Printed rectangular monopole antenna with e shaped notch

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Printed rectangular monopole antenna with e shaped notch

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 206 PRINTED RECTANGULAR MONOPOLE ANTENNA WITH E SHAPED NOTCH Naveen S. M1 , Vani R. M2 , Hunagund P. V1 1 Dept. of Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585 106, India. 2 University Science Instrumentation Centre, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585 106, India. ABSTRACT This paper presents a planar microstrip fed monopole antenna for UWB wireless communications. The impedance bandwidth of 3.01 to 15 GHz is obtained by embedding E-shaped notch at the right side of the radiating patch and inserting a stub at the lower left side of the radiating patch. Design and simulation for the antenna dimensional parameters using Mentor Graphics IE3D simulation software is made and measured using Vector Network Analyzer. The proposed antenna has a small size of 26mmX16mm with good radiation characteristics to satisfy the requirements of wireless communications systems. I. INTRODUCTION Currently, there is an increased interest in ultra-wideband (UWB) technology for use in several present and future applications. UWB technology received a major boost especially in 2002 since the US Federal Communication Commission (FCC) permitted the authorization of using the unlicensed frequency band starting from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. for commercial communication applications. Although existing third-generation (3G) communication technology can provide us with many wide services such as fast internet access, video telephony, enhanced video/music download as well as digital voice services, UWB as a new technology is very promising for many reasons [1]. From mobile telephones to wireless internet access to networked appliances and peripherals, there is an increasing reliance on wireless communications to provide functionality for products and services. Therefore, the technologies for wireless communications always need further improvement to satisfy higher resolution and data requirements. That is why ultra wideband (UWB) communications systems covering 3.1GHz to 10.6GHz released by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2002 are currently under development [2]. There is always increasing demand for small size, and greater capacities and transmission speeds. This will certainly require more operating bandwidth in the near future. [3]. A suitable UWB antenna is supposed to fulfill many INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August, 2013, pp. 206-213 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 207 requirements such as small size, omnidirectional radiation patterns. As a succeeded candidate for UWB antennas, printed monopole UWB antenna technology has attracted both academia and industrial’s great attention [4, 5]. In this paper, a microstrip fed monopole antenna with an E-shaped notch is studied. To achieve good impedance matching stub is inserted at lower left side of the radiating patch. Details of this proposed antenna with both simulated and measured results will be presented and discussed. II. ANTENNA DESIGN In this article, a microstrip patch structure which has UWB characteristics is proposed. The proposed antenna has been modified based on the idea which is presented in ref.5. The antenna covers UWB and is smaller than the antenna size which is presented in ref.5. The geometry of the antenna with E-shaped notch at the right side, square stub at the lower left side of the radiating patch and L-shaped notches at the corners of the patch with 50 microstrip line is shown in fig 1(e). Fig 1(a) Antenna with rectangular patch Fig 1(b) Antenna with 4-steps on the patch & 1 step on ground plane Fig 1(c) Antenna with 4-steps on the Fig 1(d) Antenna with E-shaped notch at patch & 2-steps on ground plane the right side of the radiating patch
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 208 Fig 1(e) Optimized proposed antenna The glass epoxy substrate having h=1.6mm thick with permittivity εr=4.4 is used. The geometry of the antenna having substrate length Lsub=26mm and width Wsub=16mm is designed. The length of the radiating patch Lp=17.5mm and width Wp=12mm is fed by a microstrip line of width Wf=2mm and length Lf=6mm. The height of the feed gap between main patch and the ground (g) is also an important parameter to control the impedance bandwidth & it is 2mm. The ground plane size is LgXWg=4X16mm. The ground plane also plays an important role in the broadband characteristics of this antenna, because it helps to match the patch with feed line in a wide range of frequencies. The notch in the ground plane creates a capacitive load that neutralizes the inductive nature of the patch to produce nearly pure resistive input impedance. By selecting the optimal parameters mentioned in table1, the proposed antenna can be tuned to operate within the UWB band. To design the UWB antenna, we have applied three techniques to the proposed antenna. The use of i) steps on the patch and ground plane, ii) square stub on the radiating patch, iii) E-shape notch at the right side of the radiating patch. Table 1. Dimensions of the antenna are in mm Lsub Wsub Lp Wp Lf Wf Lg Wg a 26 16 17.5 12 6 2 4 16 3 b c d e f g h i - 1 1 1 0.5 0.5 2 1 1 - III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this section, design procedure of the proposed monopole antenna with simulated return loss curves in presented. Note that the simulated return loss results are obtained by using the IE3D software. Initially, the effect of inserting L-shaped notches (steps) in the ground plane and on the radiating patch is studied. Fig.1(a,b,c) shows the structure of three antennas with modifications on the ground plane and radiating patch. The return loss characteristics of all designs, namely with step shaped notches on radiating patch and ground plane, with stubs are compared to understand the function of the notch in the design. The simulated results are plotted in figure 2 (a) to 2 (c). From the simulation results in fig. 2(a), it can be seen that the impedance bandwidth for the patch is varied from 3.05GHz to 7.13GHz by varying steps from 1 to 3 on radiating patch. But with 4 steps on radiating patch and one step on ground plane i.e., RpXGp=4stpX1stp, the bandwidth is obtained from 3.039GHz to 14GHz with a band notch from 7.56 GHz to 8.05GHz. The data is shown in & table 2.
