International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volu...
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Improvement in biological characteristics of alkaline soils by using pressmud

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Improvement in biological characteristics of alkaline soils by using pressmud

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME316IMPROVEMENT IN BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFALKALINE SOILS BY USING PRESSMUDE.SANJEEVA RAYUDU*, Dr. M. SRIMURALI** and K. VENKAIAH**** Assistant professor, Dept of Civil Engg, G.Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool,Andhra Pradesh** Professor of Civil Engg, Sri Venkateswara University College of Engineering,S.V.University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh*** Professor of Soil Science, Department of Soil Science, A.N.G.R. Agricultural UniversityCollege, Tirupathi.ABSTRACTThis paper communicates the biological improvement studies of Alkaline soils byusing Pressmud. Alkaline soils are found to be high in pH, low organic carbon, less in microand macro nutrients, low porosity and less soil microbes resulting unsuitable for agriculturewhereas, Pressmud contain significant quantities of soil microbes and nutrients forremediation of alkaline soil. This study was conducted for improving biological properity ofalkaline soil by adding different quantity of pressmud and it clearly demonstrated thatimprovement biological properties of alkali soils are amenable by using Pressmud. Thetreatment resulted in amelioration of biological environment of the alkali soil and renderedthe alkaline soil suitable for agricultural purpose.Key Words: Alkaline soils, pH, Biological properties and pressmud.INTRODUCTIONThe soil is a dynamic medium, constituting the habitat of abundant biodiversity, withunique genetic patterns where one can find the greatest amount and variety of livingorganisms, which serve as a nutrient reservoir. One gram of soil in good conditions cancontain 600 million bacteria belonging to 15,000 or 20,000 different species. These valuesdecrease to 1 million bacteria encompassing from 5000 to 8000 species in desert soils(Informativo Capebe, 2010).INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 316-320© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCIET© IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME317Out of total 952 million hectares of alkaline soils in the world (FAO/UNESCO,1974), about 7.421 million hectares land was affected by salinity and Alkanity in India(Sharma, 1998). These soils are high in pH, low porosity values, low organic carbon, less inmacro nutrients and in micro nutrients, less fertility and soil microbes rendering unsuitablefor agricultural cropExcessive wastes of varied and intense nature are being generated due toindustrialization. These wastes often contain valuable material and some times, are beingused or reused in uneconomic manner or many times left completely unutilized causing agreat hazard to the human environment. Hence rational utilization and management ofdisposal of wastes has assumed importance in order to prevent environmental pollution and toconserve the resources. Agriculture is primary activity in India and is of great importance inthe Indian economy. About 60 to 70% of total populations are depending on the agriculturefor their livelihood.Vermicomposting technology using earthworms as versatile natural bioreactors foreffective recycling of organic wastes to the soil is an environmentally acceptable means ofconverting waste into nutritious composts for crop production (Graff, 1981; Edward et al.,1985; Bano et al.,).Vermicompost has been shown to have high levels of total and availablenitrogen, phosphorous,potassium (NPK) and micro nutrients, microbial and enzyme activitiesand growth regulators (Parthasarathi and Ranganathan 1999; Chaoui et al., 2003) andcontinuous and adequate use with proper management can increase soil organic carbon, soilwater retention and transmission and improvement in other physical properties of soil likebulk density, penetration resistance and aggregation (Zebarth et al., 1999) as well asbeneficial effect on the growth of a variety of plants (Atiyeh et al.,2002)The current study, alkaline soils as well as Pressmud were collected from near byIDA, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh and analysed for selected parameters to characterize the soilsand to assess the potentiality of pressmud for biological improvement in alkaline soils.MATERIALS AND METHODS1. Collection of alkaline soil samples from various locations of Renigunta mandal nearTirupati, Andhra Pradesh and analysis of soil samples for various parameters including pH,EC and Soil microbes shown in table 1.Table 1 characteristics of existing soilParameter Units ValuespH 8.8EC mMhos/cm 3.2Bacteria ( x 103CFU/gm)1000Fungi ( x 103CFU/gm) 0
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3182. Collection of Pressmud from nearby Sugar industry to assess its potentiality forimprovement alkaline soils of low soil microbes values and shown the characteristics ofpressmud in table 2.Table 2 Characteristics of Pressmud.Parameter Units ValuespH 7.5EC mMhos/cm 7.71Bacteria cfu/gm 7,000,000Fungi cfu/gm 500,0003. The various quantities of Pressmud was added to to one cubic feet of soil, then mixedthoroughly and was kept for a curing period of 90 days. Analysis of soil, treated with variouscombination of Pressmud after curing shown in Table3. Based on the results of analysisoptimum dosage of pressmud for biological improvement of soil for agricultural purpose wasevaluated.Table 3 Characteristics of Alkaline Soil Treated With PressmudTreatment(Quantity)pHECmMhos/cmSoil Microbes(cfu/g)BacteriaFungiT0 (Blank) 8.8 3.20 1000 010ton/ha 8.7 3.31 3000 100020 ton/ha 8.62 3.37 7000 150030 ton/ha 8.55 3.43 15000 300040 ton/ha 8.46 3.50 32000 700050 ton/ ha 8.39 3.62 70000 1500060 ton/ha 8.32 3.73 90000 2700070 ton/ha 8.28 3.85 150000 3200080 ton/ha 8.20 3.97 270000 5200090 ton/ha 8.15 4.1 500000 100000100 ton/ha 7.99 4.17 1700000 300000
