International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May
ARTIFICIA...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May
Figure 2....
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May
Figure 7(...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
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Effect of artificial roughness on heat transfer and friction factor char

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Effect of artificial roughness on heat transfer and friction factor char

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 289 EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL ROUGHNESS ON HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR CHARACTERISTICS IN RECTANGULAR DUCT OF A DOUBLE PASS SOLAR AIR HEATER Sudhanshu Dogra*1 , Nitin Chauhan2 , Gaurav Bhardwaj3 1,2 Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Lovely Professional University, Punjab 3 Assistant Professor GLA University Noida ABSTRACT An experimental study has been carried out to see the effect of transverse ribs attached to the absorber plate of a Double pass solar air heater on the Heat transfer and Friction factor characteristics in a rectangular Duct. The aspect ratio of the Duct (W/H) is 10. The range of Reynolds number varies from 4900 to 12000. The relative roughness pitch (p/e) is between 5-20 and fixed relative roughness height (e/Dh) 0.044 and fixed angle of attack (α) 90°. It has been observed that maximum heat transfer and friction factor occur at relative roughness pitch (p/e) of 10 and enhancement in the heat transfer is 1.6times of the smooth plate. Keywords: Absorber Plate, Double pass solar air heater, Heat transfer and Friction factor characteristics, Nusselt Number, Reynolds number. INTRODUCTION Solar air heater is the simplest device which is used to convert the solar energy into heat energy. In solar air heater heat generated by solar energy is collected over a collector and that heat is then taken away by the fluid flowing i.e. air in the duct of solar air heater. The heat carried away by air is then used for various purposes and in many applications such as crop drying, space heating [1]. The efficiency of solar air heater is low due to low convective heat transfer between the absorber plate and the fluid flowing inside the duct. So to increase the thermal efficiency of solar air heater many investigators put forth their views. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 289-298 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 290 Several methods have been used by various investigators to increase efficiency. Some of these are Use of artificial roughness on absorber plate, use of fins, electrohydrodynamic method, packed bed etc. Out of these the easiest and most acceptable method to enhance the Heat transfer is the creation of artificial roughness on the absorber plate of solar air heater. Momin et al. [2] carried out an experimental investigation to show the effect of geometrical parameters of V-shaped ribs on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of rectangular duct of a solar air heater. They observed that using V- shaped ribs maximum heat transfer occurred at relative roughness height of 0.034 and at an angle of attack of 60°. Dhiman et al. [3] performed an analytical study to predict the thermal performance of a novel parallel flow packed bed solar air heater. They found that parallel flow solar air heater with packed bed material give a higher heat flux as compared to the conventional non-porous bed double flow system. El-Sebaii et al. [4] carried out an experimental as well as analytical study for the thermal performance of a double pass flat and V-corrugated plate solar air heater. They found that double pass V-corrugated plate solar air heater is more efficient than double pass flat plate solar air heater by 11-14% and the maximum value of the thermo hydraulic efficiency of V as well as flat plate solar air heater occur at mass flow rate 0.02kg/s. El- khawaja et al. [5] carried out an experimental study to show the thermal performance and the effect of using transverse fins on a double pass solar air heater using wire mesh as an absorber plate. He found that the thermal efficiency increases with the increase in mass flow rate and is highest in 0.042kg/s. Prasad and Saini [6] experimentally studied the effect of roughness and flow parameters on heat transfer and friction factor of a solar air heater. They observed that the maximum thermo hydraulic performance is achieved at relative roughness height of 0.033 and relative roughness pitch of 10. They also found that Nusselt number varies 2.38 times and friction factor varies 4.25 times as that of smooth one. Sahu and Bhagoria [7] experimentally studied the thermal performance of a solar air heater and show the variation in the thermal performance by using 90° broken ribs on the absorber plate and found that the thermal performance lie in the range of 51 to 83.5% with 90° broken ribs. Aldabbagh [8] calculated the thermal performance of a single and double pass solar air heaters with steel wire mesh layer instead of a flat absorber plate and the results indicate that the efficiency increases with increasing the mass flow rate within the range of 0.012 to 0.038kg/s. Efficiency is more for double pass than single pass solar air heater by 34-45% for the same mass flow