International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)49Keywords: Advertising, nudity, marketing, research, perception, attitude.1 INTRODUCTIONThrough the whole history of advertising erotic and sex was used to evoke dialogsamong consumers. Atwan et al. (1979) define sex in advertising as the presence of nudityand/or suggestive content or the inclusion of physically attractive models (Jones, Stanaland,Gelb, 1998). Similar opinions have researchers O’Keefe (1990), Peterson and Kerin (1977),Alexander and Judd (1978), Morrison and Sherman (1972) and Sciglimpaglia et al. (1979)who divide erotic appeals into two general categories: (1) suggestiveness and (2) nudity.Stated definition can be interpreted in many different ways; which significantly affect alsodifferences in results of researches in the area of nudity in advertising.The aim of the paper is therefore to analyse the relationship between nudity/sex inadvertising and its impact on purchase (AIDA model) together with focus on impact ofgender on the perception of nudity in ad (cognitive, emotional and conative dimension).1.1 Use of sex in advertisingIn the area of sex in advertising researches often study the effects of woman`s nudity(Belch et al., 1982; Alexander and Judd, 1978; LaTour, 1990; LaTour andHenthorne, 1993;Sciglimpagliaet al., 1978; Severn et al., 1990).The default assumption of these studies wasthat the level of clothing of the model is a primary determinant of sexual response. Anassumption related to it is a linear relationship between the level of nudity and sexual arousal(Reichert and Ramirez, 2000).Of course, there is a need for more formalized understanding ofthe role of nudity and sexual suggestiveness regarding cognitive perception towardadvertising, because still overall agreement upon impact of nudity in advertising has not beenreached.As sexual appeals in advertising we will use the segmentation according Reichert etal. (2001), whodefine sexual appeals as messages that are associated with sexual informationand that evoke sexual thoughts or feelings.In this paper the term “nudity” or “sex” inadvertising means display of topless woman or man´s body.We may find in literature three dimensions of behaviour related to nudity in ad – cognitive,emotional and conative. MacInniset al. (1991) states that when the motivation to process thedata on the brand is weak, the objective of the advertiser is to draw the attention to theadvertisement starting from executional cues to which the individual will be sensitive,independently of the brand (Dianoux and Linhart, 2010).Other researches (Lombardot, 2007;Manceau andTissier-Desbordes, 2006; Vezina and Paul 1997) confirm subsequentlyincreased attention due to the positive effect of nudity.Because nudity attracts consumer´sattention, the ad increases brand information processing within the ad (MacInniset al., 1991).Results ofBelch et al. (1982) show that sexual appeals in advertising affect psycho-physicalreactions and cause higher attention and reaction. This hypothesis was validated also by Reid,Salmon andSoley (1983). Another research (Dudley, 1999) introduced four ads to the sameproduct with different levels of sexual content: (1) product only, (2) swimsuit model, (3)topless model and (4) nude model. The respondents marked the last type of ad as the mostattractive, interesting, unforgettable and the most successful in getting their attention.The next role of sexual content in advertising is to evoke positive or negative emotionalresponses (i.e. arousal, lust, displeasure or uneasiness), which can lend or reduce persuasiveimpact of advertisement. Regarding nudity`s effect on attitude towards the brand or purchase
International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)50intention, results of researches differ (Dudley, 1999, De Pelsmacker and Van Den Bergh,1996; Severn, Belch and Belch, 1990; Vézina and Paul, 1997). Reason for this dissimilaritycould be found in a number of variables as a profile of the model, choice of the product (if itis directly or obliquely related to nudity) or used methodology. Characteristics ofadvertisement`s receivers included gender (Reichert, LaTour and Kim, 2007);and age (Loroz,2006) have irreplaceable role as well.Three studies by LaTour (LaTouret al. 1990; LaTour andHenthorne, 1993) testedemotions induced by sexual stimuli. The emotions were both positive and negative. Thesurvey also focused on impact of emotions on attitude towards the ad or brand using Thayer´smodel (1978). The results showed that men had positive attitude towards naked womendisplayed in the ad, but women had negative attitude. Authors therefore suggested usingnudity in advertising only for products targeted on men.Conative dimension means the intention to buy the advertised product. The survey of Severnet al. (1990) tested effects of sexual and unisexual advertising on buying intention ofconsumers. The hypothesis that sexual stimuli have significant impact on purchase intentionwas confirmed.1.2 Negative impact of nudity in advertisingOther than positive relationships between sexual appeals and remembering (Chestnutet al., 1986; Reid, Salmon andSoley, 1983), there are also strong evidences which state theopposite.Severn et al. (1990) found that remembering of brands with sexual appeals was notdifferent from non-sexual. The respondents were more focused on ad than the brand. Thussexual appeals may have negative impact; they are diffusing and thus make rememberingimpossible. Sexual ads can drive the