaolin manufactured from pure raw material to strict quality standards.Metakaolin is a high quality pozzolanic material, which blended with Portland cement inorder to improve the strength and durability of concrete and mortars. Metakaolin removeschemically reactive calcium hydroxide from the hardened cement paste. It reduces theporosity of hardened concrete. Metakaolin densified and reduces the thickness of theinterfacial zone, thus improving the adhesion between the hardened cement paste andparticles of sand or aggregate. Metakaolin procured from 20 Microns company Vadodara,Gujarat, India and Class F fly ash from Rayalaseema Thermal Power Plant (RTPP),Muddanur, A.P, India is used as additives according to ASTM C 618. As per IS-456(2000),cement is replaced by weight of material. The specific gravity of Metakaolin is 2.5 and flyash is CHEMICAL ADMIXTURESSika Viscocrete-10R3 as high permormance super plasticizer(HPSP)cum retarder.Asper the production data and technical data which is supplied by the Sika group. SikaViscocrete-10R3 is a third generation super plasticizer for concrete and mortar. It meets therequirements for super-plasticizers according SIA162 (1989) and as per EN934-2 .2.2.4. COARSE AGGREGATECrushed granite stones of size 16mm and 12.5mm are used as coarse aggregate. Asper IS: 2386 (Part III)-1963, the bulk specific gravity in oven dry condition and waterabsorption of the coarse aggregate are 2.66 and 0.3% respectively. The dry-rodded unitweight (DRUW) of the coarse aggregate with the coarse aggregate blending 60:40 (16mmand 12.5mm) as per IS: 2386 (Part III) 1963 is 1608 kg/m3.2.2.5. FINE AGGREGATENatural river sand is used as fine aggregate. As per IS: 2386 (Part III)-1963, the bulkspecific gravity in oven dry condition and water absorption of the sand are 2.6 and 1%respectively.2.2.6.WATERPotable water is used for mixing and curing of the SCC mixes
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME373Materials used in this investigation as given belowa) Metakaolin b) Fly ashc) Ordinary Portland cement d) Fine Aggregate(Sand)e) Coarse aggregate f) Coarse aggregate(12.5 mm graded) (16 mm graded)
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME374g) Sika viscocrete 10R-3 Super plasticizer cum retarder2.2.7 Properties of MetakaolinMetakaolin grades of Calcined clays are reactive allumina silicate pozzolanic formedby calcining very pure hydrous China clay. Chemically Metakaolin combines withCalcium Silicate and Calcium processed to remove uncreative impurities producing almost100 percent reactive material. The particle size of Metakaolin is significantly smaller thancement particles. IS: 456-2000 recommends use of Metakaolin as mineral admixture.Metakaolin is a thermally structure, ultrafine pozzolanic which replace industrial by -products such as silica fume / micro silica.Commercial use of Metakaolin has already in several countries worldwide.Metakaolin removes chemically reactive calcium hydraoxide from the hardened cementpaste. Metakaolin reduces the porosity of hardened concrete. Metakaolin densities reducesthe thickness of the interfacial zone, this improving the adhesion between the hardenedcement paste and particles of sand or aggregate.2.2.8. Optimization of super plasticizer cum retarderEmpirical tests, namely spread and flow time, are performed on the 15 cement pastesto characterise their rheological behaviour just after mixing. After careful examination oftests results of SCMs are considered for w/cm or w/b as 0.32, 0.36, 0.40 and dosage of superplasticizer with 0.8%,0.9% and 1.0%. Among these mix proportions it is considered thatw/cm 0.36 with 0.90% dosage of super plasticizer as an optimization for all the designedmixes of these investigations.2.2.9 Chemical AdmixturesSika Viscocrete 10R3 is a third generation Super Plasticizer cum retarder is used. Theproperties of the chemical admixtures as obtained from the manufacturer are presented inthe Table 14. Properties of Chemical Admixtures Confirming to EN 934-2 Table11.1/11.2and SIA162 (1989)