rate. Nephon [9] performed a numerical study on the performance and entropy generation of a double pass solar air heater having longitudinal fins and mathematical model was developed for heat transfer characteristics for the mass flow rate of 0.02-0.1kg/s. He found that the thermal efficiency increases with increase in the number of fins and increase in their height whereas entropy generation decreases with b the increase in the number of fins and their height. Suppramaniam and Satcunanathan [10] concluded that a simple two glass cover solar air heater can be operated as a two pass solar air heater by passing the air between glass panes before passing it through the blackened area which results in increase in the performance of collector with no further increase in cost. The aim of this study is to show the effect of using transverse ribs on the absorber plate (upper side and lower side) on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May ARTIFICIAL ROUGHNESS Thermal performance of solar air heater can be increased by using artificial roughness on the absorber plate to make it rough characteristics. Due to this roughness, turbulent boundary layer with small laminar sub the absorber plate. This laminar sub breaking this layer to create turbulence the heat transfer rate and friction factor characteristics can be increased which further increases the thermal efficiency and thermo hydraulic performance of a solar air heater [11]. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP Schematic view of double pass solar air heater is shown in fig 1. The rectangular duct of double pass solar air heater consists of two consecutive sections that is entry section and the test section. The size of the entire duct is 2070mm*250mm*25mm. Length of test 1600mm and entry length is 400mm. A space of 70mm is to be left out at the end for the movement of air towards upper duct. The entry length is considered on the basis of the American society heating refrigeration and air conditioning engineers ( A heating source is provided so that we get required amount of intensity equivalent to that of 900W/m2 . Halogen lights of 500W each is used as a heating source. These halogen lights are fixed on a flat board at a height of 1m above the measured with the help of pyranometer. A glass sheet of thickness 4mm is placed over the duct to make passage of air to make it double pass and also it makes the intensity comes from halogen lights to get directly falls Figure 1. Schematic view of experimental set up International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 291 Thermal performance of solar air heater can be increased by using artificial roughness on the absorber plate to make it rough to increase the heat transfer rate and friction factor Due to this roughness, turbulent boundary layer with small laminar sub-layer is formed on the absorber plate. This laminar sub-layer offer very high resistance to the heat flow. So by breaking this layer to create turbulence the heat transfer rate and friction factor characteristics can be increased which further increases the thermal efficiency and thermo hydraulic performance of a solar air heater [11]. view of double pass solar air heater is shown in fig 1. The rectangular duct of double pass solar air heater consists of two consecutive sections that is entry section and the test section. The size of the entire duct is 2070mm*250mm*25mm. Length of test 1600mm and entry length is 400mm. A space of 70mm is to be left out at the end for the movement of air towards upper duct. The entry length is considered on the basis of the American society heating refrigeration and air conditioning engineers (ASHRAE) std A heating source is provided so that we get required amount of intensity equivalent to that . Halogen lights of 500W each is used as a heating source. These halogen lights are fixed on a flat board at a height of 1m above the duct. The intensity of radiations is measured with the help of pyranometer. A glass sheet of thickness 4mm is placed over the duct to make passage of air to make it double pass and also it makes the intensity comes from halogen lights to get directly falls over the absorber plate. Figure 1. Schematic view of experimental set up Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – June (2013) © IAEME Thermal performance of solar air heater can be increased by using artificial roughness on to increase the heat transfer rate and friction factor layer is formed on layer offer very high resistance to the heat flow. So by breaking this layer to create turbulence the heat transfer rate and friction factor characteristics can be increased which further increases the thermal efficiency and thermo hydraulic view of double pass solar air heater is shown in fig 1. The rectangular duct of double pass solar air heater consists of two consecutive sections that is entry section and the test section. The size of the entire duct is 2070mm*250mm*25mm. Length of test section is 1600mm and entry length is 400mm. A space of 70mm is to be left out at the end for the movement of air towards upper duct. The entry length is considered on the basis of the ASHRAE) std[12]. A heating source is provided so that we get required amount of intensity equivalent to that . Halogen lights of 500W each is used as a heating source. These halogen lights duct. The intensity of radiations is measured with the help of pyranometer. A glass sheet of thickness 4mm is placed over the duct to make passage of air to make it double pass and also it makes the intensity comes from
