Cloud computing a new way to roll out e-governance projects in india


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Cloud computing a new way to roll out e-governance projects in india

  1. 1. INTERNATIONALComputer Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING International Journal of JOURNAL OF COMPUTER (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) IJCETVolume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 61-72© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) © CLOUD COMPUTING-A NEW WAY TO ROLL OUT E-GOVERNANCE PROJECTS IN INDIA Prof. Manas Kumar Sanyal1, Sudhangsu Das2, Sajal Bhadra3 1 (Department of Business Administration, University of Kalyani, Nadia, WB 2 (Department of Business Administration, University of Kalyani, Nadia, WB 3 (Department of Business Administration, University of Kalyani, Nadia, WB Abstract E-governance serve the citizens need always in better way. Information and communication Technology (ICT) made lots of changes in governance process but at the same time it requires efforts for changing process, building infrastructures and capacity enhancement. Cloud computing can help Government to speed up in rolling out of e- Governance projects and to reach out it to a larger number of people in a short period. Since, Government is putting a lot of effort towards Information Technology (IT) cost shrinking and making it available for all citizens equally in urban and rural areas, Cloud computing may lead to significant role not only to scale down the cost of operations for rolling out e- governance initiatives but also expedite the process as well. It entails use over the Internet of computing hardware, software and network infrastructure and applications that are remotely hosted. Present study is about to analyze and to examine the application of cloud computing “pay-per-use” approach in context of Indian e-Governance projects. Also, authors have proposed an effective model for incorporating the concept of cloud computing in Indian e- Governance, which would reduce cost and will be accessible to all states in India. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been adopted to validate this proposed model. Keywords: E-GOVERNANCE, CLOUD COMPUTING, ICT, PAY-PER-USE, SDC 1. INTRODUCTION According to announcement of NEGP plan of Government of India (GI) on 18th May 2006, all public services will be accessible to common people locally through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs. GI has declared 27 mission mode projects and 8 components to reach out 61
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEthese services to common people [8]. The existing and ongoing projects has proven that e-Governance projects have smoothen the Government services by providing transparency,effective working, instant response and availability of Government information to the endwithin a time frame. The existing e-Governance projects in India are mainly implemented indistributed nature and maintained state wise individual infrastructure for the same kind ofGovernment services that increases the total e-Governance projects roll out cost. To avoidthese discrepancies, the new concept, Cloud computing can hold a lot of financial benefits forGovernment to roll out e-Governance projects.Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on demand network accessto a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimalmanagement effort or service provider interaction [11]. Cloud computing technology is beneficial to all users. It meets every body’srequirement without neglecting security and privacy at the time of business transaction overthe Internet, and at the same time provides ease of use for the client. With the Cloudcomputing technology individual can connect to the cloud from personal computer or portaldevices, over the Internet to mirror own data into Cloud account. For large-scale businesses,company can eliminate capital investments to buy an additional number of hardware,software, services for all employees since cloud computing platform contains all thenecessary functions and software for every one easy access and computing of the cloud.Cloud computing vendors are claiming that cloud computing will “transform the way IT isconsumed and managed, promising improved cost efficiencies, accelerated innovation, fastertime-to-market, and the ability to scale applications on demand”. The main objective of Government is to enable the e-Governance projects to meet thewide range of requirement for Government to Citizen, Government to Business, Inter/IntraGovernment Employees, and Government to Employee services with the help of Cloudcomputing technology in an optimal manner with regard to cost, security, flexibility,operational reliability and robustness.The Key drivers for Government to adopt cloud computing strategy are:Value for MoneyCloud Technology can help the Government to reduce duplicate efforts and increase savingsby effective utilization of resources through virtualization – Allow for “measured” payment (pay as you use) Reduced energy use Enable agencies to reinvest in, and concentrate on, core objectives Adopt, where fit for purpose, modern technologies and practices that improve ICT effectiveness and efficiency No need to purchase hardware, software licenses or implementation services for individual needs 62