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3752.2.10 Uses, properties and application of Sika Viscocrete- 10R3Sika viscocrete -10R3 is third generation super plasticizer cum retarder for concreteand mortarThe following uses /characteristics of the Super Plasticizer cum retarder as per the technicaldata supplied by the Sika group of chemical company.Sika viscocrete -10R3 acts by different mechanisms. Through surface adsorption andsterical separation effect on the cement particles, in parallel to the hydration process thefollowing properties obtained1. Strong self compacting behaviour, therefore suitable for the production of self compactingconcrete(S.C.C)2. Extremely high water reduction (resulting in high density and strengths)3. Concrete with highest water reduction (up to 30 - 35%)4. High water reduction, excellent flowability, coupled with high early strengths, have apositive influence on the above mentioned applications5. High strength concrete with slump retention6. Excellent flowability (resulting in highly reduced placing and compacting efforts)7. Precast concrete (Segment, Girders, High strength concrete elements etc.) Selfcompacting concrete8. Improved shrinkage and creep behaviour9. Reduced rate of carbonation of the concrete10 It does not contain chloride or other steel corrosion promoting ingredients. It maytherefore be used without any restrictions for reinforced- and pre-stressed – concreteconstruction.Fig.2.2.a. Viscosity Vs Yield Stress Fig.2.2.b. Flow Diagram for SCC
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME376ChemicalAdmixtureSpecificGravityAppearance/Colour PhRelativeDensitySolidContent(%)Quantity(%)BycementitiousweightChemicalBaseSika Visocrete- 10R3HighPerformanceSuper-Plasticiser cumretarder(HRWRA)1.10Light brownliquid≈Above 6≈1.09kg/lit(at+30°c)40 0.6 - 2Aqueoussolution ofModified PolycarboxylateTable.13. SCC MIX DESIGNSeveral methods exist for the mix design of SCC. The general purpose mix designmethod was first developed by Okamura and Ozawa (1995). In this study, the keyproportions for the mixes are done by volume. The detailed steps for mix design aredescribed as follows:1. Assume air content as 2% (20 litres) of concrete volume.2. Determine the dry-rodded unit weight (DRUW) of coarse aggregate for a givencoarse aggregate blending.3. Using DRUW, calculate the coarse aggregate content by volume (28 – 35%) of mixvolume.4. Adopt fine aggregate volume of 40 to 50% of the mortar volume.5. Maintain paste volume of 388 litres /m3 of the concrete volume.6. Keep water/cementations ratio by weight (w/cm) as 0.36.7. Calculate the binder (cementations material) content by weight.8 . Replace cement with Metakaolin, fly ash and combinations of both by weight ofcementations material.9. Optimize the dosages of super plasticizer (SP) and viscosity modifying agent for thegiven w/cm (0.36) using mortar tests by mini slump cone test.10. Perform SCC tests
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME377SCC-Mini slump cone-Mortar spreadFig.3.1 Mini slump coneFig.3.2 Fig.3.3 Fig.3.4Fig.3.5 Fig.3.6
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME378Sl.NoDesignation ofMixDosage ofMK/FA/MK+FA(% by wt.)W/cm(or) W/bRatio%of SP=0.8 %of SP=0.9 %of SP=1.0Slump(mm)T20(sec.)Slump(mm)T20(sec.)Slump(mm)T20(sec.)1 SCC(Controlled Mix)00.32225 3.6 230 3.5 235 3.32 MK5 5 219 3.7 226 3.6 227 3.43 MK10 10 218 3.9 225 3.8 226 3.64 MK15 15 217 4 222 3.9 225 3.95 MK20 20 204 4.6 220 4.5 221 4.36 MK25 25 198 4.9 212 4.8 214 4.77 MK30 30 196 5.3 206 5.2 209 4.98 FA10 10 230 3.5 234 3.4 238 3.59 FA20 20 238 3.4 242 3.3 256 3.310FA30 30 254 3.7 260 3.2 272 311FA40 40 250 4.1 255 4.4 265 3.714MK15+FA10 25 228 3.8 232 3.4 236 3.213MK10+FA20 30 232 3.7 236 3.3 239 3.1512MK5+FA30 35 234 3.4 238 3.2 248 3.115MK20+FA20 40 230 4.4 235 5.2 238 5.5Table.2Sl.NoDesignation ofMixDosage ofMK/FA/MK+FA(% by wt.)W/cm(or)W/bRatio%of SP=0.8 %of SP=0.9 %of SP=1.0Slump(mm)T20(sec.)Slump(mm)T20(sec.)Slump(mm)T20(sec.)1 SCC(Controlled Mix)00.36243 3.2 256 3.1 256 3.32 MK5 5 226 3.3 248 3.2 245 3.43 MK10 10 227 3.4 242 3.3 240 3.54 MK15 15 225 3.5 238 3.3 236 3.65 MK20 20 223 4.2 234 3.7 232 3.86 MK25 25 216 4.3 228 4.2 229 4.27 MK30 30 214 4.7 222 5 220 5.28 FA10 10 246 3.3 262 3.1 260 3.29 FA20 20 266 3.2 268 3.15 265 3.610 FA30 30 284 3.15 292 3.1 290 3.811 FA40 40 272 3.6 286 3.4 280 4.414 MK15+FA10 25 245 3.1 258 3 255 3.9513 MK10+FA20 30 248 3 264 3 260 3.512 MK5+FA30 35 254 3 268 3 266 3.515 MK20+FA20 40 244 5.2 258 5 258 5.1