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May Figure 2. Pictorial and sectional view of Duct The absorber plate is of galvanized iron (GI) having thickness of 0.8mm. Ribs are attached to the upper and lower side of the absorber plate with the help of glue. The material for ribs is aluminum wires of diameter 2mm. The schematic view of the given in fig 3. Figure 3. Schematic view of absorber plate The mass flow rate of air through the duct is measured by means of a calibrated orifice meter which is inserted in the circular pipe and the flow is controlled by means of a control valve provided in blower which is attached to the circular pipe at the end. The copper constantan thermocouple wire (T temperature at different locations. The pressure across the test section is measured w help of micro manometer. INSTRUMENTATION A. Measurement of Air flow The air flow rate through the duct was measured by using concentric orifice plate with 45° bevelled edges. It was designed, fabricated and fitted in the 80 mm pipe which carries the air from plenum to the blower. The orifice plate was calibrated agai International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 292 Figure 2. Pictorial and sectional view of Duct The absorber plate is of galvanized iron (GI) having thickness of 0.8mm. Ribs are attached to the upper and lower side of the absorber plate with the help of glue. The material for ribs is aluminum wires of diameter 2mm. The schematic view of the absorber Figure 3. Schematic view of absorber plate The mass flow rate of air through the duct is measured by means of a calibrated orifice meter which is inserted in the circular pipe and the flow is controlled by means of a control ve provided in blower which is attached to the circular pipe at the end. The copper constantan thermocouple wire (T-type) was used to measure the air and absorber plate temperature at different locations. The pressure across the test section is measured w The air flow rate through the duct was measured by using concentric orifice plate with 45° bevelled edges. It was designed, fabricated and fitted in the 80 mm pipe which carries the air from plenum to the blower. The orifice plate was calibrated against Pitot tube and the value Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – June (2013) © IAEME The absorber plate is of galvanized iron (GI) having thickness of 0.8mm. Ribs are attached to the upper and lower side of the absorber plate with the help of glue. The material absorber plate is The mass flow rate of air through the duct is measured by means of a calibrated orifice meter which is inserted in the circular pipe and the flow is controlled by means of a control ve provided in blower which is attached to the circular pipe at the end. The copper- type) was used to measure the air and absorber plate temperature at different locations. The pressure across the test section is measured with the The air flow rate through the duct was measured by using concentric orifice plate with 45° bevelled edges. It was designed, fabricated and fitted in the 80 mm pipe which carries the nst Pitot tube and the value
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 293 of coefficient of discharge (Cd) was determined as 0.612. The pressure drop across the orifice meter was measured by means of a U-tube manometer. B. Temperature Measurement For measuring the temperatures of air and absorber plate Calibrated copper-constant (T type), thermocouples were used. Twelve Thermocouples were mounted on the upper side of the absorber plate to measure its mean temperature. The location of thermocouples on the absorber plate is shown in Fig 4. For measuring the temperature of air two thermocouples were inserted at inlet and outlet section of the duct. Figure4. Positions of thermocouples on the absorber plate C. Pressure Drop Measurement The pressure drop across the test section of the duct was measured with the help of a micro-manometer. It is having a least count of 0.01 mm. The movable reservoir is mounted using a lead screw having a pitch of 1.0 mm with a graduated dial having a 100 division. The meniscus is maintained at a fixed point by moving the reservoir up and down. Then the movement is noted, which gives the pressure difference across the two tapings. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The test runs were conducted to collect the relevant heat transfer and flow friction data under quasisteady state conditions. When the experimental setup attains the quasisteady state then the data for different mass flow rate were recorded. It takes 2-3 hours to attain the quasisteady state. The following parameters were measured: 1) Temperature of the absorber plate at twelve locations and then finding their mean. 2) Temperature of air at the inlet and outlet. 3) Pressure drop across the test section. 4) Pressure drop across the orifice meter. DATA REDUCTION The values of all the important parameters like temperature of absorber plate, air inlet and outlet temperature and pressure drop are required to calculate mass flow rate ‘m’, velocity of air, heat supplied to the air and heat transfer coefficient ‘h’ were calculated by using the following expressions.
