Creation of automatic identification and data


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Creation of automatic identification and data

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) IJARETVolume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 01-08© IAEME: ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2012): 2.7078 (Calculated by GISI) CREATION OF AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION AND DATA CAPTURE INFRASTRUCTURE VIA DATAMATRIX Mr.Lokesh S. Khedekar 1, Dr.A.S.Alvi 2 PRMIT&R,Badnera,Amravati,India, 1 PRMIT&R,Badnera,Amravati,India, 2 ABSTRACT Automatic Identification data capture technologies are becoming increasingly important in the management of supply chain, manufacturing flow management mobile asset tracking inventory management, warehousing, and any application where physical items move through location in time. Tracking these items has historically been done by the use of bar-code technologies, which suffer from lack of efficiency, robustness, difficulty in automation, inability to have secure or dynamic data, etc., whereas the 2D Data matrix has the ability to overcome several of these limitations over barcode. This paper presents a comparative basis for the creation of Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) infrastructure via 2D Data matrix versus other technologies such as bar-code. Keywords: ADIC, Barcode, Data matrix, RFID, Sensor. I. INTRODUCTION As the communication and computational technologies have started to become commonplace within enterprise operations, the computer-aided/managed Enterprise Information Systems (EIS) such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) [1], Supply Chain Management (SCM) [2] [3], Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) [4] [5], Customer Relationship Management (CRM) [6] [7], Manufacturing Execution System (MES) [8], Warehouse Management System (WMS) [9], and Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) [10] etc are significantly improving the enterprise operational efficiency and reducing the operational cost [11]. The EIS processes information such as history, current status, location, relationships, and, destination of enterprise resources such as materials, equipments, personnel, cash, etc. The stock level of products at various stages within a supply chain can significantly affect the operations of supply chain. optimum stock levels result in requiring less storage 1
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEspace, faster processing, quicker cash flow, better customer satisfaction and sale, etc. thestock level can be monitored and predicted by tracking the movement of the on-shelfproducts, or the incoming shipments. as the real-time stock levels are identified, decisionssuch as replenish or reorder can be made timely and correctly. this is called visibility andpredictability in the enterprise information system. To achieve visibility and predictability of the movement of these business objects, theinformation associated with the object, which is called identification data in this research,should be identified and monitored along the enterprise operation flows. The identificationdata should automatically be captured and integrated into the different enterprise processapplications in real-time. Usually, the identification data capture process and the integrationof the identification data with enterprise application are performed by the AutomaticIdentification and Data Capture (AIDC) technologies. The identification data associated witha particular business object (such as raw material, products, equipments, shipments, andpersonnel etc.) is collected by the data capture devices at each processing location where thebusiness object is processed. Barcode is the most commonly used identification data capturetechnology in today’s enterprise operations. However, traditional bar-coding approach cannotachieve the real-time visibility because of the low speed of reading, the needs of line-of-sight,and unavoidable involvement of humans. The more advanced AIDC technology of 2D Datamatrix is becoming the promising technology to achieve real-time visibility of enterpriseoperations. It has several obvious advantages such as non-line-of-sight reading, high-speedreading, multiple reading and writing simultaneously, minimal human intervention etc. thatmake it close to ideal for providing real-time visibility of enterprise operations.II. IDENTIFICATION AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY Barcode, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Sensor, Magnetic Strip, IC card,Optic Character Recognition (OCR), Voice Recognition, Fingerprint and Optical Strip etc[12] are identification technologies that have been used in the enterprise environment.Among these identification technologies, barcode is the most widely used technology. TheRFID and sensor hold a promise of significantly improving business operational efficienciesand increasing the visibility of the business objects. The other technologies are either lack ofautomation capability or lack of ability to attach to business objects. Thus, we do notcategorize them as the automatic identification technology for enterprise application. Barcodeand 2D data matrix technologies are addressed and discussed in this paper.III. BARCODE TECHNOLOGY3.1 History The first barcode was developed by Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodlandin the late 1940’s and early 1950’s [13]. It was a “bull’s eye” symbol that consisted of aseries of concentric circles. The first commercial use of barcodes was by the RCA/Krogersystem installed in Cincinnati on the call of the National Association of Food Chains(NAFC). However it was not widely used until the Universal Product Code (UPC) [14] wasintroduced into America and adopted by the U.S. Supermarket Ad Hoc Committee. Today’sbarcodes have two forms: one dimensional (1D) barcode and two dimensional (2D) barcode.The 1D barcodes use bars and gaps to encode identification information such as serialnumbers. The 2D barcodes consist of more complicated patterns and may encode up to 4K 2