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME379Table.3Sl.NoDesignation ofMixDosage ofMK/FA/MK+FA(% byWt.)W/cm(or) W/bRatio%of SP=0.8 %of SP=0.9 %of SP=1.0Slump(mm)T20(sec.)Slump(mm)T20(sec.)Slump(mm)T20(sec.)1 SCC(Controlled Mix)00.40254 3.6 254 3.9 252 4.22 MK5 5 245 3.9 244 4.2 244 4.43 MK10 10 242 4.2 242 4.8 241 4.94 MK15 15 236 4.2 235 5.3 234 5.45 MK20 20 232 4.3 233 4.7 230 5.36 MK25 25 220 4.6 220 4.7 219 5.87 MK30 30 218 5.4 218 5.4 220 5.78 FA10 10 256 3.5 264 4.8 262 5.29 FA20 20 266 3.8 265 4.4 263 5.410 FA30 30 287 4.3 286 4.4 282 5.611 FA40 40 285 4.2 290 5.5 290 614 MK15+FA10 25 252 3.6 262 4.2 268 4.613 MK10+FA20 30 258 3.9 258 4.4 257 4.912 MK5+FA30 35 264 4.2 262 4.6 262 4.615 MK20+FA20 40 256 5.2 259 6.3 256 6.5Table.44. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS4.1 Effect of SP cum retarder and T20The influence of Metakaolin used as partial replacement of cement on behaviorof cement based suspense–rheological properties of fresh mix and strengthcharacteristics of cement . Knowledge found by research of modified cement pasteimply behavior of fresh and hardened concrete. On the basis of experimental investigationsit can be concluded that the influence of SP cum retarder on mortar spread and T20(viscosity) is shown in Table1,2 and3. It is observed that as the SP cum retarder dosageincreases, the spread of mortar increases and T20 decreases. Spread reaches the maximumvalue and T20 reduces to the minimum at a specific SP dosage. This point is referred assaturation point. Beyond this saturation point, adding SP cum retarder causes decrease inmortar spread and increase in T20. Adding even more SP leads to segregation of mortar.So, it is practically seen that before reaching the saturation point, the addition of SPincreases the spread and decreases T20. After the saturation point, the addition of SPleads to decrease in the spread and increase in T20.For the mix, maximum spread was arrived at 0.9% SP dosage with W/cmratio 0.36 as shown in Table .2. So, it is the optimum dosage of SP for the entireexperimental investigations for the 15 types mixes. Higher amount of superplasticizerincreases workability of fresh mix. The Metakaolin dosage increases the correspondingworkability will be reduced up to 20% beyond this it is observed that the spread willabruptly changes. Dosage of 20% of Metakaolin causes decrease of workability ofsuspension in time. Increasing amount of percentual proportion of metakaolin in
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME380c onc re t e mix seems to require higher dosage of superplasticizer to ensure longerperiod of workability. Addition of metakaolin increases also final strength of cement.Compressive strength was growing with higher dosage of additive.Since the amount of 20% metakaolin results in loss of viscosity in time, itseems appropriate to use dosage of 15% by volume of cement. Spread measurement(mini cone) is carried out by using a mini cone (diameters: 100mm and 70mm, height: 60mm). The truncated cone mould is placed and filled with paste and lifted. The resulting finaldiameter of the fresh paste sample is the mean value of two measurements made in twoperpendicular directions (Fig. 3.1-3.6).In case of Fly ash dosage increases the corresponding spread flow is also increasesup to FA30% beyond this dosage it is observerd the bleeding will takes place and spread isalso changes. So, that the dosage of Fly ash may be recommended up to 30%. In the otherhand the combination of MK and FA have been considered the mixes such as MK dosagescan be considered 15% . Addition of Metakaolin decreases workability of SCM . Thisdisadvantage can be reduced by superplasticizers. However, rheological properties of freshconcrete mix depend on the type of superplasticizer. In this experimental study aquoussolution of modified polycarboxylate based a third generation high range water reducersuperplasticizer cum retarder has better influence on workability thanpolynaphthalene/melamine sulfonates. Worse workability of concrete mix caused bymetakaolin can also be adjusted by addition of fly ash.Content of metakaolindecreases permeability and rate of penetration of damaging ions because of refinementof structure of pores of cement stone.Increases and decreases the FA dosages are decreased manner due the synergiceffect because of the both the dosages increases the replacement levels will be increased as aresult the powder content will be increased and it will be adverse effect on the