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Effect of coarse aggregate characteristics on strength properties of high

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Effect of coarse aggregate characteristics on strength properties of high

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 International Journal of Civil Engineering OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 89-95 IJCIET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com © IAEME EFFECT OF COARSE AGGREGATE CHARACTERISTICS ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE USING MINERAL AND CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES P.J.Patel1, Mukesh A. Patel2, Dr. H.S. Patel3 1 Research Scholar, Ganpat University, Kherava, Mehsana, Gujarat, India 2 Research Scholar, Ganpat University, Kherava, Mehsana, Gujarat, India 3 Associate Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics, L.D.C.E., Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India ABSTRACT Aggregate shape and grading can influence concrete workability. The volumes of water and cementations materials are commonly increased to accommodate poorly shaped or poorly graded aggregates. The purpose of this paper is to show that by properly selecting aggregates and optimizing mixture proportions, the quantity of cementations materials provided for workability can be minimized while achieving adequate workability and hardened properties. In this research investigation of strength properties of high Performance concrete is done by using diverse characteristics of aggregate. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory testing of concrete incorporating varying aggregate characteristics. For the purpose of this work, two types of coarse aggregates were used. The fine aggregate is normal sand obtained from a locally available Preliminary laboratory investigation was conducted to ascertain the suitability of using the aggregates for construction work. Tests conducted include sieve analysis, bulk density, and specific gravity. IS mix design was adopted for this work and mix compositions were calculated by absolute volume method. For each type of coarse aggregate 25 numbers cubes (150x150x150mm) were cast to allow the compressive strength to be monitored at. 56 days. Test result show that concrete made from A type aggregate has higher compressive strength Keywords: Compressive strength, effect of Aggregate, Concrete, Alccofine. 89
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEMEI. INTRODUCTION Aggregate shape and grading can significantly influence concrete workability. Poorly shaped and poorly graded aggregates typically have a lower packing density than well shaped and well graded aggregates, resulting in more paste being required to fill the voids between aggregates. As the excess paste volume needed to fill the voids is reduced, the flowability of the paste must be increased to maintain a given workability level. Further, poorly shaped aggregates exhibit increased inter particle friction, resulting in reduced workability. Therefore, concrete mixtures with poorly shaped and poorly graded aggregates often have higher water and cementations materials requirements than those with well shaped and well graded aggregates to maintain the same workability. The proper selection of aggregates can minimize the increased water and cementations materials contents needed to ensure adequate workability. The compressive strength of concrete depends on the water to cement ratio, degree of compaction, ratio of cement to aggregate, bond between mortar and aggregate, and grading, shape, strength and size of the aggregate. Concrete can be visualized as a multi-phase composite material made up of three phases; namely the mortar, mortar/aggregate interface, and the coarse aggregate phase. The coarse aggregate in normal concrete are mainly from rock fragments characterised by high strength. Therefore, the aggregate interface is not a limiting factor governing the strength requirement. The onset of failure is manifested by crack growth in the concrete. For normal concrete the crack growth is mainly around the cement paste or at the aggregate/cement paste interfacial zone. The strength of concrete at the interfacial zone essentially depends on the integrity of the cement paste and the nature of the coarse aggregate. The effect of two different types of coarse aggregate coarse aggregate on the mechanical properties of