attention (Baker 1961, Courtney and Whipple 1983), butin remembering are less effective than non-sexual ads (Steadman, 1969; Courtney andWhipple 1983).LaTour andHenthome (1993)showed that positive excitement leads to positive attitudetowards the ad and brand; on the other hand respondents who described their excitement asnegative or tension evaluated ad negatively and had negative attitude.2 MATERIALS AND METHODSThe researches of nudity in advertising have been conducted (seeDianoux and Linhart,2010; Dianoux,Kettnerová, Linhart, 2005), but this particular research is specific in uniformculture of middle Europe, by comparison of impact of woman and man´s nudity and theexperiment was done using mock-up magazine. The respondents were only instructed to readthrough the magazine and their attention to ads was not distorted. The magazine was targetedon students because: (1) according to Reichert and Lambias(1999) student´s magazinescontain nudity the most often and (2) the magazine makes advertising easier to processbecause of three dimensions according to MacInniset al. (1991) containing motivation,possibility and abilities, magazine have positive impact on two of those: possibility andabilities.We used similar questions as was used in survey focused on nudity in advertising byDianoux and Linhart(2010). To strengthen the impact of nudity on respondent´s attitude, weused a product not related to nudity. The tablet Samsung was used with four possible levelsof nudity displayed (we used four different variants of magazines – there were four variantsof tablet Samsung ads: dressed man, topless man, dressed woman and topless woman). The
International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)51tablet was also used because it is a high-involvement product. Contrary to La Tour, Pitts,Snook-Luther (1990) who used fictive ads, we used real brands and existing ads to make surethe respondents could previously see advertised products.We also tested variants of displayed nudity. Five women and five men (always withvariants dressed and topless) were tested by 8 experts (4 men and 4 women) according toNelson andPaek(2005). The differences and the possibility to get the attention ofrespondentwere compared; experts tried to avoid sexist photos (seeLysonski, 2005).Also thesize of ad can affect attention.Because in middle Europe the half-page ad is preferred(Dianouxet al., 2006) we used this size. The questioning was divided into two parts (A andB). Part A was containing questions related ads in general.Part B was focused on concreteexperimental ad containing nudity.The sample of respondents contains 178 students of universities (state and alsoprivate). All respondents were Czech; 54 % women and46 % men. Students were chosen forthe survey because those youth persons present and form the perception of advertising todayand in the future.The sample was selected solely for the purposes of the survey. Answers ofrespondents were categorised according to identification questions that formed the first partof the questionnaire. In the survey, the measurement was based on closed questions with oneor several possible answer(s) that had been selected based on the study of literature,documents and other related surveys.Also, a semantic differential was applied that permitted the identification of nuancesin respondents’ attitudes through the questionnaire. Respondents’ reactions to targetstatements and their attitudes to the given matter were restricted by offering a set of severalstatements. The extremes of the seven-point scale represented bipolar concepts of theevaluation dimension. Using a scale of 1 to 7, respondents expressed their inclination towardsone of the preset extreme statements or, provided it was not possible to favour either of thesides, selected a median, neutral value (the median value was characterised by number 4).The scale permitted not only the specification of respondents’ attitudes, but also theirintensity. Another part of questionnaire was based on Muehling´s scale (1987) whichmeasure attitude towards institution and instrument (Durvasula et al., 1993), economicalversus social aspects (Durvasula et al., 1999), verbal measurement of affective reaction ofrespondents (Derbaix, 1995), attitude of respondents toward ad (Aad) (Coulter, 1998;MacKenzie, Lutz & Belch, 1986), engagement of consumer (Consumer Involvement Profile,CIP) by Kapferer and Laurent (1985) and some questions were adjusted according toDianoux and Linhart(2010).The analysis was carried out using the Microsoft Excel 2007, and SPSS programmes.The conclusiveness of the outputs and relationships obtained were supported by the tools ofdescriptive statistics, for testing of results the analysis of correlation and factor analysis wereused to review the outcomes. The factor analysis was used based on the results, which haveshown requisite level of correlation/association coefficient between analysed variables as adeeper and confirmatory analysis. The factor analysis was chosen in order to lower theamount of resulted outputs. Varimax rotation method was used for the analysis. To separatefinal amount of output factors a Kaiser-Guttman rule was employed. Such factors were usedfor further analysis, whose variance was higher than 1.0. This value was chosen rationallybecause explanatory factor must have at least equal value as original standardised attribute.Such attributes (statements) were chosen as significant to create resulted factor, whose valuewas 0.3 and higher (Anderson, 2009).
