Emerging trends of nanotechnology in biomedical engineering


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Emerging trends of nanotechnology in biomedical engineering

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and CommunicationTechnology (IJECET),International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEEngineering & Technology (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) IJECETVolume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), pp. 25-32© IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijecet.html ©IAEME EMERGING TRENDS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Ms.Kavita L.Awade Dr .Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Raigad E-Mail: Kavitaawade@hotmail.comABSTRACT: This paper main objective is to introduce the different applications ofnanotechnology. The introduction of Nanotechnology along with basic terms are includedin the paper. The method of generation of nanomaterial like nanoparticals, Ultrananoparticals, engineered nanoparticals and nanoaresol etc. is discussed. The potential ofthe nanotechnology in the field og biomedical is explained in detail with the help ofnanorobots, etc is discussed in the paper.INTRODUCTION: Nanotechnology involves development of materials (and even complete systems)at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels in the dimension range ofapproximately 1-500 nanometers. It is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scaleto produce new structures, materials, and devices. This technology has the ability totransform many industries and to be applied in many ways to areas ranging frommedicine to manufacturing.What is nanotechnology? Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of matter at nanometer-length* scalesto produce new materials, structures, and devices. A technology is defined asNanotechnology only if it involves all of the following:1. Research and technology development involving structures with at least onedimension in the range of 1 to100 nanometers (nm), frequently with atomic/molecularprecision 25
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME2. Creating and using structures, devices, and systems that have unique properties andfunctions because of their nanometer-scale dimensions3. The ability to control or manipulate on the atomic scale Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that offers the potential forunprecedented advances in many diverse fields. The ability to manipulate matter at theatomic or molecular scale makes it possible to form new materials, structures, anddevices that exploit the unique physical and chemical properties associated withnanometer-scale structures. The promise of Nanotechnology goes far beyond extendingthe use of current materials. New materials and devices with intricate and closelyengineered structures will allow for (1) new directions in optics, electronics, andoptoelectronics; (2) development of new medical imaging and treatment technologies;and (3) production of advanced materials with unique properties and high-efficiencyenergy storage and generation. Although Nanotechnology-based products are generallythought to be at the pre-competitive stage, an increasing number of products andmaterials are becoming commercially available. These include nanoscale powders,solutions, and suspensions of nanoscale materials as well as composite materials anddevices having a nonstructural. *1 nanometer (nm) = 1 billionth of a meter (10-9). Nanoscale titanium dioxide, for instance, is finding uses in cosmetics, sun-blockcreams, and self-cleaning windows. And nanoscale silica is being used as filler in a rangeof products, including dental fillings. Recently, a number of new or “improved”consumer products using Nanotechnology have entered the market—for example, stainand wrinkle-free fabrics incorporating “nanowhiskers and longer-lasting tennis ballsusing butyl-rubber/nanoclay composites.METHOD OF GENERATION OF NANOPARTICALS: The power of Nanotechnology can be encapsulated in an apparently simple devicecalled a nanofactory that may sit on your countertop or desktop. Packed with miniaturechemical processors, computing, and robotics, it will produce a wide-range of itemsquickly, cleanly, and inexpensively, building products directly from blueprints. 26
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME Nanotechnology not only will allow making many high-quality products at verylow cost, but it will allow making new nanofactories at the same low cost and at the samerapid speed. This unique ability to reproduce its own means of production is whynanotech is said to be an exponential technology.TERMINOLOGYA. Nanoparticles Nanoparticles are particles with diameters between 1 and 100 nm. Nanoparticlesmay be suspended in a gas, suspended in a liquid, or embedded in a matrix.B. Ultra fine particles The term “ultra fine” is frequently used in the context of nanometer-diameterparticles that have not been intentionally produced but are the incidental products ofprocesses involving combustion, welding fume, or diesel exhaust.C. Engineered nanoparticles Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally produced, engineered nanoparticles aredesigned with very specific properties, and collections of the particles in an aerosol,colloid, or powder will reflect these properties.D. Nanoaerosol A nanoaerosol is a collection of nanoparticles suspended in a gas. The particlesmay be present as discrete nanoparticles, or as agglomerates of nanoparticles. Theseagglomerates may have diameters larger than 100 nm.POTENTIAL CONCERN: Nanotechnology is an emerging field. As such, there are many uncertainties as towhether the unique properties of engineered nonmaterial also pose occupational health 27
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMErisks. These uncertainties arise because the characteristics of nonmaterial may bedifferent from those of the larger particles with the same chemical composition andbecause of gaps in knowledge about the factors that are essential for predicting healthrisks—factors such as routes of exposure, movement of materials once they enter thebody, and interaction of the materials with the body’s biological systems. In the case ofnonmaterial, the uncertainties are great.A. Exposure routes: The most common route of exposure to airborne particles in the workplace is byinhalation. Like deposition of other types of airborne particles, discrete nanoparticledeposition in the respiratory tract is determined by particle diameter. Agglomerates ofnanoparticles will deposit according to the diameter of the agglomerate, not constituentnanoparticles.B. Effects Seen in Animal Studies: Experimental studies in rats have shown that at equivalent mass doses, testedinsoluble ultra fine particles are more potent than larger particles of similar compositionin causing pulmonary inflammation, tissue damage, and lung tumors.C. Observations from Epidemiological Studies Involving Fine and Ultrafine Particles Epidemiological studies in workers exposed to aerosols including fine and ultrafine particles have reported lung function decrements, adverse respiratory symptoms,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and fibrosis.WORKING WITH ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS:EXPOSURE CONTROL PROCEDURESA. Engineering controls In general, control techniques such as source enclosure and local exhaustventilation systems should be effective for capturing airborne nanoparticles, based onwhat is known of nanoparticle motion and behavior in air.B. Dust collection efficiency of filters Current knowledge indicates that a well-designed exhaust ventilation system witha high- efficiency particulate air filter should effectively remove nanoparticles. 28