high-performance concrete was investigated. The outcome of the study revealed that the strength, stiffness, and fracture energy of concrete for a given water/cement ratio depend on the type of aggregate The effects of content and particle size distribution of coarse aggregate on the compressive strength of concrete have been investigated (Meddah et. al., 2010). Compressive strength, stiffness, and fracture energy of concrete for a given water/cement ratio (W/C) depend on the type of aggregate, especially for high-strength concrete. It is suggested that high-strength concrete with lower brittleness can be made by selecting high-strength aggregate with low brittleness (Wu Ke Ru et. al., 2001). The type of coarse aggregate also influences the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Weaker aggregates tend to produce a more ductile concrete than stronger aggregates do (Beshr et. al., 2003). Three types of coarse aggregates were mixed in four different proportions for concrete production. Plasticizers and Super plasticizers were used in some mixes to reduce the water to cement ratio. The outcome of their work showed that the mixture with a ternary combination of granular fraction with a maximum size of 25mm, without admixtures have shown the highest compressive strength. At a lower water to cement ratio, the binary granular system produced the highest compressive strength. This paper reports the result of a research undertaken to investigate the effect of two different types of coarse aggregate on the compressive strength of normal concrete. 90
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEMEII. MATERIALS II.I Cement Ordinary Portland cement-53 grade ( Ambuja Cement) available in local market was used in investigation. The cement was tested according to IS 4031 : 1988. It confirmed to IS 12269 : 1987. Its Properties is given in Table 1. Table 1. Properties of OPC - 53 Grade Used SR. Properties Value As per No. IS: 12269-1976 1 Specific gravity 3.10 3.15 2 Normal consistency 31% 30% - 35% 3 Initial setting time 36 >30 4 Final setting time 450 <600 5 Fineness (%passing 90 IS sieve) 3% <10% 6 Soundness (mm) 1.2 <10 7 Compressive strength 3 day 39 >27 7 day 40 >37 28 day 57 >53 II.II Coarse Aggregate Two types of coarse aggregates from two different sources were used. Its Sieve analysis is given in Figure 1. And Figure 2.and Its Properties is given in Table 2. Figure 1. Sieve analysis for A type Coarse aggregate. 91
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Figure 2. Sieve analysis for B type Coarse aggregate.II.III Fine Aggregate Natural sand as per IS: 383-1987 was used. Locally available River sand having bulk density 1860 kg/m3 was used The properties of fine aggregate are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Physical properties of aggregates Aggregate type Dry density specific Surface Water Loss on (kg/m3) gravity Moisture Absorption abrasion (%) (%) (%) A Type Coarse. 1727 2.9 0 2.19 22.8 B Type Coarse. 1605 2.85 0.3 3.15 30.40 Sand 2.67 (F.M.) 2.6 0.5 0.8 --II.IV Alccofine ALCCOFINE 1203 is a specially processed product based on slag of high glass content with high reactivity obtained through the process of controlled granulation. ALCCOFINE 1203 use in project conforming to ASTM C989-99. Physical & Chemical Properties of Alccofine is given in Table 3. Table 3. Physical & Chemical Properties of Alccofine Specifi Particle Size Distribution Fineness Bulk Density c (cm2/gm) (Kg/m3) Gravity d10 d50 d90 >12000 2.9 700-900 1.5 micron 5 micron 9 micron Chemical Properties: C aO SO3 SiO2 AL2O3 Fe2O3 MgO 61-64% 2-2.4 % 21-23 % 5-5.6 % 3.8-4.4 % 0.8-1.4 % 92
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME II.V Super plasticizer In this investigation super plasticizer- GLENIUM SKY 784 is based on second generation polycarboxylic ether polymers, developed using Nano technology. Chemical Admixture GLENIUM SKY 784 is conforming to IS:9103-1999. was used to improve the workability of concrete. The properties of super plasticizer are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Properties of super plasticizer Parameter Specification Results (as per IS 9103) Physical state Light brown liquid Light brown liquid Chemical name of Polycarboxylate Polycarboxylate active ingredient polymers Polymers Relative density at 25 c 1.1±0.01 1.105 ph Min 6 6.51 Chloride ion content (%) Max 0.2 0.0017 Dry material content 34±5(%) 34.14III. EXPERIMENT WORK Concrete cubes