freshproperties . Hence it is concluded that the spread properties of SCMs, MK15+FA10,MK10+FA20 and MK5+FA30 can be considered for hardened properties.4.2 Consistence retentionAs it can be seen from Tables 1, 2 and 3, all these three mixes attained goodconsistence retention in the spread and T20 after adding water. So, it can be stated that theused chemical admixtures had good compatibility with the cement and mineral admixture.Metakaolin is white, amorphous, highly reactive aluminium silicate pozzolan formingstabile hydrates after mixing with lime stone in water and providing mortar withhydraulic properties. Heating up of clay with kaolinite Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O as thebasic mineral component to the temperature of 500 °C - 600 °C causes loss of structuralwater with the result of deformation of crystalline structure of kaolinite andformation of an unhydrated reactive form so called metakaolinite.4.3. Action of Metakaolin in MortarMetakaolin is usually added in this investigation for optimization dosage to mortarin amount of 5 – 30% by weight of cement. Addition of metakaolin causes increase ofmechanical strength, enhancement of long- term strengths, decrease of permeability,porosity, reduction of efflorescence, increase of resisoluble chemicals like sulphates,chlorides and acids.Addition of Metakaolin decreases workability of SCM .
  13. 13. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME381This disadvantage can be reduced by superplasticizers. However, rheologicalproperties of fresh concrete mix depend on the type of super plasticizer. Worse workabilityof concrete mix caused by metakaolin can also be adjusted by addition of fly ash.Dosage of Metakaolin decreases permeability and rate of penetration of damagingions because of refinement of structure of pores of cement stone. Addition of Metakaolinas partial replacement of cement contributes to higher compactness of arrangement ofconcrete components, which increases flow ability of mastic cement, enhances mechanicalbond and improves adhesion between cement paste and aggregate.4.4. Action of Fly ash in mortarDosage of Fly ash increases the workability is also increases due the synergic effectbecause of the both the dosages increases the replacement levels will be increased as a resultthe powder content will be increased up to 30% beyond this it will be adverse effect onfresh properties as per table .2 and. Hence it is concluded that the spread properties of SCMcan be considered up to FA30% for hardened properties.5. CONCLUSIONSThe following conclusions can be drawn based on the results of this experimentalinvestigation for the mortar mixtures and procedures used:1. Incorporation of MK as partial replacement of cement in to OPC pastes causessubstantiates changes in the chemical composition of the pore solution phase of thehydrated material.2. There are 15 types of mix designs has been attempted on Self Compacting Mortarssuch as Controlled SCC (0% replacement of OPC) as a Controlled mix , MK -5%,MK-10%,MK-15%, MK-20%, MK-25% and MK-30%, FA-10% ,FA20%, FA30%,FA40% and combination with MK15%+FA10% , MK10%+FA20%, MK5%+FA30%and MK20%+FA20% are performed .3. Based on the test results according to the EFNARC 2002 guidelines and itsspecifications can be taken up for the further studies of fresh properties, hardenedproperties and durability studies.4. When Metakaolin which has a lower loss on ignition value compared to OPC so , it isused as partially replacement of OPC, It resistance to water permeability issubstantially improved. This is due to the fact that MK is finer than OPC and producingof an additional calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel, blocking existing pores andaltering pore structures.5. Metakaolin helps in enhancing the early age mechanical properties as well as long-termproperties of cement paste/mortar/concrete. Partial replacement of cement with MKreduces the water penetration into concrete by capillary action.6. When increases the fly ash replacements increases its spread. It increases up to 30%beyond this it will be adverse effect on spread flow. The increase is primarily due tothe high surface area of the fly-ash. Fresh concrete containing fly-ash is more cohesiveand less prone to segregation. As the fly-ash content increased, the mortar may appearto become sticky.
