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INTERNATIONAL JOURNALEngineering and TechnologyRESEARCH IN  International Journal of Advanced Research in OF ADVANCED (IJA...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –  6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
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Electromechanical governing of diesel engine of a generator set through torque

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Electromechanical governing of diesel engine of a generator set through torque

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNALEngineering and TechnologyRESEARCH IN International Journal of Advanced Research in OF ADVANCED (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) IJARETVolume 4, Issue 2 March – April 2013, pp. 27-32© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com ELECTROMECHANICAL GOVERNING OF DIESEL ENGINE OF A GENERATOR SET THROUGH TORQUE SENSING 1 2 Mohd Muqeem , Navneet Saini 1 Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering Department, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Uttar Pradesh, India – 244001 2 Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering Department, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Uttar Pradesh, India – 244001 ABSTRACT Governing is the action of varying the fuel supply in accordance with the load demand so that the engine runs at practically constant speed. In this article an attempt is made to control the speed of the engine just before it goes down or high by torque sensing rather than speed sensing. In actual practice, governor senses the change in the speed because of applied load then it regulates the fuel supply to again maintain this speed. Here, we have made an arrangement to generate a signal which will show that there is a change in the load and the speed of the engine is also going to get changed. Before the speed of the engine gets changed, this signal will stipulate the fuel regulating system to increase or decrease the fuel supply so that the speed may not be fluctuated. KEY WORDS: Alternator, Armature, Fuel Rack, Governor, Load Cell, Stepper Motor. 1. INTRODUCTION Diesel engine speed is controlled solely by the amount of fuel injected into the engine by the injectors. The governor provides the engine with the feedback mechanism to change speed as needed and to maintain speed once reached. A governor is a speed-sensitive device, designed to maintain a constant engine speed regardless of load variation. Since all governors used on diesel engines control engine speed through the regulation of the quantity of fuel delivered to the cylinders, these governors may be classified as speed-regulating governors. The major function of the governor is determined by the application of the engine [1] [2]. 27
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME1.1 Operation of a Governor The principles involved are common in any mechanical and hydraulic governor. Thegovernor controls the fuel rack position through a combined action of the hydraulic pistonand a set of mechanical flyweights, which are driven by the engine blower shaft. Figure 1provides an illustration of a functional diagram of a mechanical governor. The position of theflyweights is determined by the speed of the engine. As the engine speeds up or down, theweights move in or out. The movement of the flyweights, due to a change in engine speed,moves a small piston in the governors mechanical system. This motion adjusts the fuel rackfor increased/decreased fuel supply to the engine which in turn regulates the engine speed [3]. Figure 1: Governing of diesel engine1.2 Problem associated with the Governors The general problem associated with the governors is that they regulate the fuelsupply of the engine by sensing the change in the RPMs. Once the engine speed gets changedthen these governors take some action to slide the fuel rack to compensate the RPM changes[4] [5]. Here, it is observed that speed is governed once it has been changed, which is adrawback because it should be controlled not to get changed by doing some priorarrangements. In this article an attempt is made to control the fluctuations in the RPMs bysensing the changes in torque requirement rather than speed so that some arrangements canbe made in advance to control the speed which is going to get changed due to changed torquerequirement. 28
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME 2. GOVERNING OF DIESEL ENGINE THROUGH TORQUE SENSING The following Figure 2 shows block diagram of working of electromechanical speed governor system through torque sensing. A 12 Horse Power Kirloskar diesel engine and a 7.5 KVA alternator are mounted on two separate foundations so that the vibrations of the engine may not be transferred to the alternator. The engine and the alternator are connected by belt and pulley arrangement. When viewed from the front, the engine and alternator rotates in the clockwise direction and the alternator is located in the left and the engine in the right. To achieve the desired purpose, a load cell is mounted below the two side legs of the alternator to measure the thrust applied by it on the base. When the generator is running at no load, the alternator will exert a small thrust on the load cell through right leg. The load cell will send the signal to the control unit accordingly to convert it into pulses for stepper motor which in turn will control the fuel rack to supply fuel to the engine to run at 1500 RPM (required speed). Now, when some load is applied on the alternator suddenly, the armature of the alternator will try to rotate the whole alternator unit and the torque requirement for the alternator will increase. Due to this increase in torque requirement, it will try to lower the speed of the engine but it will be controlled instantaneously by the load cell output signal to the fuel rack regulating system. When the alternator torque requirement will increase, it will exert more thrust on the load cell and left leg will tend to lift up. Due to this increase in the thrust on load cell, a signal will be transmitted to the unit converting it into pulses for stepper motor which in turn will regulate the fuel supply through fuel rack adjustment before the engine speed get lowered. This shows that an attempt is already made to maintain the speed just before it was going to get lowered due to increased torque requirement and speed will not fluctuate. Engine (Prime Mover) Stepper Alternator Motor Regulating Fuel RackBelt and Pulleyarrangement Load Cell A Unit Converting Load Cell Output Signal into Useful Pulses for stepper Motor to move fuel rack to and fro accordingly Figure 2: Governing of diesel engine through torque sensing 29