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 209 To improve the bandwidth & to remove band notch, we varied steps on the ground plane as shown in fig 1(c) and return loss characteristics are shown in fig2 (b) & table 3. In this it is observed that the bandwidth is from 3.05GHz to 14GHz with 4 steps on patch and 2 steps on the ground plane i.e., RpXGp=4stpX2stp. To further reduce lower frequency and to enhance the impedance bandwidth we added E- shaped notch [fig. 1(d)] & square stub [fig1 (e)] and the study has been made. It is observed that, by inserting E-notch and square stub the simulated results gives the frequency range from 3.01GHz to 14GHz, which decreases the lower frequency and increases the bandwidth. Finally this optimized antenna shown in fig 1(e) is fabricated and measured using a German made Rohde & Schwarz Vector Network Analyzer. The measured and simulated return loss characteristics are shown in fig.4. From the results it is observed that the measured value is from 2.98 to 15.5 GHz and it is shown in table 4. Table 2. Bandwidth results for one step in ground plane RpXGp fL (GHz) fH (GHz) Bandwidth (GHz) 1stpX1stp 3.13 6.28 3.15 2stpX1stp 3.07 6.71 3.63 3stpX1stp 3.05 7.13 4.07 4stpX1stp fL1=3.03 fL2=8.05 fH1=7.56 fH2=14 BW1=4.29 BW2=5.95 Table 3. Bandwidth results for two steps in the ground plane RpXGp fL (GHz) fH (GHz) Bandwidth (GHz) 1stpX2stp 3.11 6.35 3.23 2stpX2stp 3.07 6.81 3.73 3stpX2stp 3.05 8.3 7.34 14 4.28 5.7 4stpX2stp 3.05 14 10.95 Fig 2(a). Simulated Return-loss characteristics Table 4. Results of proposed antenna Antenna results fL (GHz) fH (GHz) Bandwidth (GHz) Simulated 3.01 14 10.99 Measured 2.98 15.5 12.52
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 210 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 - 4 0 - 3 0 - 2 0 - 1 0 ReturnLoss(dB) F r e q u e n c y ( G H z ) W i t h E n o t c h W i t h E n o t c h & s q u a r e s t u b Fig 2(b). Simulated Return-loss characteristics Fig 3. Return loss characteristics with E-notch & square stub 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 - 4 0 - 3 5 - 3 0 - 2 5 - 2 0 - 1 5 - 1 0 - 5 ReturnLoss(dB) F r e q u e n c y ( G H z ) S im u l a te d M e a s u r e d Fig 4. Return Loss characteristics of proposed antenna
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 211 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -E plane 3.1GHz -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 -E plane 10.6GHz The simulated and measured radiation patterns in the E-plane and H-plane for 3.1GHz, 5.8GHz, & 10.6GHz are depicted in fig 5(a), 5(b) & 6(a), 6(b). The results shows that the elevation patterns are bidirectional and azimuthal radiation patterns are nearly omnidirectional. Also it is observed that the measured and simulated radiation patterns are in close agreement. Fig 5(a). Simulated Elevation radiation patterns Fig 6(a). Measured E-plane radiation patterns Fig 5(b). Simulated azimuthal radiation patterns
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 212 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 -H plane 3.1GHz Fig 6(b). Measured H-plane radiation patterns The current distribution of the antenna is studied & it is shown in fig 7. This show current is concentrated more at the corners of the antenna, feedline and around the notches of the antenna. Fig 7. Current distribution of the antenna IV. CONCLUSION A printed rectangular monopole antenna with E-shaped notch is studied. This gives wide band frequency ranging from 2.98 GHz to 15.5 GHz. This antenna has compact size and gives bidirectional radiation pattern in E-plane and nearly omnidirectional radiation pattern in the H-plane over the UWB spectrum. This antenna has advantages in ultra wide bandwidth, compact in size, low cost and easy fabrication which is suitable for UWB communication systems. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors acknowledge their thanks to UGC, New Delhi for sanctioning the IE3D software under Major Research Project, which is most useful and reliable for designing microstrip antennas and DST, New Delhi for sanctioning Vector Network Analyzer for measuring the fabricated antenna.
  8. 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 213 REFERENCES 1) Osama Haraz and Abdel-Razik Sebak, “UWB Antennas for Wireless Applications” Advancement in Microstrip Antennas with Recent Applications. 2) FCC, “First report and order on ultra wideband technology”, Tech. Rep., 2002. 3) A.A. Eldek, “Numerical analysis of a small ultra wideband microstrip-fed tap monopole antenna”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER, 65, 59-69,2006. 4) Liang Xu*, Bin Yuan, and Shuang He, DESIGN OF NOVEL UWB SLOT ANTENNA FOR BLUETOOTH AND UWB APPLICATIONS, Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 37, 211-221, 2013. 5) M. Akbari, M. Koohestani, Ch. Ghobadi, J. Nourinia, “A New compact Planar UWB Monopole Antenna”, Wiley Online Library, 1 March 2011. 6) M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas for Quad-Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 165 - 171, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 7) Suman Sushant, Sachin Agarwal and Tanushree Bose Roy, “Enhancement in Frequency Band of Printed Rectangular Monopole Antenna by Pushing-Up Feed Technique”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 239 - 242, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 8) M. Veereshappa and S. N. Mulgi, “Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas for Triple-Band Operation and Virtual Size Reduction”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 176 - 182, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 9) G.A.Bidkar, P.V.Hunagund, R.M.Vani, S.N. Mulgi and P.M.Hadalgi, “Low Cost Slotted Microstrip Line Fed Shorted Patch Antenna”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 11 - 16, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 10) Vanishree S B, P.A.Ambresh, G.A.Bidkar, R.M.Vani and P.V. Hunagund, “Novel Design of a Low Cost Microstripline-Fed Shorted Patch Antenna for Communication Applications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 235 - 239, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 11) Jagadeesha.S, Vani R.M And P.V Hunugund, “Self-Affine Rectangular Fractal Antenna with UC-EBG Structure”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 15 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.

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