Laws

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Laws

  1. 1. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 SCIENCE (IJLIS) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME ISSN : 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN : 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December (2013), pp. 1-12 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijlis.html Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.1389 (Calculated by GISI), www.jifactor.com IJLIS ©IAEME BRADFORD’S LAW AND THE RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE RESEARCHERS IN SELECTED UNIVERSITIES OF SOUTH INDIA T. Seeman Research Scholar Department of Library and Information Science Annamalai University Dr. P. Sivaraman Associate Professor Department of Library and Information Science Distance Education Wing Annamalai University INTRODUCTION The Scientometric approach is based on quantitative characteristics and attributes or objects of documentary flows.1 It is a tool by which the state of science and technology can be observed through the traces of communication in the science-technology system, most notably the published documents which comprise books, monographs, reports, theses, papers in serials and periodicals, and nowadays also e-books and e-journals as well as – in the broadest sense – the WEB2. Researchers in several disciplines have been interested in publication productivity as a means of assessing scholarly excellence of individual researchers within a field. 3–7 Publication productivity, as measured by the number of papers, has also been regarded as one of the main indicators of reputation of institutions in general8–11 and academic institutions in particular.12–13 The researchers of Library and Information Science extensively use scientometrics as a tool to identify the pattern of publication, authorship and secondary journal coverage with the objective of getting an insight into the dynamics of growth of knowledge in the areas under consideration. 1
  2. 2. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The research was undertaken with the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. To study the annual growth rate of environmental science literature in selected universities of South India; To examine the sources of distribution of research output in selected universities of South India; To identify the journal articles as source of information; and To identify the core journals in the field of environmental sciences using Bradford’s law. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES The whole data for nineteen universities in South India for the period 2000 – 2012 were retrieved from Web of Science – Science Citation Index Expanded during June 2012 and January 2013. A total of 7694 records of various types, comprising Articles, Meeting Abstracts, Reviews, Bibliographic Items, Editorial Material, Letters, Corrections, and News Items was retrieved. A total 6784 records in the form of journal articles have been considered for applying Bradford’s Law to identify core journals in the field of environmental sciences. BRADFORD’S LAW OF SCATTERING Bradford’s law of scattering has been adopted to examine the entire Journal titles contributing to a bibliography those were focused in the field of environmental sciences in selected universities of South India. The Journals are arranged in the order of decreasing productivity. They are divided into a nucleus of Journals/ periodicals more particularly devoted to the science research and several groups or zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus where the number of periodicals in the nucleus and the succeeding zones will be as 1: n : n2. For describing the scattering phenomena, the following formula is adopted: F ( x)  a  b log x (eq...1) Where F(x) is the cumulative number of references as contained in the first - x most productive journal and ‘a’ and ‘b’ are constants, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Annual Research Output The annual research output of environmental science research in the selected universities of South India for the period 2000 – 2012 has been presented in Table 1. The result indicates that the number of publications in 2000 was 313 that rose to 1075 in 2012. The highest output was observed in 2012 that accounts for 13.97 percent of total output over the period of study. It 2
