Integrating gis and knowledge management resources in indian

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Integrating gis and knowledge management resources in indian

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)ISSN 0976-6502 (Print)ISSN 0976-6510 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 258-265 IJM© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com INTEGRATING GIS AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT RESOURCES IN INDIAN AGRICULTURE: SOCIAL AND NATIONAL CONCERN FOR INFORMATION SHARING Prof. (Ms) Manisha Shinde-Pawar Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management (Information Technology), Bharati Vidyapeeth Univerisity, Pune, IMRDA, SANGLI Prof. (Mr) ChandraShekhar Suryawanshi Associate Professor, Faculty of Management (Marketing), Bharati Vidyapeeth Univerisity, Pune, IMRDA, SANGLI ABSTRACT Indian Agriculture which is waiting for revolutionary growth in crop productivity and agriculture related business is looking forward to implement the knowledge by next generation youth handy for computerized technology. Agriculture and concerned resources had been seen of rare interest of technical knowledge creators to implement technology in this field though this is main stream line in national level growth of India. The ability and usability of both Geographic Information System and Knowledge Management and Mobile computing has become unavoidable part of Indian life system. Young farmers need proper guidance, frequent knowledge and direction to increase productivity, reduce cost, and to get control on hazardous risks. The Researcher would like to explore that by integrating GIS, Knowledge Management and Mobile Computing Services to provide social and national concern for sharing of information can help to these farmers which are handy to use for these techniques, to efficiently get benefited and to avoid risk. Keywords: Indian Agriculture, Knowledge Management, Geographic Information System, Mobile computing. 258
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Geographic information system: Geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store,manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS issometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies torefer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems.In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and databasetechnology. A GIS can be thought of as a system—it digitally creates and "manipulates" spatialareas that may be jurisdictional, purpose, or application-oriented. Generally, a GIS is custom-designed for an organization. Hence, a GIS developed for an application, jurisdiction,enterprise, or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that hasbeen developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose. What goesbeyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictiveboundaries.1.2 Knowledge management Knowledge management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used inan organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights andexperiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied inindividuals or embedded in organizations as processes or practices. KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, informationsystems, management, and library and information sciences. More recently, other fields havestarted contributing to KM research; these include information and media, computer science,public health, and public policy.1.3 Mobile computing: Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected tobe transported during normal usage. Mobile computing involves mobile communication,mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad-hoc andinfrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats andconcrete technologies. Hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobilesoftware deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.1.4 Agriculture in India: The economic contribution of agriculture to Indias GDP is steadily declining with thecountrys broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadesteconomic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India. 259
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January February (2013) January- Preliminary estimates suggest that in 2009 10 the combined all India poverty rate was 2009-1032% compared to 37% in 2004-05. Going forward, it will be essential for India to build a -05.productive, competitive, and diversified agricultural sector and facilitate rural non-farm rural,entrepreneurship and employment. Encouraging policies that promote competition inagricultural marketing will ensure that farmers receive better prices."—World Bank: "India Country Overview 2011" World2. METHODOLOGY2.1 Concept of Integration The proposed integration involves the conceptualization, modeling, construction ofarchitecture, evaluation and application of Geographic Information System, Knowledge ,management and Mobile Computing in innovative ways to use information andcommunication technologies (IT) in the rural agricultural field, with a primary focus on ologies field,agriculture growth for economic contribution to India’s GDP. By implementing such system, GDPthe researcher would like to represent logical extending of computerized solution scope to extchange and evolve as farmers understanding of the area grows.Figure No. 1 Geographic Information System Integrated Agriculture Information System Knowledge Mobile Management CommunicationAs shown in the above Figure No. 1, Geographic Information System will create and sense 1,the geo-spatial information and knowledge of other stakeholders, skillful experts that will be experts,captured, organized to generate knowledge by applying strategies to identify key entities entities,facts helpful to take decisions in time variant problematic situations and as understanding and situationusability of mobile devices is popular among young farmers mobile communication systemwill be used to disseminate and share the generated knowledge. 260
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)2.2 Model of Proposed Integrated System:Figure No. 2: GIS Knowledge Hydrograph, soil, Management structures, Generates Documents, Geo Sphere Transports, Database, Reality, wetlands, Constraints… Agri- administrative Stakeholders boundaries Regional Characters Mobile Computing Atmosphere sensing Mobile Devices Farmers seeking Information Mostly accuracy of judging and predicting to soil, regional demand, atmosphere,transportation and availability of all resources depends upon experience and skill farmer willhave, and that too may be specific to general situations so inclusive of chances of disastersand risks. Model as shown in above Figure No.2 can be implemented to serve the basis to satisfydifferent needs for information related to agriculture. Young Farmers always tries to seek theaccurately predicted information to take proper decision which will lead in increased cropproductivity and optimized cost.2.3 Architecture The integrated framework for data/knowledge repository tier maintains a store foragricultural data and a knowledge base where agricultural information knowledge can becaptured, represented, shared, and reused by using latest technologies to achieve or maintainlevel of crop productivity by getting accurate and timely information.As shown in the Figure No. 3 below, architecture can be composed of different four differentcomponents as: 261