International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)523 RESULTSBellow in this chapter, main results will be interpreted. Firstly, the overall outputs –attitude to advertising and nudity based on sex of the respondent will be presented. Secondly,deeper analysis will give us insight view into attitudes towards advertising and behaviour tobuy.3.1 Outputs of the surveyFirstly, we will present the selected group of results which we studied based ontheoretical background presented above in this article. Such questions were tested andinterpreted, which had relationship toward nudity in advertising. We tested if sex ofrespondent affects the result of the overall impression about the ad (showing nude model) andhow it impress the AIDA model (attentions, interest, desire and action) in order to buyadvertised product. Namely we selected following statements: attention, focus, like it,convincing, desire for information (as cognitive dimension); animation, feelings, deviation,nice (as emotional dimension);and need and buy (as conative dimension).Using extracted data dependency was tested by applying χ2test. As the p–valuecalculated by means of the χ2test of 0.000 is lower than the selected level of significanceα=0.05, null hypothesis has been rejected. For power dependence test Contingencycoefficient was used.The results of the article provide 12 hypotheses leading to the fulfilment of the setgoal – to reveal whether gender affects impression about the ad. The null hypothesis alwaysmeans that there is no difference between sex of the respondent and selected impression orbehaviour regarding the ad. Of the given zero hypotheses, 4 have been rejected, i.e. there isa dependency between the qualitative attributes examined (men and women perceive ad in adifferent way), while 8 zero hypotheses could not have been rejected, i.e. there is nodependency between the qualitative attributes examined (gender does not affect impressionand behaviour towards the ad). The results of testing the below mentioned hypotheses areshown in Table 1.Table 1:χχχχ2test among selected qualitative characteristicsNoNull hypothesis H0p-valueχ2Rejection ofH0PowerdependenceDependence1 Attention– sexof therespondent0.181 NO - -2 Focus– sex 0.458 NO - -3 Like – sex 0.067 NO - -4 Convincing – sex 0.242 NO - -5 Information – sex 0.136 NO - -6 Animation– sex 0.001 YES 0.400 Moderate7 Feelings– sex 0.004 YES 0.393 Moderate8 Deviation – sex 0.023 YES 0.320 Moderate9 Nice – sex 0.001 YES 0.459 Moderate10 Seductive– sex 0.175 NO - -11 Want/need– sex 0.793 NO - -12 Buy – sex 0.292 NO - -Source: authors processing
International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)53According to the results of the survey, the zero hypotheses that animation, feelings,perceived deviation and nice feelings are not influenced by sex of a respondent has beenrejected. The survey revealed that respondents’ overall attitude toward nude ad is determinedby their sex. The test easily revealed characteristic which may differ among gender. Nudemodel is perceived in a different way by men and women in the context of their animation,feelings, perceived deviation of displayed ad and the perception of it as nice. Those attributesare emotional dimension. Cognitive (attention, focus, convince, information) and conative(want/need and buy) dimension do not differ among gender. We may say that sex inadvertising in Czech Republic affect differently emotions of men and women.3.2 Factor analysis of approach towards nudity displayed in adTo prepare the outputs for multivariate analysis we tested selected variables if thereare any relationships (using association table) to make sure the factor analysis will bring validresults. As described above, we chosen only 13 variables to enter the analysis (sex of therespondent, his/her feelings and variables related to AIDA model). We tested all four variantsof ad (dressed woman/man and naked woman/man), but only the variant with naked womanhave shown valid results. Those results have shown requisite level of correlation/associationcoefficient between analysed variables, and a deeper analysis could have been used.The factor analysis was chosenfirstly in order to lower the amount of resulted outputs andsecondly (mainly) to reveal specific approaches towards the nudity in advertising. Weexpected to find a few different approaches towards specific display of the ad (displayingnaked woman).Varimax rotation method was used for analysis. To separate final amount of outputfactors a Kaiser-Guttman rule and Kaiser Normalization was employed. As shown in Table 2,factor analysis revealed 4 statistically significant factors. Such factors were used for furtheranalysis, whose variance was higher than 1.0. This value was chosen rationally becauseexplanatory factor must have at least equal value as original standardised attribute. Suchattributes (statements) were chosen as significant to create resulted factor, whose value was0.3 and higher (Anderson, 2009).Table 2: Variance explained by factorsTotal variance % of Variance Cumulative %Factor 1 2.886 22.197 22.197Factor 2 2.322 17.861 40.057Factor 3 2.038 15.674 55.731Factor 4 1.574 12.111 67.842Source: authors processingAll factors together explain 68% of respondents´ behaviour and attitude towards nuditydisplayed in the ad. Table 2 show results of analysis by the Varimax method; Table3gradually show all factors and its attributes.
