Experimental investigations on the performance and emissoin characteristics

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Experimental investigations on the performance and emissoin characteristics

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME20EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE ANDEMISSOIN CHARACTERISTICS OF A MULLITE COATED DIDIESEL ENGINE1Vinay Kumar Domakonda*, 2Ravi Kumar Puli, 3Santhosh Kumari1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal,India3Christu Jyothi Institute of Technology and Scienc, Jangoen, Warangal, IndiaABSTRACTMullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) ceramic powder has been used as a thermal barrier coating material tostudy its effect on the performance and exhaust emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine operatedusing diesel fuel. Mullite thermal barrier coatings have been proved to be an efficient thermal barriercoating material besides the conventional YSZ TBCs with lower thermal conductivity, high sinteringresistance, low oxygen permeability. The study has shown that the performance of the engine isimproved significantly on the account of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption.Emissions, on the other hand are also found to be reduced considerably, especially the smoke opacitywhich is significantly low at all Low Heat Rejection (LHR) operations.Key Words: Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine, Mullite, Thermal Barrier Coatings.1. INTRODUCTIONPlasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are being extensively perused areaof interest from the recent past for the improved efficiency and reduced emissions especially in dieselengines. Yttria stabilized zirconia, also called partially stabilized zirconia(Y-PSZ) material is believedto be a reliable TBC until now but the failure of the coating at elevated temperatures under continuousthermal shocks as in diesel engines lead to the investigation of new materials for TBC applications.PSZ is limited due to phase transitions and increased sintering of the porous TBC layer above 1200°C, which leads to catastrophic delamination of the coating. The failure of the PSZ coatings is alsoattributed to the high concentration of oxygen vacancies which permeates the oxygen through it,leading to the oxidation of the bond coat and sintering of the coating at higher temperatures, whichleads to a decrease in porosity and an increase of Young’s modulus and, hence, to higher thermallyinduced stresses [ HYPERLINK l "Yul10" 1 ].In order to overcome the disadvantages of PSZ and to meet the requirements of an ideal TBC,it is needed to develop a new candidate material with even lower thermal conductivity, capability towithstand higher operating temperatures, higher sintering-resistance and phase stability at even highertemperature2]}. Among the interesting candidates for TBCs, rare earth zirconates have beenINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, April 2013, pp. 20-25© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME21investigated, and they have been proved to be significant for the top coating materials [19]. Amongthese materials,, Mullite shows promising thermo-physical properties and has attracted great attentionas candidate material for thermal barrier applications [ HYPERLINK l "Hen03" 3 ]. To this purpose,mullite (3Al2O3–2SiO2) coatings are particularly promising due to their high thermal stability, lowthermal conductivity, high resistance in highly oxidative and corrosive environments, high resistanceto crack propagation and high thermal shock resistance [1–6]. Previous works have demonstrated thatmullite coated diesel engine components exhibited decreased surface cracking when compared tozirconia coated ones [7]. In addition, mullite coatings are suitable for environmental protection ofceramic matrix composites (CMC),i.e. SiC-based ceramics, against corrosion from molten salts andwater vapour in combustion environments, due to their good density, chemical compatibility andthermal expansion coeffi-cient very close to that of the substrate [8,9].2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDUREThe experimental setup consists of a Kirloskar made single cylinder direct injection dieselengine whose specifications are given below in Table.2 is a widely used engine for agriculturalactivities and water pumping in India. The set up also consists of a Kistler made pressure transdusertype 7001, flush mounted on the cylinder head for the measurement of in-cylinder pressure,an opticalTDC marker, a charge amplifier of type 