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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE DEVELOPED BY USING BRICK POWDER (BP) AND QUARRY DUST (QD)

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To meet the requirements of globalization, in the construction of buildings and other structures concrete plays the major rightful role and a large quantum of concrete is being utilized.
The constituent materials of concrete include cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water. For better performance and to meet the requirements additives or sometimes super plasticizers are used. Portland cement clinker production consumes large amounts of energy (850 kcal per kg of
clinker) and has a considerable environmental impact. This involves massive quarrying for raw materials (limestone, clay, etc.), as it takes 1.7 tones to produce 1 ton of clinker, as well as the emission of greenhouse and other gases (NOx, SO2, CO2) into the atmosphere. Around 850 kg of CO2 are emitted per ton of clinker produced

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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE DEVELOPED BY USING BRICK POWDER (BP) AND QUARRY DUST (QD)

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 86 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE DEVELOPED BY USING BRICK POWDER (BP) AND QUARRY DUST (QD) A.H.L.Swaroop1 , K.Venkateswara Rao2 , Dr P.Kodanada Rama Rao3 1 Assistant Professor, Gudlavalleru Engineering College, Gudlavalleru, A.P, India 2 Associate Professor, Gudlavalleru Engineering College, Gudlavalleru, A.P, India 3 Professor, Gudlavalleru Engineering College, Gudlavalleru, A.P, India ABSTRACT To meet the requirements of globalization, in the construction of buildings and other structures concrete plays the major rightful role and a large quantum of concrete is being utilized. The constituent materials of concrete include cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water. For better performance and to meet the requirements additives or sometimes super plasticizers are used. Portland cement clinker production consumes large amounts of energy (850 kcal per kg of clinker) and has a considerable environmental impact. This involves massive quarrying for raw materials (limestone, clay, etc.), as it takes 1.7 tones to produce 1 ton of clinker, as well as the emission of greenhouse and other gases (NOx, SO2, CO2) into the atmosphere. Around 850 kg of CO2 are emitted per ton of clinker produced. River sand is most commonly used fine aggregate in the production of concrete poses the problem of acute shortage in many areas. Whose continued use has started posing serious problems with respect to its availability, cost and environmental impact. In the backdrop of such a bleak atmosphere, there is large demand for alternative materials from waste. Secondary cementing materials like Brick Powder can be used to partially replace cement because of pozzolonic nature. Materials like quarry dust best suites to sand due to its physical and chemical properties, fineness etc. Also these materials are known to increase durability, resistance to sulphate attack and Alkali-Silica reaction(ASR). Our main aim is study the materials Brick powder and quarry dust are best suitable for preparing high strength and durable concrete Keywords: Durability, Seawater, Sulphuric Acid, Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength, Weight Loss. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/Ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2015): 9.1215 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 87 INTRODUCTION Concrete durability has been defined by the American Concrete Institute as its resistance to weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion and other degradation processes. Durability is the ability to last a long time without significant deterioration. A durable material helps the environment by conserving resources and reducing wastes and the environmental impacts of repair and replacement Fig. 1: Durability effect Construction and demolition waste contribute to solid waste going to landfills. The production of new building materials depletes natural resources and can produce air and water pollution. The design service life of most buildings is often 30 years, although buildings often last 50 to 100 years or longer. Most concrete and masonry buildings are demolished due to obsolescence rather than deterioration. A concrete shell can be left in place if a building use or function changes or when a building interior is renovated. Concrete, as a structural material and as the building exterior skin, has the ability to withstand nature’s normal deteriorating mechanisms as well as natural disasters. Different concretes require different degrees of durability depending on the exposure environment and properties desired. For example, concrete exposed to tidal seawater will have different requirements than an indoor concrete floor. Concrete ingredients, their proportioning, interactions between them, placing and curing practices, and the service environment determine the ultimate durability and life of concrete. The deterioration of concrete mainly due to various chemical and physical attacks such as 1. Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) 2. Chloride Resistance and Steel Corrosion 3. Seawater Exposure 4. Abrasion Resistance 5. Sulphate attack 6. Resistance to Freezing and Thawing 7. Chemical Resistance EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM This experimental program consists of the following steps: Collection of Materials Casting Curing Testing