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 294 Mass flow rate, ( ) 4 1 2 β ρ − ∆ = o od P ACm (1) The heat transfer coefficient, ( )fmpmp u TTA Q h − = (2) Where heat transfer rate (Qu) to the air is given by ( )iopu TTmCQ −= (3) The heat transfer coefficient calculated is then used to determine the Nusselt number as given below; k hD Nu h = (4) Where Dh is the hydraulic diameter of the duct. The Darcy Wiesbach equation is then used to determine the friction factor by measured value of pressure drop (∆Ρ)d across the test section length as below, ( ) 2 4 2 LV DP f hd ρ ∆ = (5) VALIDITY TEST The experimental setup first start to conduct the validity test. The experiment is carried out on a smooth plate. The value of Nusselt number and friction factor which have been found from the experiment is compared from the value obtained from Dittus-Boelterequation and Modified Blasius equation respectively. The comparison of experimental result for smooth plate, Dittus-Boelter equation and Blasius equation are shown in fig. 5& fig. 6. Dittus-Boelter equation 4.08.0 PrRe024.02×=sNu (6) Modified Blasius equation 25.0 Re085.02 − ×=sf (7) The Dittus-Boelter equation and Modified Blasius equation has been taken two times the original value for validation as this is the case of Double pass solar air heater.
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 295 Figure 5. Graph showing comparison between predicted value and experimental value of Nusselt number for a smooth plate Figure 6. Graph showing comparison between predicted value and experimental value of friction factor for a smooth plate RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this section of paper the effect of relative roughness pitch was given and discussed. Fig. 7(a) shows the variation of Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number for different values of Relative roughness pitch(p/e) 5-20 and fixed value of angle of attack 90° with a fixed value of relative roughness height (e/Dh) 0.044. Fig. 7(a) shows that the maximum heat transfer occurs at relative roughness pitch of (p/e) 10. This is due to the reason that at p/e = 10 maximum number of reattachment points are found and hence the heat transfer rate get enhanced. Same figure also shows that the Nusselt number monotonously increases with the increase in Reynolds number. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 5000 10000 15000 Nusseltnumber Reynolds number dittus boelter eq smooth plate 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0 5000 10000 15000 FrictionFactor Reynolds number SMOOTH PLATE MODIFIED BLASIUS EQ
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May Figure 7(a). Variation of the Nusselt number with the Reynolds number for different values of relative roughness pitch and for fixed value of angle of attack Fig 7(b) shows that the variation of Friction factor as a function of Reynolds number for different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) 5 attack 90° with relative roughness heigh occur at relative roughness pitch (p/e) 10 and figure also shows that with the increase in Reynolds number the friction factor get decreases. Figure 7(b). Variation of the Friction factor with the R values of relative roughness pitch and for fixed value of angle of attack 90° and relative 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 Nusseltnumber 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0 Frictionfactor International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 296 (a). Variation of the Nusselt number with the Reynolds number for different values of relative roughness pitch and for fixed value of angle of attack 90° and relative roughness height (b) shows that the variation of Friction factor as a function of Reynolds number for different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) 5-20 and for a fixed value of angle of attack 90° with relative roughness height (e/Dh) 0.044. It shows that maximum friction factor occur at relative roughness pitch (p/e) 10 and figure also shows that with the increase in Reynolds number the friction factor get decreases. (b). Variation of the Friction factor with the Reynolds number for different values of relative roughness pitch and for fixed value of angle of attack 90° and relative roughness height 5000 10000 15000 Reynolds number p/e=5 p/e=10 p/e=15 p/e=20 smooth plate α = 90 e/Dh=0.044 5000 10000 15000 Reynolds number smooth plate p/e=20 p/e=15 p/e=10 p/e=5 Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – June (2013) © IAEME (a). Variation of the Nusselt number with the Reynolds number for different 90° and relative (b) shows that the variation of Friction factor as a function of Reynolds number 20 and for a fixed value of angle of t (e/Dh) 0.044. It shows that maximum friction factor occur at relative roughness pitch (p/e) 10 and figure also shows that with the increase in eynolds number for different values of relative roughness pitch and for fixed value of angle of attack 90° and relative e/Dh=0.044 smooth plate