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEbytes of data. Figure 1 shows the 1D barcodes. Although 1D is the more prevalent barcodeused in daily life. Barcodes can be printed from most printers. 1D barcodes usually have codedreadable ID printed along with the barcode. Barcodes can be read by barcode scanners whichwe see at a typical Point of Sale (POS) in retail stores. Figure 1. 1D Barcode Figure 2 illustrates a basic barcode system. Barcodes are read or scanned by a barcodereader and the reader is connected to a computer. The operator has to physically align/pointthe barcode reader with/to the barcode to read the identification information. The softwarerunning on the computer processes the identification information picked up by the scanner.Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is usually used to control the scanner in moreautomated process such as production line. The primary scanning technology for barcode isLED (Light-Emitting Diode). More advanced scanning such as CCD (Charge-CoupledDevice), Laser, and Imager are used in industry automatic processing [37]. Figure 2 A Basic Barcode System3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Barcode Compared to manual data entry, the barcode is fast and accurate. The barcode canbe printed from any black/white printer. Since the barcode can be directly printed on anobject or on paper label, the cost for a barcode is typically less than 1 cent [15]. Even afterincluding the hardware cost, the barcode data collection system reduces the operation cost,labor cost, and the revenue loss caused by data entry errors, while improving the businessprocess and productivity [16]. However, several weaknesses exist. Firstly, barcode label iseasy to be damaged in harsh environments such as careless handling, external factors such asrain/low temperatures. Second, to read the barcode, the barcode scanner needs to be line ofsight with the label. It means that the manual movement of the objects or scanner isnecessary. Thirdly, barcode technology does not have ability of scanning object inside acontainer or a case. Thus, the operator has to open the container and scan the objects one byone, thereby involving intensive labor. Obviously, the barcode is incapable of fast processing. 3
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEIV. SENSORE TECHNOLOGY The sensor is a device that can measure and collect environmental parameters (such astemperature, humidity, chemicals, vibration, density, etc.) or system runtime parameters (such asposition, location, speed, acceleration, etc.) [17]. Sensors have been used in a variety of applications,especially for automation and control in industries such as aerospace, automotive, healthcare,environment, transportation, etc. As the smallest unit of an automation system, a single sensor couldbe used for fulfilling certain functions. But in most cases, a sensor system consists of a large numberof sensors normally that must work together to achieve awareness of the physical world. Recently, new technologies including wireless sensors, MEMS sensors, smart sensors, biosensors, etc., have changed the type of sensors that can be made. Sensors made today with advancedtechniques are smaller and can measure and collect information that is beyond the capability oftraditional sensors. New sensor system infrastructures such as sensor network [18] with wirelessconnection capability are gradually replacing the traditional wire-connected sensors. In an enterprise environment, sensor technologies combined with ID technologies wouldsignificantly improve the enterprise resource visibility and thus improve the enterprise operationefficiency. For example, along the supply chain flow, a GPS sensor could help the enterprise systemtrack and monitor the location of the raw material at real times [39]. A better decision on the relatedenterprise operations could then be made based on information of not only on the location of an asset,but also its condition, and potentially the condition of the asset could itself alter where the asset wasbeing sent next (example if ice-cream being shipped sees high temperatures, then perhaps it may bedisposed instead of continuing to be shipped to the final destination).V. DATA MATRIX 2-D bar code consists of a certain white and black geometric modules that alternately arrangein the vertical and horizontal directions according to certain rules see Figure, and it is a symbol withlarge capacity for storing information. As the 2-D bar code with smallestsize in the world, data matrixcode is widely applied to electronic product components. 2-Dbar code recognition technology showsgreat commercial value, and at present, most COTS (commercial of the shell) recognition algorithmsare proprietary and protected by patents, so the 2-D bar code recognition technology is in a greatdemand for researching. Figure Datamatrix structure shows the principle of a Datamatrix barcode. The Figure 3 shows an annotated Datamatrix where the finder and synchronization patterns havebeen highlighted. Figure 3. Datamatrix structure. 4
