International Journal of Electronics and JOURNALEngineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976          INTERNATIONAL Commun...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
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Design and development of triple band ominidirectional slotted rectangular microstrip antenna

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Design and development of triple band ominidirectional slotted rectangular microstrip antenna

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and JOURNALEngineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL Communication OF ELECTRONICS AND– 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), pp. 17-22 IJECET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.html ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2011)- 0.8500 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF TRIPLE BANDOMINIDIRECTIONAL SLOTTED RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi Department of PG Studies and Research in Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, Karnataka, INDIA mveeresh27@rediffmail.com, s.mulgi@rediffmail.comABSTRACT A novel design of slotted rectangular microstrip antenna is proposed for triple bandoperation and ominidirectional radiation characteristics. The proposed antenna is simplein its geometry and has been constructed from conventional rectangular microstripantenna by placing rectangular slots on the patch at a distance of 2 mm from the edges. Aground plane of height equal to the length of microstripline is placed on the top of thepatch with a gap of 1 mm on either sides of the microstrip line. The triple bands areachieved in the frequency range of 4.75 GHz to 16 GHz. The magnitude of eachoperating band is found to be 5.32, 36.35 and 40.49 % respectively. Experimental resultsare in close agreement with the simulated results. The proposed antenna may findapplication in microwave communication system.Keywords: microstip antenna, triple band, slot, ominidirectional1. INTRODUCTIONMicrostrip antennas (MSAs) are useful in microwave communication systems because oftheir diversified applications such as light weight, compact, planar configuration, easy tofabricate and low cost [1]. The antenna operating for more than one band of frequenciesis quite useful because each band can be used independently for transmit receiveapplications. Number of investigations have been reported in the literature for therealization of dual, triple and multiband operations of microstrip antennas [3-9]. But inthis paper a simple technique has been demonstrated to get triple bands andominidirectional radiation characteristics in the frequency range of 4.75 to 16 GHz byloading slots on the conducting patch and by placing a ground plane of height equal to the 17
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEMElength of microstripline on conventional rectangular microstrip antenna. Thismodification does not affect the size of the conventional patch designed for the sameresonant frequency.2. DESIGN OF ANTENNA GEOMETRYThe art work of the proposed antenna is sketched by using computer software Auto-CADto achieve better accuracy and is fabricated on low cost FR4-epoxy substrate material ofthickness of h = 1.6 mm and permittivity εr = 4.4.Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of triple band slotted rectangular microstripantenna (TSRMA). The side view geometry of this antenna is as shown in Fig.2. In Fig.1the area of substrate is L × W mm. On the top surface of the substrate a ground plane ofheight which is equal to the length of microstripline feed Lf is used on either sides of themicrostripline. A gap of 1 mm is used between the ground plane and microstripline feed.On the bottom of the substrate a continuous copper layer of height Lf is used below themicrostripline. The TSRMA is designed for 3 GHz using the equations available for thedesign of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna in the literature [2]. The length andwidth of the rectangular patch are Lp and Wp respectively. The feed arrangement consistsof quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt which is connected as a matchingnetwork between the patch and the microstripline feed of length Lf and width Wf. A SMAconnector is used at the tip of the microstripline feed for feeding the microwave power.In Fig.1 the rectangular slots are placed on the patch from its vertical edges for providingdifferent surface current paths so as to produce multi resonant modes. The length andwidth of slots are Ls and Ws respectively. Both the slots are kept at a distance of 2 mmfrom the vertical edges of the radiating patch. The design