  14. 14. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3827. Concrete containing fly-ash normally does not segregate appreciably because ofthe fineness of the fly-ash and the use of HRWRA.Concrete containing fly-ash showssignificantly reduced bleeding. This effect is primarily by the high surface area of thefly-ash to be wetted, there is very little water left in the mixture for bleeding.8. The colors of the fresh and hardened concretes containing fly-ash are generallydarker than the conventional concrete. Statistical experimental design can be used tosystematically investigate the selected range of combination of ingredients for thedesired characteristics.9. The combination of MK and FA can be fixed based on the synergic effect of mineraladditives such as MK content, it seems appropriate to use dosage of 15% byvolume of cement and decreases and FA content is increasing manner due to as per ISspecifications should not exceed 35 % of powder and also as per the EFNARCguidelines for mortar tests .So, that the mixes has been taken up to( MK15+FA10 ,MK10+FA20,MK5+FA30 and MK20+FA20).10. As per the experimental investigations it is concluded that the flow properties ,viscosity andthe optimization of super plasticizer dosage as 0.9% with w/cm ratio as 0.36 for all themixes.11. As the results obtained in table .2 the mixes have been considered the Mix designs areMK5to MK 30% , FA 10 to FA40% and Combinations of ( MK15+FA10 ,MK10+FA20,MK5+FA30 and MK20+FA20) with Controlled SCC (0% of OPC)mix for further studies such as fresh properties hardened properties and durabilitystudies.MK20+FA20 may be economic but it decreses the flow spread flow.12. There is a good synergic effect between MK and FA on the mechanical and transportproperties of SCC . According to the results obtained controlled concrete showshigher slump flow and other mixes are continuously decreases its slump spread in mmdue to effect of additive of Metakaolin. In other hand initial time taken for spread india . It is observed that when the spread decreases time will be increases based on themineral additive.REFERENCES[1]. Kasemchaisiri R, Tangermsirikul S. Deformability prediction model forself- compacting concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research, No. 60, 2(2008) 93108.[2]. RILEM TC 174 SCC. Self compacting concrete State-of-the-art report ofRILEM technical committe 174-SCC. Skarendahl A, Petersson O.: editors, RILEMPublications S.A.R.L., France, 2000.[3]. Sonebi M, Bartos PJM. Self compacting concrete: Task 4- Properties ofHhardened Concrete, 2000.[4] DOMONE, P.,” Mix Design”, in Self-Compacting Concrete: State-of-the- Art Reportof RILEM Technical Committee 174- SCC, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L., ISBN:2-912143-23-3, 2000, p. 49-65.[5] Newman J, Choo BS. Advanced Concrete Technology Concrete Properties.Elsevier
  15. 15. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME383[6] Jin J, Domone PLJ. Relationships between the fresh properties of SCC and itsmortar component. The 1st North American Conference on the Design and Useof Self- Consolidating Concrete. Skarendahl A, Editor, Chicago, USA, 2002, pp.3338.Butterworth Heinemann, 2003.[7] NAWA, T. ; IZUMI, T. ; EDAMATSU, Y., “State-of-the-art Report on Materialsand Design of Self-Compacting Concrete”, in International Workshop on Self-Compacting Concrete, Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Japan, August, 1998, p. 160-190.[8] OKAMURA, H.; OZAWA, K.; OUCHI, M., “Self-Compacting Concrete”, inStructural Concrete: Journal of the fib, vol.1, No. 1, Thomas Telford Ltd, March2000, p. 3-17.