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEVI. BASIC DATAMATRIX SYSTEM 2 1 Figure 4.Basic Data matrix System Figure 4 represent a data matrix system which contain two steps 1.take a picture of object and2.upload an image into the computer you will get the all information related to the system. Code readers operate on the principle of contrast between the code (printing ink) and thebackground (printing substrate). For code decoding various code readers are used and, in addition toreaders, 2D codes can be decoded also with certain types of mobile phones. Camera-based readers are the newest type of code readers. This type of readers uses a smallvideo camera to capture an image of the code. Sophisticated digital image processing techniques arethen used to decode the code. Video cameras are equipped with the same CCD (Charge CoupledDevice) technology as in a CCD code readers except that instead of having a single row of sensors, avideo camera has hundreds of rows of sensors arranged in a two-dimensional array so that they cangenerate an image(Taltech, n.d.). Camera-based reader is the one used in capturing the codes withmobile phone camera.[21]VII. ADIC INFRASTRUCTURE The advantages identification technologies can potentially improve the enterprise operationefficiency and reduce the operation cost. However, simply deploying data capturing devices,assigning identification data to the business object, and capturing the data from the business objectcan not bring the value to enterprise operations. A set of software components which assist thedevices management, identification data preparing, capturing, formatting, and associating withphysical objects are required. The software components and devices together are called identificationresources. Further, these identification resources are networked and collaborated with each other toform the AIDC infrastructure.VIII. DEFINATION AND COMPONENTS The Automatic Identification Data Capture (AIDC) infrastructure is defined as a set ofnetworked devices and software components which include: 1 Devices. Devices include various identification technologies such as RFID reader,RFID printer, barcode scanner, sensors, and Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) etc. 2 Services. Services are software components that enabling the data preparation,capturing, and processing.Essential components of an AIDC infrastructure are identified [19] [20] and illustrated in Figure 5. Itcontains the following components 5
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME 3 Data matrix, Tags, and Sensors: Data matrix, tags and sensors are the smallest unitsthat are attached to an enterprise entity or resource to be identified.Device Controller or Edge Server: A device controller is used to manage and control identificationhardware (Readers, Scanners, Sensors and other Manageable Devices), aggregate, pre-process andcache the identification information. It is difficult to manage a device in a planer space. Putting all thefunctions such as capture, process, and representation of identification data into a single server couldincrease the burden of the server. Hierarchical, layered and distributed architecture is an effective wayto balance the load and deliver the best overall performance. Using the Edge Servers, the devices canbe clustered and distributed. Functional roles can be separated so that the Edge Servers could bededicated to the data capture requirements, where the core/central servers can be used for dataintelligence. 4.Identification Network: The identification network is the infrastructure that connectsall the hardware resources and enterprise information systems together. 5.Enterprise Information Servers: Enterprise information server provides enterpriseactivities related data which can be used along with the identification information for businessoperations. It provides real-time, aggregated identification data and events to client applications. Asdiscussed earlier, the identification data capture process may contain business events. The EnterpriseInformation System provides interfaces so that the application can define, register and look up events.It also provides interfaces that the end application can register and lookup production information,business information, and transaction information that is associated with a particular identificationdata. 6.Enterprise Application: Enterprise applications are functional modules that fulfillcertain enterprise activities. For example, a Warehouse Management System uses the data captured bythe Edge Server to monitoring the inventory level; an Asset Management System uses the data to lookup a particular asset; etc. Figure 5. The ADIC Infrastructure 6