International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)54Table 3: Resultant factors by method VarimaxExpressions towards the ad Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4Sex of respondent (male) .296 .146 .703 -.181Attention -.003 .936 .116 .067Focus .110 .920 .014 .156Like it .799 -.086 .178 -.070Convincing .800 .027 .018 .160Desire for more information .739 .114 -.180 -.197Animation .294 .652 .561 .067Feelings .040 .232 .556 -.357Deviates -.061 -.053 .830 .244Nice .666 .161 .339 -.261Seductive .652 .149 .138 .185I want it/need .015 .137 .061 .678I will buy it -.027 .088 -.121 .830% of variance 22% 18% 16% 12%Name of the factorNudityadmirersFocus &attentionMalefeelingsBuyersSource: authors processingFactor analysis revealed four approaches to women nudity in advertising. The firstfactor which characterizes22 percent of respondents can be described as people whoseattention and feelings can be easily driven by specific (sexual) context of advertising. Thoserespondents cannot be categorised by their gender, but coefficient 0.296 is very close to male.They liked the ad, did not need any additional information about the advertised product, theyperceived it as convincing, nice and seductive. All resulted coefficients are quite high;therefore it is possible to state that those attributes had close relationships. The desire to havethe product was not confirmed. The first factor was named Nudity admirers because thisgroup of respondents did not need anything else than nice picture.The second factor revealed describes completely different type ofattitude towardsnudity in advertising. Specific kind of ad brought their attention, focus and animation(cognitive dimension). But nothing more than that. They also did not want to have or to buythe product, they not always like it, and they do not think it is nice or seductive - they do notthink it deviates from normal. As the first group represented by factor 1, they do not desire ordo not want to buy the product. This behaviour is characteristic for 18 per cent ofrespondents. Again, all resulted coefficients are very high; this proves adequate selection ofinputs into analysis.The third factor is the extreme ofmale feelings. 16 per cent of surveyed men perceiveddisplayed ad as animated, it attacked their feelings, and respondents think it deviates fromnormal ads, but it is nice.Again, men represented by third factor did not want to have or tobuy the product.Fourth factor represents a group of respondents, who want the product and they willmost probably buy it. Other than that the fourth factor contains only feelings, which wereinvolved in perception of the ad. This 12 per cent of respondents was not attracted bydisplayed nudity. They did not describe it in any usual way (nice, seductive, deviate,convincing etc.) but contrary to other groups they finally feel the need for the product.