  3. 3. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME was found that a steady growth in terms of productivity was observed throughout the period of study. However, there was a sudden increase in 2008 and 2012 while there was a declining trend observed in 2003 and 2011. Table 1: Distribution of Annual Research Output Cumulative Year Research Output Percentage Percentage 2000 313 4.07 4.07 2001 325 4.22 8.29 2002 378 4.91 13.21 2003 357 4.64 17.85 2004 400 5.20 23.05 2005 440 5.72 28.76 2006 507 6.59 35.35 2007 568 7.38 42.74 2008 691 8.98 51.72 2009 759 9.86 61.58 2010 954 12.40 73.98 2011 927 12.05 86.03 2012 1075 13.97 100.00 Total 7694 100.00 Sources of Publications The results based on the distribution of research output of environmental science researchers in selected universities of South India by sources of publications have been presented in Table 2. The identified channels include journal articles, letters, reviews, corrections, editorial material, meeting abstracts, proceedings, bibliographical items and news items. Table 2 presents a complete scenario of different forms of periodical and non-periodical literature which were used by environmental science researchers in selected universities of South India for their research publications. The analysis of publications of 7694 records revealed that journal articles occupy predominant position sharing 88.17 percent of total research output. The other ranked sources include reviews (4.89 percent), meeting abstracts (2.89 percent), proceedings (2.08 percent), editorial material (0.82 percent), corrections (0.53 percent), letters (0.49 percent), news items (0.1 percent), and bibliographic items (0.1 percent). 3
  4. 4. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME Table 2: Source wise Distribution of Research Output Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 No. of Publications 6784 376 216 160 63 41 38 8 8 7694 Source Articles Review Meeting Abstracts Proceedings Editorial Material Corrections Letters News Items Bibliographic Items Total % Cum. % 88.17 4.89 2.81 2.08 0.82 0.53 0.49 0.10 0.10 100 88.17 93.06 95.86 97.94 98.76 99.30 99.79 99.89 100.00 Sources of Publications: Year-wise Analysis The benefit of research to society is accrued when it is communicated in the form of literature. There are different types of sources in which the research findings of scientists can be communicated. The results of year wise analysis of sources have been reported in Table 3. The researchers communicate their research results through various channels such as journal articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, editorial-material, and bibliographic items. As found in any other discipline, major portions of the research results in the form of articles have appeared in research journals. The journal articles rank first in order sharing 88.17 percent of the total number of publications reported during the study period. Reviews come second in order sharing 4.89 percent followed by Meeting Abstracts (2.81%), Proceedings (2.08%), Editorial Material (0.82%), Corrections (0.53%), Letters (0.49%), News Items (0.10%), and Bibliographic Items (0.10%). Out of various sources, the first four forms namely journal articles, reviews, meeting abstracts and proceedings share the major portion of the total publications. The year-wise analysis indicates that the journal articles have grown steadily throughout the period of study recording 6784 records except for 2001, 2003, and 2011. The records in 2000 were 286 that rose to 957 in 2012. In the case of reviews, an increasing trend was observed in all the years except for 2002, 2004, and 2005. Similarly, the same trend was noticed in the case of other forms of publications as well. The overall period witnessed that the growth of sources irrespective of the category after 2007 was quite encouraging. 4
  5. 5. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME Table 3: Distribution of Sources: Year wise Analysis Year Articles Review Meeting Abstracts Proceedings Editorial Material Corrections Letters News Items Biblio. Items Total 2000 286 (4.22) 12 (3.19) 5 (2.31) 6 (3.75) --- 2 (4.88) 1 (2.63) --- 1 (12.5) 313 (4.07) 2001 276 (4.07) 14 (3.72) 14 (6.48) 13 (8.13) 2 (3.17) --- 6 (15.79) --- --- 325 (4.22) 2002 341 (5.03) 9 (2.39) 9 (4.17) 16 (10) --- 2 (4.88) 1 (2.63) --- --- 378 (4.91) 2003 312 (4.6) 20 (5.32) 13 (6.02) 6 (3.75) 1 (1.59) 3 (7.32) 2 (5.26) --- --- 357 (4.64) 2004 357 (5.26) 19 (5.05) 7 (3.24) 11 (6.88) 1 (1.59) 2 (4.88) 3 (7.89) --- --- 400 (5.2) 2005 384 (5.66) 15 (3.99) 26 (12.04) 9 (5.63) 4 (6.35) 1 (2.44) 1 (2.63) --- --- 440 (5.72) 2006 431 (6.35) 18 (4.79) 25 (11.57) 24 (15) 2 (3.17) 4 (9.76) 2 (5.26) --- 1 (12.5) 507 (6.59) 2007 502 (7.4) 24 (6.38) 22 (10.19) 15 (9.38) 1 (1.59) 1 (2.44) 2 (5.26) --- 1 (12.5) 568 (7.38) 2008 617 (9.09) 25 (6.65) 12 (5.56) 22 (13.75) 6 (9.52) 3 (7.32) 5 (13.16) 1 (12.5) --- 691 (8.98) 2009 689 (10.16) 35 (9.31) 7 (3.24) 12 (7.5) 5 (7.94) 8 (19.51) 2 (5.26) 1 (12.5) --- 759 (9.86) 2010 821 (12.1) 56 (14.89) 45 (20.83) 8 (5) 11 (17.46) 4 (9.76) 4 (10.53) 2 (25) 3 (37.5) 954 (12.4) 2011 811 (11.95) 57 (15.16) 24 (11.11) 12 (7.5) 14 (22.22) 5 (12.2) 2 (5.26) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 927 (12.05) 2012 957 (14.11) 72 (19.15) 7 (3.24) 6 (3.75) 16 (25.4) 6 (14.63) 7 (18.42) 3 (37.5) 1 (12.5) 1075 (13.97) Total 6784 (88.17) 376 (4.89) 216 (2.81) 160 (2.08) 63 (0.82) 41 (0.53) 38 (0.49) 8 (0.1) 8 (0.1) 7694 (100) 5
  6. 6. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME Distribution of Journal Articles Journals articles, being the predominant source of publication for the researchers in the field of environmental sciences from selected universities in South India, were analysed to assess the annual growth rate of journal articles. As can be seen in Table 4, the output of articles in the year 2000 witnessed 286 publications and it rose to 957 in 2012. It is clear that a steady growth was observed throughout the period of study. However, decreasing trend was also observed in 2001, 2003, and 2011. It could be deduced that the productivity in the form journal articles by the researchers of environmental sciences from selected universities of South India was slow at the beginning of the study period till 2006. The trend was quite encouraging from 2007 onwards. It is evident from the result that the percentage share of articles published during 2000 to 2006 ranges between 4 and 6 percent. Whereas the percentage share of articles published from 2007 onwards went up to 14.11 percent. However, the percentage share was noted between 7 and 15 percent. The overall period witnessed the increasing trend in terms of research productivity in the form of journal articles. Table 4: Distribution of Articles: Year wise Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total Articles 286 276 341 312 357 384 431 502 617 689 821 811 957 6784 % 4.22 4.07 5.03 4.60 5.26 5.66 6.35 7.40 9.09 10.16 12.10 11.95 14.11 100.00 Cum. % 4.22 8.29 13.31 17.91 23.18 28.84 35.19 42.59 51.68 61.84 73.94 85.90 100.00 Distribution of Bradford’s Zones Table 5 reports that a very small group of 38 journals identified in the nuclear or core zone representing 4.05 percent of total journals covering maximum segment of information with 33.9 6
  7. 7. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME percent of articles while the second larger group of 116 journals, which represent 12.37 percent, provides the next equal portion of 33.92 percent. The third largest of 784 (83.58 percent) journals yield the next 2183 articles that account for 32.18 percent. According to Bradford’s Law of distribution based on Equation (1) the relationship between the zones is 1:n:n2. But the relationship between the zones in the present study is contradictory in each as 38:116:784 which does not fit to Bradford’s distribution. It is clear that core distribution of articles has been published by a very few journals which means less than what Bradford formulated. Table 5: Distribution of Bradford Zones No. of Journals 38 116 784 938 % of Journals 4.05 12.37 83.58 100.00 No. of Articles 2300 2301 2183 6784 % of Articles 33.90 33.92 32.18 100.00 Zone 1 2 3 Ranking of Journals According to Bradford’s Distribution The Bradford’s law explains that when the journals are arranged in an order of decreasing productivity, the journals with high productivity will be at last. The skewed distribution of publications in different journals is not an exception in any field. During the period of study, the environmental science researchers from the universities of South India have produced 6784 contributions scattered over 938 journals. Table 6 shows the observation that an analysis of the number of papers published in each journal. There have been 121 papers given by one single journal next to that 99 papers have been brought out by another journal. The third journal individually published 92 papers. The next 9 journals have individually brought out papers between 70 and 90. The next 78 journals have published papers between 20 and 70. The other vast core of 849 journals has contributed less than 20 contributions. Table 6: Ranking of journals according to Bradford No. of Journals No. of Articles 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 121 99 92 86 81 78 77 76 Cum No. of Journals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 Cum No. of Articles 121 220 312 398 479 557 634 710 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  8. 8. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME No. of Journals No. of Articles 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 3 2 2 2 6 2 7 4 10 6 1 5 2 9 75 74 70 68 67 65 64 61 57 54 52 50 46 45 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 33 32 31 30 28 27 26 25 23 22 21 20 19 18 Cum No. of Journals 9 10 12 13 14 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 35 38 39 42 44 46 48 54 56 63 67 77 83 84 89 91 100 8 Cum No. of Articles 785 859 999 1067 1134 1329 1393 1454 1568 1622 1674 1724 1770 1815 1901 1985 2067 2147 2186 2300 2337 2436 2500 2562 2622 2790 2844 3026 3126 3356 3488 3509 3609 3647 3809 Rank 9 10 12 13 14 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 35 38 39 42 44 46 48 54 56 63 67 74 83 84 89 91 100
  9. 9. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME No. of Journals No. of Articles 8 9 10 11 16 42 21 17 60 34 128 233 249 938 17 16 15 14 13 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 6784 Cum No. of Journals 108 117 127 138 154 196 217 234 294 328 456 689 938 Cum No. of Articles 3945 4089 4239 4393 4601 4979 5147 5249 5549 5685 6069 6535 6784 Rank 108 117 127 138 154 179 217 234 267 328 381 556 938 Based on the data presented in Table 6, Bradford’s plot was made against cumulative number of articles and logarithm of journals rank. The plot, indicates that the core journals are those whose points lay on initial curved part of the ‘S’ until tangentially becomes a straight line. In the present context, it was observed that the slope of the curve decreases slightly after the 38th journal. Therefore, it appears that the top 38 journals are well in their way to form a core. 8000 Cumulative No. of Articles 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1 10 100 1000 Journal's Rank (Log) Figure 1: Bradford’s Plot 9 10000
  10. 10. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME CORE JOURNALS On the basis of the number of articles published on environmental science research, the journals have been ranked. Table 7 indicates the core journals in which environmental science researchers preferred to publish their articles. Further, it was analysed to find out the key journals in the field of environmental sciences which have brought out with more number of publications made by the researchers. It was found that there were 938 journals identified in which the environmental science researchers got their articles published over a period of study. There have been 121 papers published by a single journal ‘Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications’ is ranked at the first position. The second position is taken by ‘Bioresource Technology’ which is accounted to 99 publications of environmental science researchers in the universities of South India. The other three journals namely World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, and Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics recorded the next three ranks sharing the total records of 92, 86, and 81 respectively. Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Table 7: Ranking of Core Journals No. of Name of the Journal Articles BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL 121 RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY 99 WORLD JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY & 92 BIOTECHNOLOGY INDIAN JOURNAL OF TRADITIONAL 86 KNOWLEDGE INDIAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY & 81 BIOPHYSICS PLOS ONE 78 JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCES 77 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND 76 ASSESSMENT JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 75 JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY 74 CURRENT MICROBIOLOGY 70 BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 70 INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL 68 BIOLOGY COLLOIDS AND SURFACES B67 BIOINTERFACES MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR 65 BIOCHEMISTRY 10 % of Articles cum % 1.78 1.78 1.46 3.24 1.36 4.60 1.27 5.86 1.19 7.06 1.15 1.14 8.21 9.34 1.12 10.46 1.11 1.09 1.03 1.03 11.57 12.66 13.69 14.72 1.00 15.72 0.99 16.71 0.96 17.67