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 88 Collection of Materials: The materials required for our experimental program are collected according to requirements. Cement Brick Powder Sand Quarry Dust Cubes casted are immersed in water, sulphuric acid and seawater for 7 days, 28 days &120 days for determination of compressive strength, split tensile strength and weight loss. Different Mixes of Concrete Considered are: 1. Conventional aggregate concrete (CCA) 2. Concrete made by replacing 10% cement BP…..(CBP10) 3. Concrete made by replacing 10% with BP and 10% QD…..(CB10Q10) 4. Concrete made by replacing 10% with BP and 15% QD…..(CB10Q15) 5. Concrete made by replacing 10% with BP and 20% QD…..(CB10Q20) 6. Concrete made by replacing 15% cement with BP..…(CBP15) 7. Concrete made by replacing 15% with BP and 10% QD…..(CB15Q10) 8. Concrete made by replacing 15% with BP and 20% QD…..(CB15Q15) 9. Concrete made by replacing 15% with BP and 30% QD…..(CB15Q20) Materials: The constituent materials used in this investigation were procured from local sources. These materials are required by conducting various tests. From the test results obtained we selected the type of materials we are using which include cement, brick powder, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, quarry dust, water, sulphuric acid. Cement: Ordinary Portland cement of C53 grade conforming to both the requirements of IS: 12269 and ASTM C 642-82 type-I was used. We are conducting different types of tests on cement, those are Normal Consistency, Initial and Final setting times, Compressive strength of cement, Specific Gravity and Fineness of cement. From the test results obtained the conventional concrete can be designed according to IS10262-82(MIX DESIGN CODE). Finally M25 Grade concrete is designed. Coarse Aggregate: Normal aggregate that is crushed blue granite of maximum size 20 mm was used as coarse aggregate. We are conducting tests on coarse aggregate are Water Absorption Capacity, Specific Gravity and Fineness Modulus of coarse aggregate. Fine Aggregate: Well graded river sand passing through 4.75 mm was used as fine aggregate. The sand was air-dried and sieved to remove any foreign particles prior to mixing. We are conducting tests on fine aggregate are Water Absorption Capacity, Specific Gravity and Fineness Modulus of fine aggregate. Brick Powder: Brick Powder is the waste obtained from burning of clay bricks in the form of brick kilns. It possess good pozzolanic property
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 89 Quarry Dust: Quarry Rock Dust can be defined as residue, tailing or other non-voluble waste material after the extraction and processing of rocks to form fine particles less than 4.75mm Mixing and Casting: Initially the constituent materials were weighed and dry mixing was carried out for cement, sand and coarse aggregate and admixtures. This was thoroughly mixed manually to get uniform colour of mix. The mixing duration was 2-5 minutes and then the water was added as per the mix proportion. The mixing was carried out for 3-5 minutes duration. Then the mix poured in to the cube moulds of size 150 x 150x 150 mm and then compacted manually using tamping rods. Fig 2: Mixing of concrete Fig 3: Casting of Cubes
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 90 Curing: The cubes are demoulded after 1 day of casting and then kept in respective solutions for curing at room temperature with a relative humidity of 85% the cubes are taken out from curing after 7, 28 & 120 days for testing. Curing is a procedure that is adopted to promote the hardening of concrete under conditions of humidity and temperature which are conducive to the progressive and proper setting of the constituent cement. Curing has a major influence on the properties of hardened concrete such as durability, strength, water-tightness, wear resistance, volume stability, and resistance to freezing and thawing. Concrete that has been specified, batched, mixed, placed, and finished can still be a failure if improperly or inadequately cured. Curing is usually the last step in a concrete project and, unfortunately, is often neglected even by professionals. Fig 4: Curing of Cubes in H2SO4 solution & normal Water We have considered 9 mixes and casted cubes per mix to cure 4 sets of cubes for compression (7 , 28 &120 days) test and Split tensile test ( 28 & 120 days). Testing: Compression Testing: Cubes are tested after completion of curing and for 7days these are tested by UTM with rate of loading 14mpa/min and for 7, 28& 120 days these are tested by CTM with a rate of loading of 14mpa/min.