International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)55It is possible to conclude that the theoretical assumptions have been proved. Nude model isattracting respondents, but there is no desire for product and no need to buy it. Model AIDAis not valid regarding nudity in advertising. Results of the analysis show that there is nodependency between the perceived attention of the product, neither need for it, norwillingness to buy it.4 DISCUSSIONSAs it was mentioned in both parts of previous chapter, model AIDA was not validatedin case of sex in advertising. Nudity can bring attention or feelings, but the intention to buythe product was not higher based on the results of analysis of this article. Only respondentswho did not express any of those feelings or animation for displayed ad were willing to buythe product (probably because they had decided to buy the product before they saw the ad).Therefore we may suggest using sex in advertising in such cases, when the brand or productis advertised not in intention to be sold, but to broaden the awareness or knowledge of theproduct or mark or firm and to make people remember it.As we found in the literature, many professionals believe that sex is used to attractviewers attention. Based on realized researches we may say that it is true. But it is just ashort-term success. Gallup & Robinson (2008) has found based on more than 50 years oftests, that use of sexual stimuli may be a successful approach how to communicate to themarket. Research has led to the fashionable idea that sex sells. But previous studies referringto nudity in advertising stated that female nudity influence people in various ways, and notonly positively (LaTour 1990; Sciglimpaglia, Belch, and Cain 1978). Males have tendenciesto rate all experimental ads more favourably than females (Peterson and Kerin, 1977). Theseresults confirm study of Maciejewski (2004) which showed that men and woman differsignificantly in their appraisal of sexual appeals in advertising; females have more negativeattitudes than men. The same results we got from our survey. Man like the ad containingnudity, but women expressed negative feelings which can damage the brand or displayedproduct.Grazer and Keesling (1995) claimed that the use of sexual appeal in print ads createfavourable responses and intention to purchase, contrary to the results of this survey. Similarresults brought study of Severn, Belch and Belch (1990), which declare that sexual appealsresults in stronger purchase intention than non-sexual appeals. But the difference is in thedeepness of analysis. When we compared the variants of ad containing different levels ofnudity, we found that the variant with naked model had more potential buyers than the otherones. On the other hand, when the factor analysis was used, it revealed that the buyingintentions are not related to the respondents who have shown positive attitude towards the ad.Thus it is possible to conclude that deeper analysis revealed the missing piece ofunderstanding.5 CONCLUSIONSThe paper based on summarization of relevant literature and outputs of own surveyand data testing support the idea that men and women differ in the responses to sexual stimuliand that nudity can increase attention of consumer and in some cases has effect on purchaseintention.
International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM),ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013)56According to the results of the survey, nude model is perceived in a different way bymen and women in the context of their animation, feelings, perceived deviation of displayedad and the perception of it as nice. Those attributes are emotional dimension. Cognitive(attention, focus, information) and conative (want/need and buy) dimension do not differamong gender.Factor analysis revealed four possible approaches to women nudity in advertising. Thefirst factor was entitled “Nudity admirers” and can be described as people whose attentionand feelings can be propelled by sexual content in advertising. The second factor named“Focus & attention” described that this kind of ad could do nothing else than attractrespondent`s attention, focus and animation. The third factor “Male feelings” describerespondents who perceived displayed ad as animated, emotionalized, deviated from normal,but still nice. Fourth factor called “Buyers” represents respondents, who want advertisedproduct and will most probably buy it, but displayed nudity does not affect it.We tested how sex of respondent affects overall impression about the ad and how itimpacts AIDA model and the purpose to buy advertised product. We examined four variantsof ad, but only the variant with naked women have shown valid results. The use of nudity inadvertising attracts respondents, but has almost no influence on their desire or buyingintentions regarding displayed product.REFERENCES1. Atwan, R.; McQuade, D. and Wright, J. W. (1979), "Edsels, Luckies&Frigidaires :advertising the American way," New York: Delacorte Press.2. Jones, M. Y.; Stanaland, A. J. and Gelb, B. D. (1998), "Beefcake and Cheesecake: Insightsfor Advertisers," Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 33-51.3. OKeefe, D. J. (2002), "Persuasion: Theory and Research," Thousand Oaks, CA: SagePublications.4. Peterson, R. A. and Kerin, R. A. (1977), "The Female Role In Advertising: SomeExperimental Evidence," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 59-63.5. Alexander, M. and Judd, B. (1978), "Do Nudes In Advertisements Enhance Brand Recall?"Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 47-50.6. Morrison, B. J. and Sherman, R. C. (1972), "Who Responds to Sex In Advertising?"Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 15-19.7. Sciglimpaglia, D.; Belch, M. A. and Cain, R. F. (1978), "Demographic and CognitiveFactors Influencing Viewers Evaluations of Sexy’ Advertisements," Advances in ConsumerResearch, Vol. 6, pp. 62-66.8. Belch, M. A.; Holgerson, B. E.; Belch, G. E. and Koppman, J. (1982), "Psychophysicaland Cognitive Responses to Sex in Advertising," Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 9,pp. 424-427.9. LaTour, M. S. (1990), "Female Nudity in Print Advertising: An Analysis of GenderDifferences in Arousal and Ad Response," Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 65-81.10. LaTour, M. S. and Henthorne, T. L. (1993), "Female Nudity: Attitudes Toward the Adand the Brand, and Implications For Advertising Strategy," Journal of Consumer Marketing,Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 25-32.11. Severn, J.; Belch, G. E. and Belch, M. A. (1990), "The Effects of Sexual and Non-SexualAdvertising Appeals and Information Level on Cognitive Processing and CommunicationEffectiveness," Journal of Advertising, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp 14-22.
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