5007 made by Kistler and an NI USB 6008 DAQ card for theconversion of pressure sensor and TDC marker analog signals into digital signal and for dataacquisition. A labview based software has been used to monitor pressure and TDC signal data.Exhaust gas emissions are measured using a NETEL Made five gas analyzer model NPM-MGA-2 andsmoke opacity is measured using NETEL smoke meter model no.NPM-SM-111B (Table.3). Fuelconsumption is measured using a calibrated burette and volume flow rate of air is measured using anair box and U-tube manometer. The engine components viz. piston, cylinder head and valves arecoated with Lanthanum zirconate and have been shown in Fig.2.Figure.1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setupFigure.2 Mullite coated engine components
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME22No. of cylinders OneBore, mm 80Stroke, mm 110Cubic capacity, CC 553Rated output, kW (HP) 3.68 (5)Compression Ratio 16.5:1Type of Injection DirectSTD Inj. Timing, oBTDC 23STD.Inj.opening pr.,kg/cm2200Type of cooling waterRated speed, RPM 1500Table.2. Specifications of the test engine.Thermocouples are arranged at different locations to measure the temperatures at different engineparts viz. engine coolant outlet temperature, exhaust gas temperatures etc. .Experiments were conducted initially on the standard engine i.e. without applying coating tothe engine parts at standard, manufacturer specified injection timing of 230BTDC and at an injectoropening pressure of 200 kg/cm2using diesel fuel. Then the mullite coated parts are assembled to theengine thus making it low heat rejection engine(LHRE). Experiments are repeated same as above atstandard engine operating conditions .NPM-MGA-2 Five Gas AnalyzerGases measured Method MeasurementRangeResolution AccuracyHC NDIR 0-20,000 ppm 1 ppm +/- 10ppm absCO NDIR 0-9.99 % 0.01 % +/- 0.03% absCO2 NDIR 0-20.00 % 0.10 % +/- 0.04% absO2 Electrochemical 0-25 % 0.01 % +/- 0.1% absNOx Electrochemical 0-10,000 1 ppm +/- 25ppm absNPM-SM-111B Smoke meterType of smoke meter Partial flowDisplay indication Light absorption coefficient (K) and percentage opacityDisplay Range 0-9.99 m-1Linearity 0.1 m-1Repeatability 0.1 m-1
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME23Table.3. Technical Specifications of five gas analyzer and smoke meterTable.4. Plasma spraying parameters (Severin Seifert et al)RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSGenerally, the concentrations of pollutants in internal combustion engine exhaust differ fromvalues calculated assuming chemical equilibrium. Thus the detailed chemical mechanisms by whichthese pollutants form and the kinetics of these processes are important for determining emissionlevels. For some pollutant species, e.g., carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and particulates, theformation and destruction reactions are intimately coupled with the primary fuel combustion process.In the diesel engine, the fuel is injected into the cylinder just before combustion starts, so throughoutmost of the critical parts of the cycle the fuel independent of the fuel distribution and how thatdistribution changes with time due to mixing.Fig.3 Variation of BSFC with brake power with and without coatingFig.4 Variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power with and without coating using differentfuels
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME24Fig.4 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power for the standard andmullite coated LHR engine at standard operation conditions. Mullite LHR engine when run withstandard diesel has shown 5.78% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency compared to thestandard diesel operation. Reduced heat transfer to the cooling system in the case of LHR engine isbelieved to have helped in increasing the brake thermal efficiency of the engine.CONCLUSIONS1. Mullite has been used as candidate material for TBC and a series of experiments have beenconducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine.2. Experimental observations showed that the mullite has ensured in improved engine performancewith reduced emissions at all engine load conditions.3. The BSFC has been found to be 5.46% low with LHRE compared to that of standard engineoperation at full load condition4. Brake thermal efficiency of the LHR engine is improved significantly compared to that of standardengine operation resulting in over 5.78% improvement.5. CO emissions are reduced with LHR operation significantly. Higher CO emissions from standardengine using diesel fuel are