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEC. Work Practices The incorporation of good work practices in a risk management program can helpto minimize worker exposure to nonmaterial.D. Respirators In the hierarchy of controls, respirators may be necessary when engineering andadministrative controls do not adequately keep worker exposures to an airbornecontaminant below a regulatory limit or an internal control target.APPLICATIONS:NANOROBOTS: Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to thescale of a nanometer (10-9 meters)1. Medical Applications • Nano Alert Systems Nanobots would live in a persons bloodstream, and give an early alert tothe individuals doctor should s/he contract some virus. -This is the most likely use ofnanotechnology in near-future medicine, • Fixed Function Prosthetic Nano Nanotech devices can also be implanted with a single fixed function, i.efor replacing some damaged or malfunctioning biological system like nano - restoringsight or hearing, generating insulin, etc. Nanobots could also be used one day to fightdisease. They are small enough to destroy a virus, even to enter and repair a cell. It mayin fact be possible for nanobots to create new tissue. • Permanent Nanobot Defense System Disease would be handled before people have to suffer. Many lives couldbe saved. Immune systems could be constantly updated to new pathogen. 29
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME • Related work Vasculoid is a rather futuristic medical appliance, It would line the interior of theblood vessels, taking over the transport function of the blood. In other words, it wouldreplace the blood, but not replace the tubes. This should reduce blood borne infectionsand should eliminate metastasizing cancer.IMPLANTABLE DEVICS• Retina Implants Retinal implants are in development to restore vision by electrically stimulatingfunctional neurons in the retina One approach has been developed by various groups inan artificial retina implanted in the back of the retina. The artificial retina uses aminiature video camera.Surgicals Aids• Surgical Robotics Robotic surgical systems are being developed to provide surgeons withunprecedented control over precision instruments. This is particularly useful forminimally invasive surgery. Instead of manipulating surgical instruments, surgeons usetheir thumbs and fingers to move joystick handles on a control console to maneuver tworobot arms containing miniature instruments that are inserted into ports in the patient.DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS• Genetic Testing: Nano and micro technologies provide new solutions for increasing the speed andaccuracy of identifying genes and genetic materials for drug discovery and development. 30
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME• Ultra-sensitive Labeling and Detection Technologies Several new technologies are being developed to improve the ability to label anddetect unknown target genes. The device would circulate freely throughout the body, andwould periodically sample its environment by determining whether the binding sites wereor were not occupied.2. Space Science Another avenue being investigated is a concept of nano robotics called "Swarms".Swarms are nano robots that act in unison. They will act as a flexible cloth like material;this cloth will be as strong as diamond. Smart cloth could be used in the astronaut’s spacesuits. A.I computer capable of creating the science experiments needed reroute to itsdestination and capable of not only making changes in mission plans but creating evennew experiments as they are needed or wanted.3. Smart Materials One proposed application of MNT is the development of so-called smartmaterials. This term refers to any sort of material designed and engineered at thenanometer scale to perform a specific task, and encompasses a wide variety of possiblecommercial applications.4. Utility Fog Another proposed application of nanotechnology involves utility fog in which acloud of networked microscopic robots changes its shape and properties to formmacroscopic objects and tools in accordance with software commands. Rather than 31
  8. 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 1, Number 1, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEmodify the current practices of consuming material goods in different forms, utility fogwould simply replace most physical objects.5. Phased-Array Optics Yet another proposed application would be phased-array optics (PAO). PAOwould used the principle of phased-array millimeter technology but at opticalwavelengths. This would permit the duplication of any sort of optical effect but virtually.CONCLUSION: While Nanotechnology is based in the research labs today, the advances made todate have illustrated the significant value this technology will bring. The enhancedcharacteristics of materials will allow us to create new and innovative devices to protectall of us from terrorism, both directly through safer construction designs and indirectlythrough intelligence and surveillance. With each passing day, the promise ofNanotechnology becomes increasingly apparent. There is a long way to go before theNonmaterial production techniques can provide adequate supply of high quality materialsat affordable prices. This is one technology that requires close monitoring to properlytime the significant opportunities that will be created in it wake.REFERENCES • Theres plenty of room at the bottom, by Richard P. Feynman, is a classic 1959 article • Molecular engineering: an approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation, by K. Eric Drexler • Drexler and others have extended the ideas of molecular nanotechnology with two more books, Unbounding the Future: the Nanotechnology Revolution [10] and Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation [11]. • Other notable works in the same vein are Nanomedicine Vol. I and Vol. IIA by Robert Freitas and Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines [12] by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle. • Nanotechnology: Molecular Speculations on Global Abundance Edited by BC Crandall offers interesting ideas for MNT applications. 32