InternationalINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND
Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (I...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 09...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 09...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 09...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 09...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 09...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 09...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN
0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 09...
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Hardware co simulation of bpsk and qpsk

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Hardware co simulation of bpsk and qpsk

  1. 1. InternationalINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue (November, 2013), pp. 301-308 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET ©IAEME Hardware Co-simulation of BPSK and QPSK For Software Defined Radio Gaurav Purohit1, Divya Vyas2, Kota Solomon Raju2, V.K Chaubey2, Arvind Nehra3 1PhD Scholar/Department of EEE, BITS- Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan, India 2Faculty/Computer Science, BKBIET, Pilani, Rajasthan, India 1er.gauravpurohit@gmail.com, 2er.divyapurohit@gmail.com ABSTRACT: The paper presents the design of a BPSK and QPSK digital Modulation scheme and its implementation on FPGAs. The simulation of the system is made in MATLAB Simulink environment and System Generator, a tool used for FPGA design. This paper mainly focuses on the hardware realization of such scheme with a minimum area strategy for the universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS), CDMA2000 and SDR applications. Hardware Co Simulation is designed using VHDL a hardware description language targeting a Virtex-5 device (XC5VLX50T-1ff1136) and is verified using MATLAB Simulink. KEYWORDS: BPSK, CDMA2000, LUT, QPSK, SDR, UMTS I. INTRODUCTION A significant transition from analog to digital has occurred in the past years and communications is a field which has gain a lot because of this development. The advanced algorithms used in a digital communication system made it more reliable than an analog one. Studies about the implementation of digital communication systems were made in [1]. The hardware and software resources used in generating the QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) modulation and demodulation were a computer with the Xilinx ISE and Digilent GENESYS board and a Series of Oscilloscope, a high performance digital oscilloscope. The purpose of this paper is to create a BPSK/QPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) system using Hardware Co Simulation with VHDL a hardware description language targeting a Virtex-5 device (XC5VLX50T-1ff1136) and is verified using MATLAB Simulink [2]. The paper is organized into 3 main and 2 sub sections. The paper begins with an introduction in section 1. Section 2 presents the theoretical backgrounds about the digital communication system and about the BPSK/QPSK modulation and demodulation. The first subsection gives implementation of the BPSK whereas second gives implementation of QPSK system in MATLAB Simulink and System Generator. Section 3 presents the conclusions. International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 301
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME II. Modulation Technique – PSK ( Phase Shift Keying) The aim of digital baseband modulation methods, also known as line coding, is to transfer a digital bit stream over a baseband channel using a pulse train, i.e. a discrete number of signal levels, by directly modulating the voltage or current on a cable. Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). PSK uses a finite number of phases; each assigned a unique pattern of binary digits. Usually, each phase encodes an equal number of bits. Each pattern of bits forms the symbol that is represented by the particular phase. PSK is much more robust than ASK as it is not that vulnerable to noise, which changes amplitude of the signal [3]. Fig. 1: Basic Modulation System Fig. 2: Digital Modulation techniques (A to D) International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 302
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME A typically digital communication system is presented in Fig.1. The role of a digital communication system is to transport digital data between two nodes: the transmitter and the receiver. A digital communication system is made up of both digital and analog parts. The digital part consists of digital source/user, source encoder/decoder, channel encoder/decoder and the digital modulator/demodulator. The digital data is transmitted between the transmitter and the receiver by varying a physical characteristic of a sinusoidal carrier, by phase since we have represented the variants of PSK i.e. BPSK would be presented first, and then QPSK. Fig.2 shows the Software defined radio architecture and the block of digital baseband system where we have the need of such schemes. Therefore, this paper begins with a discussion of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and uses this discussion as a vehicle for development of generic models for Quadrature modulation. 1. BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) The binary phase shift keyed modulator is the simplest of app PSK modulators since it has only two output phase states at the same frequency, but separated by 180º. The general form for the BPSK signals are according to (1), where fc is the frequency of the carrier. If “1” is transmitted, the modulated signal remained the same as the carrier, with 0º initial phase, but if “0” is transmitted, the modulated signal would change with 180º, like shown in fig. 3 (a) and (b) [4] [5]. (1) (a) (b) Fig. 3: (a) BPSK Modulation waveform and (b) Constellation diagram 1.1. BPSK Modulator in System Generator System Generator is a digital signal processing design tool from Xilinx, based on the Simulink environment used for FPGA design. Designs are made in the Simulink environment using a Xilinx specific blockset. All implementation steps, including synthesis, place and route are automatically performed to generate an FPGA programming file. BPSK Modulator using System Generator tools in Simulink. In fig. 4, the system generator output and its HW Co-simulation model is shown whereas fig.5 shows generated waveform from MATLAB environment and verified waveform from Modelsim environment. International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 303
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME Fig.4: BPSK Modulator and its Co-simulation Block using system generator Fig.5: BPSK Waveform from (a) MATLAB Scope and (b) Modelsim (Verification) International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 304
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME 2. QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) In QPSK quadrature means 4 different states that are used to represent a group of 2 bits input data. The four different inputs are 00, 01, 10 and 11 and each group takes one form of QPSK states as shown in fig. 6 and 7.[6-8] This we do to increase the bit rate, hence we code 2 or more bits onto one signal element. In QPSK, we parallelize the bit stream so that every two incoming bits are split up and PSK a carrier frequency. One carrier frequency is phase shifted 90o from the other in quadrature. The two PSKed signals are then added to produce one of 4 signal elements. The conventional QPSK modulator operates by dividing the baseband data into 2 main streams, even and odd data. The divided unipolar data then changed into bipolar by using NRZ encoding technique [9]. The implementation is shown in fig.8 and fig.9 shows waveform from MATLAB and Wavescope. Fig. 10 shows the routed waveform FPGA [10] Genesys board to DSO. Fig.6: QPSK and its implementation Fig.7: QPSK constellation with Gray mapping International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 305
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME Fig.8: QPSK Modulator and its Co-simulation Block using system generator Fig.9: QPSK Waveform from (a) MATLAB Scope and (b) Xilinx Wavescope (Verification) International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 306
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME Fig.10: QPSK Waveform Routed from FPGA Pins to Digital Oscilloscope III. Conclusion In this paper, we have shown the hardware co-simulation of two demanding variants of PSK i.e. the BPSK Modulator and the QPSK Modulator in the MATLAB/Simulink environment using Xilinx System generator. In the second step we implemented the BPSK and QPSK modulator on the Virtex-5 device (XC5VLX50T-1ff1136) kit and routed the output to DSO for real time demonstration. Our model is highly efficient and robust for demonstration of modulator for SDR and other Wireless standards. IV. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Mrs. Anu Gupta, HOD, Department of EEE, BITS-Pilani. This work is published with the support of CSIR (MHRD, DELHI) SRF Fellowship. REFERENCES [1]F.Xiong, “Digital Modulation Techniques”, Artech House, UK, 2000. [2] S.T.Karris, “Introduction to Simulink with Engineering Applications”, Orchard Publications, USA, 2006. [3] B. A. Forouzan, S. C. Fegan, “Data Communications and Networking “, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2003. [4]W.Song, J.Zhang, Q.Yao, “Design and Implementation of BPSKModulator and Demodulator on Modern DSP Technology”, 3rdIEEE International Symposium on Microwave, Antenna,Propagation and EMC Technologies for WirelessCommunications, China, 2009, pp.1135-1137. International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 307
  8. 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Special Issue, October (2013), © IAEME [5]F.Ahamed, A. Scorpino, “An educational digital communicationsproject using FPGAs to implement a BPSK Detector”, IEEETransactions on Education, Vol.48, No.1, 2005, pp.191-197. [6] J.S. Chitode, “Digital Communication”,Technical Publications , 2008. [7] A. H. Aghvami “Digital Modulation Techniques for mobile and personal communication systems", Elect. & Comm. Eng. Journal, pp.125 -132 1993 [8] T. S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice”, 1996: Prentice-Hall [9] B. P. Lathi “Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems”, 1989: Holt, Rinehart and Winston [10] Xilinx System Generator User's Guide, www. Xilinx.com. BIOGRAPHY Gaurav Purohit was born in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India in 1986. He received the B.E degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering in 2006. He received his M.E. in communication system in 2010. He is currently pursuing PhD with SRF Scholarship and his research interests focus on VLSI, DSP and digital design. Divya Vyas was born in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India in 1986. She received the B.E degree in Information and technology from Rajasthan University in 2007. She is currently teaching in CS/IT department, BKBIET, Pilani, Rajasthan, India her research interests focus on Verilog and C languages with digital design. International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS-2013) B K Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology (BKBIET), Pilani, India October 18-20, 2013 Page 308

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