parameter of the proposedantenna is given in Table 1.3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSThe antenna bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB is simulated using HFSSsimulating software and then tested experimentally on Vector Network Analyzer (Rohde& Schwarz, Germany make ZVK model 1127.8651). The variation of return loss versesfrequency of TSRMA is as shown in Fig. 3. From this graph the experimental bandwidth(BW) is calculated using the equations, f −f  BW =  2 1  ×100 %  fc were, f1 and f2 are the lower and upper cut of frequencies of the band respectively whenits return loss reaches – 10 dB and fc is the center frequency of the operating band. Fromthis figure, it is found that the antenna operates between 4.75 to 16 GHz.In Fig. 3 it clearly seen that the antenna gives three resonant modes. The resonant modeat 4.84 GHz is due to the fundamental resonant frequency of the patch and others modesat 8.94 GHz and 14.01 GHz are due to the novel geometry of TSRMA. The magnitude ofexperimental -10 dB bandwidth measured at BW1 to BW3 are 260 MHz, 3.113 GHz and 18
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME5.27 GHz respectively. The simulated results of TSRMA is also shown in Fig.3. Theexperimental and simulated results are in close agreement with each other.The co-polar and cross-polar radiation pattern of TSRMA is measured in its operatingbands. The typical radiation patterns of TSRMA measured at 8.94 GHz and 14.01 GHzare shown in Fig 4 and 5 respectively. The obtained patterns are ominidirectional innature.4. CONCLUSIONFrom the detailed experimental study, it is concluded that the TSRMA derived fromconventional rectangular microstrip antenna is quite capable in producing triple bandoperation in the frequency range of 4.75 to 16 GHz. The antenna gives ominidirectionalradiation characteristics in its operating bands. The simulated and experimental returnloss results of TSRMA are in close agreement with each other. The proposed antenna issimple in its design and fabrication. The antenna is constructed using low cost substratematerial. This antenna may find any applications for the systems operating between 4.75to 16 GHzACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors would like to thank Dept. of Sc. & Tech. (DST), Govt. of India. New Delhi,for sanctioning Vector Network Analyzer to this Department under FIST project. Theauthors also would like to thank the authorities of Aeronautical DevelopmentEstablishment (ADE), DRDO Bangalore for providing their laboratory facility to makeantenna measurements on Vector Network Analyzer.REFERENCES 1 Constantine A. Balanis (1997). “Antenna theory analysis and design,” John Wiley, New York. 2 I. J. Bahl and P. Bharatia (1981). “Microstrip antennas,” Dedham, MA: Artech House, New Delhi. 3 H. K. Kan. Waterhouse. A. Y. J. Lee and Pavlickovski (2005). “Dual frequency stacked shorted patch antenna.” Electron lett.Vol.41, No.11, pp. 624-626. 4 C.-H. Cai, J. –S Row and K. –L. Wong, (2006). “Dual frequency microstip antenna with dual circular polarization.” Electron lett. Vol. 42, No. 22, pp. 1261- 1262. 5 S. Maci, G. Biffi Gentili P. Piazzesi and C. Salvador (1995), “Dual-band slot loaded patch antenna,” IEEE Proceedings on Microwave Antennas Propagation, No.142, pp.225-232. 6 K. L Wong and K. B. Hsieh (1998),“Dual frequency circular microstrip antenna with a pair of arc-shaped slots,” Microwave Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 19, pp. 410-412. 7 S. T. Fang and K. L. Wong (1999), “A dual frequency equilateral - Triangular microstrip antenna with a pair of narrow slots,” Microwave Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 23, pp. 82-84. 19
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME 8 S.Hong and K.Chang (2006),”Single-feed triple-frequency rectangular microstrip patch antenna with pairs of spur-lines,”Electron lett.Vol. 42, No.12, pp. 673-674. 9 K. G. Thomas and M. Sreenivasan, (2009),”Compact triple band antenna for WLAN, WiMAX applications,” Electron lett.Vol.45, No.16, pp.811-813. TABLE I DESIGN PARAMETERS OF PROPOSED ANTENNAS Antenna Dimension in Parameters mm Lp 23.4 Wp 30.4 Lf 24.8 Wf 3.0 Lt 12.4 Wt 0.5 L 80.0 W 50.0 Ls 20.4 Ws 5.0 Figure 1 Top view geometry of TSRMA 20
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME Figure 2 Side view geometry of TSRMA Figure 3 Variation of return loss versus frequency of TSRMA 21
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976– 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME Figure 4 Radiation pattern of TSRMA measured at 8.94 GHz Figure 5 Radiation pattern of TSRMA measured at 14.01 GHz 22

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