attributed to the non-favorable conditions for the oxidation of CO intoCO2 especially at no load and full load conditions. This problems has been overcome using TBCsbecause of which rise in in-cylinder temperatures helped to oxidize the CO emissions formedwithin the cylinder.6. Rise in in-cylinder temperatures because of the insulation has resulted in increased gastemperatures and thus NOx emissions. The insulation has resulted in around 4%,higher at full load.REFERENCES[1] Jianmin Chen, Huidi Zhou, Guang Liu Yulong An, "Microstructure and thermal cycleresistance of plasma sprayed mullite coatings made from secondary mullitized natural andalusitepowder," Surface & Coatings Technology, 205 , pp. 1897–1903, 2010.[2] Roy Kamo, "Adiabatic Diesel-Engine Technology In Future Transportation," Energ Vol. 12,No. 10/ll,198,Pergamon Journals Ltd, pp. pp. 1073-1080, 1987.[3] Dieter Pitzer, Gerhard Pracht,Robert Vassen,and Detlef Stover Henry Lehmann, "ThermalConductivity and Thermal Expansion Coefficients of the Lanthanum Rare-Earth-Element ZirconateSystem," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 86 [8], pp. 1338–44 , 2003.[4] C M V Prasad, "Performance evaluation of non-edible vegetable oils as substitute fuels in lowheat rejection diesel engines," Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 214 Part D, 1999.[5] Ramachandran et al, "Synthesis, spheroidization and spray deposition of lanthanum zirconateusing thermal plasma process," Surface & Coatings Technology,206, pp. 3017–3035, 2012.[6] Bryzik E Kamo R, "Adiabatic turbo compound engine performance prediction.," 1978.[7] Gervin IJ, Wade WR. Havstad PH, "A ceramic insert uncooled diesel engine," 1986.[8] Ozturk U. Hazar H, "The effects of Al2O3eTiO2 coating in a diesel engine on performanceand emission of corn oil methyl ester.," vol. 86,1-6, 2101.[9] S.P. Sivapirakasam,M. Udayakumar M. MohamedMusthafa, "Comparative studies on fly ashcoated low heat rejection diesel engine on performa nce and emission characteristics fueled by ricebran and pongamia methyl ester and their blend with diesel," vol. 36,2343-2351, 2011.[10] Hanbey Hazar, "Characterization and effect of using cotton methyl ester as fuel in a LHRdiesel engine," vol. 52,258-263, 2011.[11] Wu YG, Chang CT Lin YF, "Combustion characteristics of waste-oil producedbiodiesel/diesel fuel blends," vol. 86,1772-80, 2007.[12] Miguez JL, Porteiro J, Granada E, Moran JC Murillo S, "Performance and exhaust emissionsin the use of biodiesel in outboard diesel engines," vol. 86,1765-71, 2007;86.[13] Cevik I, Akcil M. Uzun A, "Effects of thermal barrier coating on a turbocharged diesel engineperformance.," vol. 505–7,116–119, 1999.
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME25[14] Hüseyin Aydın Bahattin ş can, "Improving the usability of vegetable oils as a fuel in a lowheat rejection diesel engine," vol. 98,59-64, 2012.[15] B.T. Tompkins, J.A. Bittle, T.J. Jacobs H. Song, "Comparisons of NO emissions and sootconcentrations from biodiesel-fuelled diesel engine," Fuel, vol. 96, pp. 446-453, 2012.[16] N. ALAGUMURTH,C.G. SARAVANAN K. ANANDAVELU, Proceedings of the ASME2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition , November 12-18, 2010,Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.[17] P.G. Tewari N.R. Banapurmath, "Perf ormance studies of a low heat rejection engine operatedon non-volatile vege table oils with exhaust gas recirculation," International Journal of SustainableEngineering(Taylor and Francis), vol. Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 265–274, December 2009.[18] Samria NK Prasad R, "Heat transfer and stress fields in the inlet and exhaust valves of a semi-adiabatic diesel engine," Comput Struct, vol. 35(5), pp. 765-77, 1990.[19] Fort EF, Bulumberg PN Morel T, "Effect of insulation strategy and design parameters ondiesel engine heat rejection and performance," vol. SAE Paper 850506, 1985.[20] V.Narasiman, S.Jeyakumar, M. Mani and K.Rajkumar, “Impact of Combustion on IgnitionDelay and Heat Release Curve of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine using Sardine Oil as a MethylEster”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3,2012, pp. 150 - 157, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.[21] Pundlik R. Ghodke and Dr. J. G. Suryawanshi, “Simulation and Optimization of HSDIDiesel Engine for Suv to Meet Bharat 4 Emission Norms in India”, International Journalof Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 494 - 510,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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