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) 2.3.1 Application Tier Application Tier will sense the real time data, conditions, risk, and cost to map it to models to serve to middleware layer. 2.3.2 Common Middleware Services Tier Common Middleware Services will mainly integrate the data with conditions and risk-cost facts based on which data will be organized by applying different strategies and practices to generate knowledge. This will help to create structural models, to formulate plan for repository and activities to be performed on repository. Figure No. 3: Architecture of Integration Framework GIS Interface Tier Applications Tier Mapping Condition Modeling Real Time Report Cost Risk Tools Assessment Data Generation Common Middleware Services Tier Data Knowledge Modeling Maintenance Operations Integration management & Planning Data/ Knowledge Management Tier Agricultural Resources and Agricultural Real Time Data Experts Opinion Repository Repository End Users Tier Mobile Devices All Stakeholders 262
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) 2.3.3 Data/ Knowledge Management Tier Integrated System now will lead in bifurcated repositories based on number of elements involves in process of decision. Meaningful Data here can be real support for farmers in their weak horizons. 2.3.4 End User Tier End users for system will be not only the farmers but also all other stakeholders related process, cultivation, selling and distribution as well as agricultural experts. Either they can use mobile devices, laptop or computerized technology.2.4 CaseA prototype representing problem case is discussed with implementation of framework.2.4.1 Problem statement Quantify Grape Maturity at Optimum level to avoid light effect on concentrationcausing quality changes.2.4.2 Case Summary As stated above, when a grape crop product maturity need to be analyzed by farmer,he needs to take different decisions depending on correct judgment. Each step in the processplays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics. The time of harvest depends on a variety of factors-most notably the subjectivedetermination of ripeness. As the grape ripens on the vines, sugars and pH increase as acids(such as malic acid) decrease. The threat of detrimental weather and vine diseases (such asgrey rot) can also play a role in the time table. The balance of all these factors contributes towhen a winemaker or vineyard manager decides that it is time to harvest.He may decide exact time of maturity to continue process as: 1. Harvest 2. Crop cutting 3. Storage 4. Packaging 5. Transportation2.4.3 Theory Concept applied to Integrated Agriculture Information System: Geographic Information System Interface will sense the information for need,availability, quality, quantity and alternatives for same related to grape product asatmosphere, water, soil, land, air, topography, market, transportation, labor, capital, fertilizer,pesticides. Based on data collected as real time data, by using application tier this data will bemapped and modeled to analyze for cost and risk factors. For the same System will generatereports for different conditions. 263
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) Middleware Services will integrate the overall captured data, reports, cost and riskassumptions/probabilities by applying different strategies to represent insight knowledge views asexplored models, plan of strategic organizing in files or repository and list activities/operations toperform on database. So Knowledge Management will be supported by the middleware to createGrape Distribution and Selling data repository, Experts Opinion/Historical Case Repository andGrapes Crop Production Information Repository. So the above repositories will be requested by farmer to get proper information to scale/quantify maturity at optimum level and to avoid quality changes.2.4.4 Alternatives:Based on real time conditions different alternatives may be there Table No.1 Sr. No Condition Rule Action Rule 1 Increase in acids, pH Quantify and check proportion and Plan the Process 2 Change in color due to light effect Pesticide to control 3 Threat of detrimental weather and Control measures, Insecticide and diseases Fertilizer 4 All factors are well balanced TimetableIntegrated System can judge the factors and can provide best solution from the above alternatives.With the help of information and knowledge created, it can prepare the further plan and scheduleas per requirement and availability for resources by applying condition rule to determine actionrules as shown in Table No.1.2.5 Applications The Integrated System can help to take decisions and properly manage differentapplications as Crop cultivation, Water management, Fertilizer Application, Fertigation, Pestmanagement, Harvesting, Post harvest handling, Transporting of food/food products, Packaging,Food preservation, Food processing/value addition, Food quality management, Food safety, Foodstorage, Food marketing.3. CONCLUSION In this paper, along with the recent developments in computerized technology ofGeographical Information System, Knowledge Management efficient multi-disciplinedinformation repository and dissemination system is explored. The development and deploymentof such integrated information system can be focused to strengthen agriculture growth by: 1)Providing accurate and realistic information for decision making; 2) Providing KnowledgeRepository; 3) To support sharing of information at wide distributed level; 4) To provide base toformulate agriculture related strategies to government and other stakeholders. In future research, this framework need to be focused in proper direction for architecturaldesign improvements for efficient and fast solutions. Other agencies, dealers, companies relatedto crop resources production and distribution can be highlighted for equipping our farmers withsupport of IT people to go ahead to reach to height of success. 264
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)REFERENCES [1] “Mobile Computing Technolgy, Applications and Service Creation”, Ashok Talukedar, Hasan Ahmed, Roopa R Yavagal [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICT_in_agriculture [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_management [5] http http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_computing [6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_India#cite_note-wboverview2-6Note: all above online links are active as on 27th Feb 2013. 265

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