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME319RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONNature of soilBased on the results of analysis, alkaline soil was identified and selected. Soil may beclassified as Alkaline, if the pH is more than 8.5; EC is less than 4.0 mMhos/cm. The valuesof pH and Electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil chosen for the present study are 8.8 and3.2.Nature of Industrial wasteResults of analysis of pressmud from sugar industry are presented in the Table 2.Perusal of the data indicates that Pressmud is capable to ameliorate biological characteristicsof soil.pHThe variation in pH of the soil may be attributed to the slightly lower pH of thePressmud compared to the treated soil. The resulted pH after final treatment is around neutraland it is desirable as it is indicative of the status of microbial environment/communities andits net effect on the mineralization of organic residues and for immobilization of availablenutrients.ECThe EC value of treated alkaline soil increased from 3.20 to 4.17 mMhos/cm, it issignificant since conductivity beyond 4 MMhos/cm is injurious to most crops. The increase insoluble salt content with Pressmud might be attributed to the presence of soluble salts in thepress mud as evidenced by higher Electrical Conductivity values of Pressmud material (7.71mMhos/cm).BacteriaThe variation of soil Bacterial population presented in Table6, revealed that thetreated alkaline soils were progressively ameliorate with different proportions of Pressmudand enhanced from 3000 to 1700000.An increase of Bacterial population in the treated alkaline soils is due to the presence ofconsiderable enriching of bacteria in the Pressmud used in the present investigation.FungiThe application different proportion of Pressmud as evidenced from the Figure 5.15also increased the soil Fungi content. The Fungi content advanced from 1000 to 300000. Anincrease of fungi population in the treated alkaline soils is due to the presence of considerableenrich of fungi in the Pressmud.CONCLUSIONSAlkaline soils responded favourable to treatment with Pressmud and resulted in theimprovement biological characteristics of the soil. Considerable improvement in microbialcontent in respect of Bacteria and Fungi was noticedThough the Pressmud improved almost biological properties of soil, Electricalconductivity crossed the threshold value at 4 MMhos/cm at higher dose of effluent, beyond80ton/ha. Hence, the soil treated with 80ton/ha dose was selected as optimum quantity ofpressmud.
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME320REFERENCES1. Atiyeh, R. M., Lee, S., Edwards, C.A., Arancon, N.Q, Metzger, J. D., (2002). Theinfluence of humic acids derived from earthworms - processed organic wastes onplant growth. Bioresource Technology 84: 7-11.2. Chaoui, I., Zibiliske, M., Ohno, T., (2003). Effects of earthworm casts and Compost onsoil microbial activity and plant nutrient availability.Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35:295-302.3. FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World has been used as a basis for the development ofthe WRB in order to take advantage of the international soil correlation work4. Graff, O., 1981. Preliminary experiments by vermicomposting of different wastematerials using Eudrillus eugineae Kinberg. In: Applehof, Mary, (Ed.), Proc. workshopon the role of earthworms in the stabilization of organic residues. Malmazoo, Michigan,pp. 179–191.5. Informativo CAPEBE 06/12/2010 - Um patrimônio chamado solo. Disponível em>http://www.capebe.org.br/informativo.php?id=355> Acesso em 13 de junho de 2011.6. Karthikeyan J and Ravi Kumar Reddy B 2005 reported on Effective utilization ofnutrients in wastewater by controlled method of wastewater irrigation in Tirupathi,Chitoor district. Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Venkateswara college ofEngineering, Tirupathi.7. Krishna kumara,* k. rupa kumar et al.,(2004). “climate impacts on indian agriculture “International Journal Of Climatology 24: 1375–1393 (2004)8. Klute, A.1986. Water retention laboratory methods. In: Klute, A. (ed.) Methods of SoilAnalysis. Part 1. Physical and Minerological Methods. 2nd ed.. Argon. Monogr., 9. ASAand SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 635 - 662.9. Parthasarathi, K., Ranganathan, L. S., (1999). Longevity of microbial and enzymeactivities and their influence on NPK content in pressmud vermicasts. Europ. J. SoilBiol.,35 (3): 107-113.10. Sharma, S.D. and Jha, M.N. (1998). Barren sodic soils clothed green - Success story.ICFRE Pub. Forest Research Institute , Dehradun11. Vyavasaya Panchangam, 2005, Agricultural Information and Broadcasting center,Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural university, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad-500 030.12. Zebarth, B. J., Neilsen, G. H., Hogue, E., Neilsen, D., (1999).Influence amendementsfaits de dechets organiques surcertains proprietes physiques et chimiques duesol.Canadian Journal Soil Sciences 79: 501- 504.13. Madan Mohan Reddy. K, Sivaramulu Naidu. D and Sanjeeva Rayudu. E, “Studies onRecycled Aggregate Concrete by using Local Quarry Dust and Recycled Aggregates”,International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2,2012, pp. 322 - 326, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.14. M. Alhassan and I. L. Boiko, “Effect of Vertical Cross-Sectional Shape of Foundationand Soil Reinforcement on Settlement and Bearing Capacity of Soils”, InternationalJournal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013,pp. 80 - 88, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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