of 150 X 150 X 150 mm dimension were cast for compressive strength. They were tested for compressive strength after 56 days of water curing. For This, five specimens were tested and the mean value of these measurements is reported. Coarse aggregate contain 10 mm and 20 mm of 40% and 60% Respectively. Table 5: Mix proportions for different mixes (For one cubic meter of concrete) Alccofine Fly- Coarse Mix W/B Cement (Kg) Sand Water Ash Aggregate designation ratio (Kg) (Kg) (litres) (Kg) (Kg) M1 0.28 406.71 111.42 39 1174 632 156 M2 0.30 379.6 104 36.4 1188 661 156 Type A Coarse M3 0.35 327.45 89.71 31.4 1208 721 157 Aggregate M4 0.40 286.52 78.5 27.47 1230 781 157 M5 0.50 279.59 76.6 26.81 1252 841 191.5 M1 0.28 406.71 111.42 39 1182 641 156 M2 0.30 379.6 104 36.4 1193 667 156 Type B Coarse M3 0.35 327.45 89.71 31.4 1203 736 157 Aggregate M4 0.40 286.52 78.5 27.47 1225 792 157 M5 0.50 279.59 76.6 26.81 1247 852 191.5 93
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEMEIV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The results of compressive strength were presented in Table 6. The test was carried out conforming to IS 516-1959 to obtain compressive strength of concrete at the age of 56 1959 days. The cubes were tested using Compression Testing Machine (CTM) of capacity 2000KN. Strength is up to 28.62 N/mm2 and 62.50 N/mm2 at 56 days. The maximum 28.62 compressive strength is observed In the Type A Coarse Aggregate. There is a significant improvement in the compressive strength of concrete because of the Physical properties of Type A Coarse Aggregate and Compatibility. Table 6: Compressive Strength (N/mm2) of Concrete Mixes W/B Type A Coarse Aggregate Type B Coarse Aggregate ratio 0.28 62.50 55.28 0.30 54.68 50.33 0.35 49.70 46.30 0.40 44.56 42.26 0.50 32.58 28.62 Table 7: Slump Value and Slump Flow Slump height in mm Slump flow in diameter. Type A Type B Type A Type B W/B Coarse Coarse Coarse Coarse ratio Aggregate Aggregate Aggregate Aggregate 0.28 - - 580 577 0.30 - - 610 600 0.35 - - 650 630 0.40 90 85 - - 0.50 100 95 - - Type A Corse Aggregate Type B Corse Aggregate 70 62.5 Compressive strength (MPa) 60 55.28 54.68 50.33 49.7 50 46.3 44.56 42.26 40 32.58 30 28.62 20 10 0 0.5 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.28 Water-Binder ratio Fig.4: Effect of Aggregate on compressive strength Ag 94
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEMEV. CONCLUSIONS The results of the research presented in this paper confirm that aggregates can play an important role in the cement content of concrete mixtures. Specifically, the following conclusions can be reached: a) Aggregate type has effect on the compressive strength of normal concrete. b) Highest compressive strength was achieved in Type A Coarse Aggregate compare to type B Coarse Aggregate. From the above investigation, it can be concluded that, Poor Graded And Light weight and Pours Aggregate give Poor compressive strength.VI. REFERENCES [1]. M. S. Shetty, “concrete technology”, S. Chand publication company ltd., new delhi, 2008, [2]. Abdullahi. M, “effect of aggregate type on compressive strength of concrete”, international journal of civil and structural engineering volume 2, no 3, 2012. [3]. M r vyawahare,p o modani “improvement in workability and strength of concrete with flaky and elongated aggregates” 34th conference on our world in concrete & structures: 16 - 18 august 2009, singapore [4]. Michael de moya hahn, marc rached, david w. Fowler, eric p. Koehler “optimization of aggregates in concrete mixtures” [5]. M. Yaqub*, imran bukhari, “effect of size of coarse aggregate on compressive strength of high strength concerts” 31st conference on our world in concrete & structures: 16 - 17 august 2006, [6]. Ke-Ru Wu et. al. “Effect of coarse aggregate type on mechanical properties of high- performance concrete” Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 31, Issue 10, October 2001, Pages 1421-1425 [7]. Beshr et. al.” Effect of coarse aggregate quality on the mechanical properties of high strength concrete” Construction and Building Materials, Volume 17, Issue 2, March 2003, Pages 97-103 [8]. Sitiradziah Abdullah, Ahmad Shayan and Riadh Al-Mahaidi, “Assessing the Mechanical Properties of Concrete Due to Alkali Silica Reaction” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 190 - 204, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 95

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