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 91 Fig.5: Compression test arrangement Fig.6: Cracks developed at the time of Compression failure Split Tensile Test: The load shall be applied without shock and increased continuously at a nominal rate within the range1.2 N/(mm2 /min) to 2.4 N/ (mm2 /min). Fig 7: Split tensile test arrangement
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 92 Fig 8: Cracks developed during Split tensile failure RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH STUDIES: Compression Test for 7 Days Curing Table 1: Compression Test For7 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 WATER 23.6 23.7 23.8 24 24.1 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.7 ACID 24 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.6 24.7 24.8 25 25.1 SEA WATER 23.8 24 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.6 24.8 24.9 25 Fig 9: Compression Test For 7 Days Curing
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 93 Compression Test for 28 Days Curing Table 2: Compression Test or 28 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 WATER 35.16 35.29 35.42 35.56 35.59 35.82 35.96 36.09 36.22 ACID 37.82 37.96 38.1 38.2 38.36 38.49 38.62 38.76 38.89 SEA WATER 36.21 36.4 36.71 37.12 37.89 38.21 38.34 38.56 38.81 Fig 10: Compression Test for 28 Days Curing Compression Test for 120 Days Curing Table 3: Compression Test or 120 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 WATER 35.36 34.29 35.42 35.56 36.59 35.82 35.96 36.09 35.22 ACID 37.20 37.96 38.14 38.45 38.36 38.49 38.62 38.76 38.89 SEA WATER 36.41 38.42 36.71 37.12 37.89 38.24 38.34 39.54 39.81 Fig 11: Compression Test for 28 Days Curing
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 94 Split Tensile Test Results for 28 Days Curing Table 4: Split Tensile Test Results For 28 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 WATER 3.26 3.3 3.6 3.9 3.7 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.4 ACID 4.5 3.8 3.7 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.8 3.5 3.7 SEA WATER 4.39 3.68 3.69 3.5 3.6 3.0 3.6 3.4 3.8 Fig12: Split Tensile Test Results For 28 Days Curing Split Tensile Test Results for 120 Days Curing Table 5: Split Tensile Test Results For 120 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 WATER 3.27 3.3 3.61 3.92 3.76 2.95 3.14 3.12 3.41 ACID 4.57 3.84 3.76 3.28 3.52 3.34 3.83 3.52 3.78 SEA WATER 4.42 3.73 3.75 3.53 3.65 3.15 3.7 3.5 3.81 Fig 13: Split Tensile Test Results For 120 Days Curing
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 95 WEIGHT LOSS: % Weight Loss For 7 Days Curing: Table 6: % Weight Loss for 7 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 INITIAL WEIGHT 8.25 8.15 8.35 8.18 8.3 8.28 8.32 8.18 8.26 FINAL WEIGHT 8.06 7.9 8.2 8.04 8.17 8.17 8.22 8.10 8.2 % WEIGHT LOSS 2.3 1.92 1.78 1.65 1.5 1.25 1.2 0.9 0.72 Weight Loss for 28 Days Curing Table 7: % Weight Loss for 28 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 INITIAL WEIGHT 8.25 8.15 8.35 8.18 8.3 8.28 8.32 8.18 8.26 FINAL WEIGHT 7.99 7.91 8.11 7.96 8.10 8.09 8.13 8.01 8.1 % WEIGHT LOSS 3.06 2.92 2.76 2.64 2.38 2.26 2.18 2.05 1.84 Weight Loss for 120 Days Curing Table 8: % Weight Loss for120 Days Curing MIX CAC CBP10 CB10Q10 CB10Q15 CB10Q20 CBP15 CB15Q10 CB15Q15 CB15Q20 INITIAL WEIGHT 8.25 8.15 8.35 8.18 8.3 8.28 8.32 8.18 8.26 FINAL WEIGHT 7.98 7.89 8.08 7.92 8.25 7.91 8.02 7.64 8.11 % WEIGHT LOSS 3.06 2.92 2.76 2.64 2.38 2.26 2.18 2.05 1.84 CONCLUSIONS In the case of compressive strength test, • For all types of mixes considered always an increase in strength is seen for both 7, 28 & 120days curing • Also, acid and seawater curing gained more strength than normal water curing In the case of split tensile test, • For water curing, the strength has improved uptoCB10Q15 and then it has fallen down
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 1, January (2015), pp. 86-96 © IAEME 96 • For acid curing , Conventional concrete exhibited high strength and then better strength is seen at CB15Q10 • The chosen materials are good in resisting the sulphate attack • Also they reduce the cost of construction when compared to conventional aggregate In the case of weight loss There is a significant decrease in the % weight lost for both 7 days and 28 days curing. This indicates gradual increase in strength. REFERENCES [1] A.Heidari and B.Hasanpour “Effects Of Waste Bricks Powder Of Gachsaran Company As A Pozzolanic Material In Concrete” • Asian Journal Of Civil Engineering (Bhrc) Vol. 14, No. 5 (2013). [2] R.IiangovanaN.Mahindrana “Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete Containing Quarry Rock Dust as Fine Aggregate”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences VOL. 3, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2008. [3] ChandanaSukesh “Partial Replacement of Sand with Quarry Dust in Concrete” by, International Journal of innovative Technology and Exploration and Engineering (IJITEE), VOL.2, MAY 2013. [4] FatihBektas “Use of ground clay brick as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete-hydration characteristics, mechanical properties, and ASR durability”, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 2007. [5] Concrete Technology by A.M.naville and J.J.Brooks. [6] Concrete Technology by M.S.Shetty. [7] Dr. V. Bhaskar Desai, A. Sathyam and S. Rameshreddy, “Some Studies on Mode-II Fracture of Artificial Light Weight Silica Fume Pelletized Aggregate Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 5, Issue 2, 2014, pp. 33 - 51, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [8] Madan Mohan Reddy. K, Sivaramulu Naidu. D and Sanjeeva Rayudu. E, “Studies on Recycled Aggregate Concrete by using Local Quarry Dust and Recycled Aggregates”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 322 - 326, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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