  9. 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 297 CONCLUSION An experimental study has been carried out on a Double pass solar air heater having rectangular duct. Three valves of rectangular duct is kept insulated a uniform heat flux is provided on one side of duct that is the absorber plate. It has been seen that by providing the artificial roughness on both sides of the absorber plate the heat transfer and friction factor gets improved with maximum heat transfer and friction factor occur at relative roughness pitch of 10. This study also shows that the Nusselt number increase by 1.06 times as that of the smooth one. So taking into account all these parameters we can design a highly efficient Solar Air Heater. NOMENCLATURE Ac Area of the flow (m2 ) Ao Throat area of the orifice (m2 ) ‫ܣ‬௣ Area of the absorber plate (m2 ) ‫ܥ‬ௗ Coefficient of discharge for the orifice meter ‫ܥ‬௣ Specific heat of air (kJ/kg/K) Dh Hydraulic diameter of the duct (m) e Height of the roughness element (m) ݂௥ Friction factor for roughened absorber plates ݂௦ Friction factor for the smooth absorber plate H Height of the duct (m) H Average heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 /K) k Thermal conductivity (W/m/K) L Length of the absorber plate (m) m Mass flow rate (kg/s) Nu Nusselt number for the roughened plates ܰ‫ݑ‬௦ Nusselt number for the smooth plates P Roughness pitch (m) e/D Relative roughness height P/e Relative roughness pitch Pr Prandtl number ∆Po Pressure drop across the orifice meter (N/m2 ) ∆Pd Pressure drop across the test section (N/m2 ) Re Reynolds number W Width of the duct (m) D1 Diameter of orifice (m) D2 Diameter of pipe (m) ‫ݐ‬௜ Inlet temperature of air (°C) ‫ݐ‬௢ Outlet temperature of air (°C) Tfm Average temperature of air (°C) Tpm Average temperature of the absorbing plate (°C) ߩ Density of fluid (kg/m3 ) ߚ Diameter ratio, D2/D1 α Angle of attack
  10. 10. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME 298 REFERENCES [1] N.K.Bansal, “Solar air heater applications in India” 1998 published by Elsevier Science Ltd. PII: S0960-1481(98)00237-7. [2] Abdul- Malik Ebrahim Momin, J.S.Soni, S.C.Solanki, “Heat transfer and Friction factor in solar air heater duct with V-shaped rib roughness on absorber plate,” Internantional journal of heat and mass transfer 45(2002) 3383-3396. [3] Prashant Dhiman , N.S.Thakur, Anoopkumar, Satyendersingh, “An analytical model to predict the thermal performance of a novel parallel flow packed bed solar air heater,” Applied energy 88(2011) 2157-2167. [4] A.A.ElSebii, S.AboulEnein, M.R.I.Ramadan, S.M.Shalaby, B.M.Moharram, “Investigation of thermal performance of double pass flat and V-corrugated plate solar air heaters,” Energy 36(2011) 1076-1086. [5] M.F.ElKhawajah, L.B.Y.Aldabbagh, F.Egelioglu, “The effect of using transverse fins on a double pass solar air heater using wire mesh as an absorber,” Solar energy 86(2011) 1479-1487. [6] B.N.Prasad and J.S.Saini, “ Effect of artificial roughness on heat transfer and friction factor in a solar air heater,” Solar energy vol.41, No. 6. Pp. 555-560, 1988. [7] MM Sahu and JL Bhagoria, “Augumentation of heat transfer coefficient by using 90° broken transverse ribs on absorber plate,” Renewal energy 2005; 30:2057-2063. [8] A.P.Omojaro, Aldabbagh, “Experimental performance of a single and double pass solar air heater with fins and steel wire mesh as an absorber,” Applied energy 87(2010) 3759-3765. [9] PaisarnNaphon, “ Perfrmance and entropy generation of the double pass solar air heater with longitudinal fins,” Renewable energy 30(2005 ) 1345-1357. [10] Suppramaniam Satcunanathan and Stanley Deonarine, “ A two pass solar air heater,” Solar energy 1973 , vol.15, pp.41-49. [11] Vikrant Katekar, AnkurVithalkar, Bhojraj Kale, “ Enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient in solar air heater of roughened absorber plate,” ICETET’ 09 Proceedings , IEEE comp. society, Washington DC, USA 2009, doi>10.11.09/ICETET- 2009. [12] ASHARAE Standard 93–77. Method of testing to determine the thermal performance of Solar Air Heater, New York 1997; 1–34. [13] Ajay Kumar Kapardar and Dr. R. P. Sharma, “Experimental Investigation of Solar Air Heater using Porous Medium”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 387 - 396, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [14] Yogesh C. Dhote and Dr. S.B. Thombre, “Parametric Study on the Thermal Performance of the Solar Air Heater with Energy Storage”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 90 - 99, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [15] Anup Kumar and Anil Kumar Mishra, “A CFD Investigation and Pressure Correlation of Solar Air Heater”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 401 - 417, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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