  11. 11. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME Sl. No. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Name of the Journal BIOLOGIA PLANTARUM APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY PLANT SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY CHEMOSPHERE JOURNAL OF PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY ACTA PHYSIOLOGIAE PLANTARUM PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY FISH PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY BIOCHEMISTRY AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY PROTEIN AND PEPTIDE LETTERS INDIAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY PLANT CELL REPORTS JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES INDIA SECTION BBIOLOGICAL SCIENCES No. of Articles 65 % of Articles 0.96 65 0.96 19.59 64 61 0.94 0.90 20.53 21.43 57 0.84 22.27 57 0.84 23.11 54 0.80 23.91 52 0.77 24.67 50 46 45 43 43 42 42 41 41 0.74 0.68 0.66 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.60 0.60 25.41 26.09 26.75 27.38 28.02 28.64 29.26 29.86 30.47 40 0.59 31.05 40 0.59 31.64 39 38 38 0.57 0.56 0.56 32.22 32.78 33.34 38 0.56 33.90 cum % 18.63 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION The paper explored the application of Bradford’s law of scattering in the field of environmental sciences. It was found that a core set of 38 journals has covered about 1/3rd of the total publications made by the environmental science researchers in selected universities from South 11
  12. 12. International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 2, Issue 2, July - December 2013, © IAEME India. However, it could be deduced from the findings that there is a clear indication that less number of journals publishes more number of papers. Further the number of journals alone increases but the papers covered in these journals is found to be less. Finally, the maximum number of journals has brought out the least number of papers as output. This phenomenon helps the libraries and information centres acquire most relevant and highly cited journals in a discipline within the limited budget as the cost of information resources has been increasing dayby-day. According to Bradford’s Law of distribution based on Equation (1) the relationship between the zones is 1:n:n2. But the relationship between the zones in the present study is contradictory in each as 38:116:784 which does not fit to Bradford’s distribution. REFERENCES 1. Godin, Benoît (2006). On the Origins of Bibliometrics. Scientometrics, 68(1): 109–133. 2. Glänzel, W. (2003). Bibliometrics as a Research Field: A Course on Theory and Application of Bibliometric Indicators. Available at 3. Gupta, B.M., Kumar, S., Aggarwal, B. S. (1999). A Comparison of Productivity of Male and Female Scientists of CSIR. Scientometrics, 45:269–289. 4. Prpic, K. (2000). The Publication Productivity of Young Scientists: An Empirical Study. Scientometrics, 49: 453–490. 5. Babu, A.R. and Singh, Y.P. (1998). Determinants of Research Productivity. Scientometrics, 43: 309–329. 6. Uzun, A. and Ozel, M.E. (1996). Publication Patterns of Turkish Astronomers. Scientometrics, 37: 159–169. 7. Uzun, A. (1996). A Bibliometric Analysis of Physics Publications from Middle Eastern Countries. Scientometrics, 36: 259–269. 8. Garg, K. C. and Padhi, P. (1999). Scientometrics of Institutional Productivity of Laser Science and Technology. Scientometrics, 46: 19–38. 9. Abt, H. A. (1993). Institutional Productivities. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 105: 794–798. 10. Basu, A. and Nagpaul, P. S. (1998). National Mapping of Science. NISTADS Report: No. Rep-248/98, New Delhi, 157–169. 11. Perdew, J. P. and Tipler, F. J. (1996). Ranking the Physics Departments. Physics Today, October: 96–97. 12. Johns, J. L. (1983). A Study of Institutional Productivity in “Reading World”: 1978– 1983, ERIC Document Re-production service No. ED 248 490, Northern Illinois University. 13. Thoresen, R. W., Kraauskopf, C. J. and Cox, J. G. (1975). Reputation, Halo, and Ratings of Counseling Programs, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22: 446–450. 14. Bradford, S.C. (1934). Sources of Information on Specific Subjects. Engineering, 137: 85-86. 12

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