[9] OUCHI, M.; HIBINO, M.; OZAWA, K.; OKAMURA, H., “A Rational Mix-DesignMethod for Mortar in Self- Compacting Concrete”, in Proceedings of the SixthEast-Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering & Construction, Taipei,Taiwan, 1998, p. 1307-1312[11] SEDRAN, T.; LARRARD, F., “Optimization of Self-Compacting Concrete Thanks toPacking Model”, in Proc. of the 1st Intern. RILEM Symposium on SCC, Sweden,ISBN: 2-912143-09-8, Sept. 1999, p. 321-332.[12] Khayat KH. Viscosity-enhancing admixtures for cement-based materials -An overview. Cement and Concrete Composites, No. 20, 2-3(1998) 17188.[13]. Bureau of Indian Standards. Plain and reinforced concrete code for practice, IS-456, 2000, New Delhi, India.[14]. Bureau of Indian Standards. Specification for coarse and fine aggregates fromnatural sources forconcrete, IS-383, 1970, New Delhi, India.[15]. Okamura H, Maekawa K, Ozawa K. High Performance Concrete. Giho-doPress, Tokyo, 1993.[16]. Nepomuceno M, Oliveira L. Parameters for self-compacting concrete mortarphase. High Concrete Structures and Materials, SP253-21(2008) 32340.[17]. Hanehara S, Yamada K. Interaction between cement and chemical admixture fromthe point of cement hydration, absorption behaviour of admixture, and pasterheology. Cement and Concrete Research, No. 29, 8(1999) 115965.[18] PETERSSON, O.; BILLBERG, P., “Investigation on Blocking of Self-Compacting Concrete with Different Maximum Aggregate Size and Use of ViscosityAgent Instead of Filler”, in Proceedings of the 1st International RILEM Symposiumon SCC, Sweden, Sept. 1999, p. 333-344.[19] PETERSSON, O.; BILLBERG, P; BUI, V. K., “A Model for Self- CompactingConcrete”, in Proc. of RILEM Intern. Conf. on Production Methods and Workabilityof Fresh Concrete, Paisley, June 1996, Ed. Bartos PJM, Marrs DL, and Cleland DJ,E&FN Spon; London, p 484-492.[20] Pedersen B, Smelpass S. The relationship between the rheological properties ofSCC and the corresponding matrix phase. Wallevik OH, Nielsson I, RILEMPublications S.A.R.L., Bagneux, France, 2003, pp. 106121.[21] TANGTERMSIRIKUL, S.; BUI, V. K., “Blocking Criteria for Aggregate Phase ofSelf-Compacting High Performance Concrete”, in Proceedings of RegionalSymposium on Infrastructure Development in Civil Thailand Engineering,December, 1995, Bangkok, p. 58-69.
  16. 16. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME384[22] BUI, V. K.; MONTGOMERY, D., “Mixture Proportioning Method for Self-Compacting High Performance Concrete with Minimum Paste Volume”, inProceedings of the 1st International RILEM Symposium on SCC, Sweden, ISBN: 2-912143-09-8, Sept. 1999, p. 373-384.[23] NEPOMUCENO, Miguel, “Methodology for self-compacting concrete mix-design”, in PhD thesis, Covilhã, UBI, Portugal, March, 2006.[24] DOMONE, P.L.J.; JIN, J.z “Properties of Mortar for Self-compacting Concrete”,in Proceedings of the 1st International RILEM Symposium on SCC, Sweden,ISBN: 2-912143-09-8, Sept. 1999, p. 109-120[25] P.A. Ganeshwaran, Suji and S. Deepashri, “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties ofSelf Compacting Concrete with Manufactured Sand And Fly Ash”, InternationalJournal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp.60 - 69, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.[26] P.S.Joanna, Jessy Rooby, Angeline Prabhavathy, R.Preetha and C.Sivathanu Pillai,“Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams with 50 Percentage Fly Ash”,International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4,Issue 2, 2013, pp. 36 - 48, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.[27] Aravindkumar.B.Harwalkar and Dr.S.S.Awanti, “Fatigue Behavior of High VolumeFly Ash Concrete Under Constant Amplitude and Compound Loading”, InternationalJournal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012,pp. 404 - 414, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.