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEIX. CONCLUSION A variety of identification technologies have been used in the enterprise systems toimprove the enterprise operation efficiency and reduce the overall operation cost. Barcodes,RFID, sensors and datamatrix are the most commonly used and important technologies thathave been addressed. Because of its low cost, today, the barcode is the major identificationtechnology used by most enterprises.X. ACKNOWLEDGMENT First & foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards Dr.A.S.Alvifor his valuable guidance, encouragement, and optimism. I feel proud of his eminence andvast knowledge, which will guide me throughout my life. I wish to acknowledge withthanks to all the faculty members of Information Technology Department who has directly orindirectly helped me in the research paper work.Last but not the least; I would like to express my sincere thanks to my institute Prof. RamMeghe Institute of Technology & Research, Badnera. For providing me all the needfulfacilities during the research paper work.REFERENCES[1] Christina Soh, Sia Siew Kien, Joanne Tay-Yap, Enterprise resource planning: cultural fitsand misfits: is ERP a universal solution? Communications of ACM, Vol. 43, 2000, pp47-51 [2] Benita M. Beamon, Supply chain design and analysis: Models and methods, InternationalJournal of Production Economics, Vol. 55 pp. 281-294, 1998[3] Lambert, D.M. and M.C. Cooper 2000, Issues in Supply Chain Management, IndustrialMarketing Management, Vol. 29, pp. 65-83.[4] Valerie Thomas, Wolfgang Neckel, Siguad Wagner, Information Technology and ProductLifecycle Management, In Proceeding of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium onElectronics and the Environment.[5] Ioannis Komninos, Production Life Cycle Management,[6] M. Stone, N. Woodcock, M. Wilson, Managing the Change from Marketing Planning toCustomer Relationship Management, International Journal of Strategic Management: LongRange Planning, Volume 29, Number 5, October 1996, pp. 675-683(9)[7] Russell S. Winer, Customer Relationship Management: A Framework, Research directorand the future[8] Ronelle Russell, Manufacturing Execution Systems: Moving to the Next Level,Pharmaceutical Technology, January 2004, pp 38-50[9] Ben Worthen, The ABCs of Supply Chain Management,[10] IBM, Enterprise Asset Management: Optimizing Business Operation with Leading-edgeEnterprise Asset Management Services,[11] Diane M., Olga Volkoff, A Roadmap for Enterprise System Implementation, Computer,June 2004, pp22-29 7
  8. 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME[12] Cambridge Consultant, Description of Technologies and Example of Application inOther Industries,[13] Mery Bellis, Bar Codes,[14] GS1 US, The Universal Product Code,[15] J. Abernethy, Widener Liberary: Book Identification – Bar Codes & RFID, AnEngineering Science 96 Report, M17, 1995,[16] Alexander Brewer, Nancy Sloan, Thomas L. Landers, Intelligent Tracking inManufacturing, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, Vol. 10, 1999, pp245-250[17] Ljubisa Ristic, Sensor Technology and Devices, Artech House Publishers, 1994[18] Jason Hill, Robert Szewczyk, Alec Woo, Seth Hollar, David Culler, and Kristofer Pister,“System architecture directions for networked sensors,” in Proceedings of the 9thInternational Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages andOperating Systems, Cambridge, MA, USA, Nov. 2000, pp. 93–104, ACM.[19] B. S. Prabhu, Xiaoyong Su, Harish Ramamurthy, Chi-Cheng Chu, Rajit Gadh,“WinRFID – A Middleware for the enablement of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)based Applications”, Invited chapter in Mobile , Wireless and Sensor Networks: Technology,Applications and Future Directions, Rajeev Shorey, Chan Mun Choon, Ooi Wei Tsang, A.Ananda (eds.), John Wiley, December 2005.[20] B.S. Prabhu, Xiaoyong Su, Charlie Qiu, Harish Ramamurthy, Peter Chu, Rajit Gadh,"WinRFID – Middleware for Distributed RFID Infrastructure", International Workshop onRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensors, Indian Institute of Technology,Kanpur, India, November 11-13, 2005.[21]An Effective Technique to Protecting Sensetive Information Using 2D datamatrix.International Journal of Scient ific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 12, December2012 1 ISSN 2250-3153 1.L.S.Khedekar 2.Dr.A.S.Alvi[22]Smart Credential Cum Unique Identification and Recognition System Volume 2, Issue 6,November-December 2012 Available Online at ISSN No.: 0976-8324 ©Genxcellence Publication 2011, All Rights Reserved 1.L.S.Khedekar 2.Dr.A.S.Alvi[23] Mala Mitra, “A Random Number Generator For Rfid Tags” International journal ofElectronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume1, Issue1,2010, pp. 71 - 87, Published by IAEME[24] Gurudatt Kulkarni, Rani Waghmare, Nikita Chavan and Sandhya Mandhare, “SecurityIn Rfid Technology” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET),Volume3, Issue2, 2012, pp. 337 - 343, Published by IAEME[25] Neeraj Tiwari, Rahul Anshumali and Prabal Pratap Singh, “Wireless Sensor Networks:Limitation, Layerwise Security Threats, Intruder Detection” International journal ofElectronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume3, Issue2,2012, pp. 22 - 31, Published by IAEME.[26] Shashank Bholane and Devendrasingh Thakore, “Sender To Receiver SynchronizationIn Wireless Sensor Networks – A Simulation Study” International journal of ComputerEngineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume3, Issue2, 2012, pp. 265 - 270, Published byIAEME 8