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME2.1 Conversion of Load Cell Output Voltage into Pulsating Voltage for Stepper Motor The circuit diagram in figure 3 shows the amplification and conversion of load celloutput voltage into pulsating voltage required to drive the stepper motor. Here, themicrocontroller is controlling the motor according to the variation in the thrust applied by thealternator right leg on load cell. When the thrust on the load cell increases, themicrocontroller sends the signal to the stepper motor to rotate in the clockwise directionwhich in turn will move the fuel rack in the forward direction. Similarly, when the thrust onthe load cell decreases, the microcontroller sends the signal to the stepper motor to rotate inthe anti-clockwise direction which in turn will move the fuel rack in the backward direction. Figure 3: controller circuit2.2 Stepper motor pinion and fuel rack mechanism The rack and pinion arrangement is used to convert rotary motion of the motor intolinear motion of fuel rack. Here, pinion is mounted on the motor shaft to move the fuel rackto and fro according to the direction of motion of the motor. The figure 4 shows how rack andpinion works. Pinion mounted on motor shaft Rack of Fuel Injector . Figure 4: Rack and pinion mechanism 30
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME2.3 Cutaway view of fuel Injector The cutaway view of fuel injector shown in figure 5 shows that when the fuel rack ismoved to and fro by the stepper motor, it rotates the gear fitted inside the injector. Due to therotation of the gear fitted on the plunger, the fuel supply to the engine is regulated [3]. Figure 5: cutaway view of fuel injector 52.4 Adjustment of setup for first use For the smooth running of the generator set, an efficient adjustment is needed beforethe first use. Once the engine is started, it needs fuel regulation to run at required 1500 rpm.On other hand, the alternator is at no load, so it will send the signal to the stepper motoraccording to its exerted thrust on load cell. At this moment, the setup is required to send thesignal to the stepper motor to supply minimum required quantity of fuel to the e tepper engine so thesetup is adjusted accordingly. The setup will not lower the fuel supply below this quantity .because at this moment the generator is at no load and it requires minimum quantity of fuel.Now, as the load increases on the alternator, the thrust on the load cell also increases which inturn will send the signal to the stepper motor to increase the fuel supply and when the thrustdecreases, to decrease the fuel supply supply. 31
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3. CONCLUSION From this article we have concluded that on using this setup we can acquire minimumfluctuation in rpm of engine from no load to full load condition. In an alternator, when therpm fluctuates, the output voltage from the alternator can be regulated by some electricalengineering techniques but the frequency of the output cannot be regulated because itdepends on rpm. So, to get minimum fluctuation in frequency of alternator output it isnecessary to reduce the fluctuation in speed of the engine from no load to full load which canbe achieved by using the above technique.4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The experimental setup was carried out in a private generator repairing workshop withthe co-operation of senior technician and owner Mohd Yunus at NH-24, Pakbara, Moradabadand Mr. Farjand Ali from Akanksha Automobiles Pvt. Ltd. Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India -244102REFERENCES[1] Diesel Engine Fundamentals, Module 1, Mechanical Science, Department of Energy, Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980[2] John B. Heywood, “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, McGraw-Hill series in mechanical engineering.[3] DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Mechanical Science, Volume 1 of 2, U.S. Department of Energy , Washington, D.C. 20585, DOE-HDBK-1018/1-93, January 1993[4] APECS® 500 Electronic Engine Speed Governing System, Manual SE-4107, WOODWARD 2004.[5] “Design and Development of Microcontroller Based Electronic Speed Governor for Genset/Automotive Engine” Sushant R. Burje, Prof.S.A.Kulkarni and N.B.Dhande, International Journal of Engineering and Science, ISSN: 2278-4721, Vol. 1, Issue 5 (October 2012), PP 26-33 www.researchinventy.com.[6] Pundlik R. Ghodke, Dr. J. G. Suryawanshi, “Advanced Turbocharger Technologies For High Performance Diesel Engine - Passanger Vehicle Application” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 620 - 632, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.[7] Pratima S. Patil, S.N.Belsare and Dr.S.L.Borse, “Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Heat Transfer Rate to Improve Engine Efficiency, Specific Power & Combustion Performance Prediction” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 447 - 452, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 32

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