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEFlexibility Create a flexible services-oriented environment for agencies – Rapid provisioning and deployment of services and on demand scalability and elasticity for services and capabilities Increased scope of the availability of the latest version of software On-demand self sufficient service Ubiquitous network access Location independent resource Rapid elasticity Cloud architectures allow rapid deployment of turn key test environments with little or no customizationOperational reliability and robustness Provide more reliable and robust systems to reach out the all Government services to common people- Cloud can help in analyzing huge volumes of data and detecting any fraud. Ensuring data privacy, storage persistence and reliable DBMS backup Ensuring robustness and scalability on demandCloud computing might give extra milestone to Government of India to reduceimplementation cost for its different states and help to moving towards uniform ICTcompliance country.2. LITERATURE REVIEW In the year 2008 Saxena Meetali described the impact of technologies on the practicesand administration of Governments and the relationships between public servants and society[13]. Authors also explored how e-Governance initiatives of Government of Indiatransformed the rural masses and the changing face of Rural India with the help ofapplication of Information Technology is brought out. Bagga, R. K. and Gupta Piyushidentified different aspects of e-Governance approaches in India in 2009. The main study wasin critical issues, challenges of e-Governance projects and finally focused on differentapproach and methodology for project [1]. In the year 2009, Gujarathi, D.M., Patil Rakesh S.also emphasized the major factors responsible for successful of implementation andsustenance of different e-Governance projects for social development in rural area [8]. In thesame year, Shirin Madon explained about the proliferation of e-Governance projects indeveloping countries and their impact on local communities. Shirin Madon drew’s on 18years of research in India in which time many changes have occurred in terms ofdevelopment ideology and in governance reform for achieving development goals [16].According to Gartner in 2009, the interest of cloud computing is growing among the industryto implement IT services in more cost effective way. The Vendors are also started to changethe Cloud computing strategy and variations like private cloud computing and hybridapproaches, compounding the hype [9]. In the book “Handbook of Cloud Computing “,Borko Furht, Armando Escalante have explained clearly how the cloud computing isreshaping information technology to scale down IT cost. This book have published in theyear 2010 and presents the systems, tools, and services of the leading providers of cloudcomputing; including Google, Yahoo, Amazon, IBM, and Microsoft [2]. Mukherjee, K. andShaoo, G. have described the way of accessing e-Governance in cloud computing architecture 63
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEin 2010 and conclude that cloud computing could be future frame work in e-Governance byproviding massive computing power, unlimited storage capacity, Less Maintenance cost,availability of use full e-Governance web services [7]. In the year 2010, Prasad, A.,ChaurasiaS.,Singh A., Gour G. highlights the key point in favor of service oriented cloud computingacceptability in e-Governance. Also Authors present tight similarities between genericGovernments functioning and the service oriented cloud approach [12]. Rastogi, A. in 2010proposed a framework to overcome existing problem in e-Governance services likeInfrastructure Development, Accessibility, Security, Trust and privacy, Transparency,Permanent Availability and preservation, Cost Structure. Author drawn a conclusion thatPeople can get services than traditional computing with reduced cost with the help of cloudcomputing [15].3. CLOUD COMPUTING: OVERVIEW In terms of implementation of cloud computing, there are three type of cloudcomputing shown in figure 1 [17].Private cloud is build up in such a way whose services are provided by an IT department tothose in its own organization without limitation of network bandwidth, security, software,and hardware. A private cloud become highly virtualized, stringing together mass quantitiesof IT infrastructure into one or a few easily managed logical resource pools. Since, thePrivate cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization, It is also called internalcloud computing.Public Cloud Services delivered over the public Internet and available to anyone who wantsto purchase the service. The cloud services generally hosted into central server away from theusers and it made accessible to the general public or a large industry group as “pay-per-use”basis. This type of cloud is called external cloud computing and provides all the benefits ofthe cost reduction, scalability and easy maintenance.Hybrid Cloud is a combination of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) thatinteroperate together and enables high level portability to data and application. It manages thenormal work load of private cloud computing as well as having the capability to meet thepeak demand of public cloud computing. This type of cloud computing is seen as future ofcloud computing. 64
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEAccording to the concept of cloud computing, there are three levels of cloud computing asshown in figure 2 [5] .Each level provide a service that is virtualized, where they do not haveto depend on any physical artifacts. SAAS (Software as a Service) is a service designed touse software as rental basis instead of purchase. It becomes most popular type of cloudcomputing for its high flexibility, great services, enhanced scalability and less maintenance.Also Users does not require to install application in own computer. Yahoo mail, Google docs,CRM applications is the best example of SAAS.PAAS (Platform as a Service) is referring to a platform that can be accessed on demand. Itprovides infrastructure on which software developers can build new applications or extendexisting ones without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlyinghardware and software and provisioning hosting capabilities. In other words, it provides thesupporting infrastructure to enable the end user develop his own solutions.IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) provides flexibility to the users by allowing them toaccess infrastructure like Storage, Network equipment, Hardware, Web server, Data Basespace etc. As per the requirement, there is no point to worry for an organization to buy thiscostly infrastructure in order to run the application. Organizations only hire the requiredinfrastructure from IAAS providers and load up their libraries, applications, and data. Apopular use of IAAS is in hosting websites.4. EXISTING E-GOVERNANCE SERVICES In our present study we have examined existing e-Governance approach in context ofIndia and developed a new framework to configure cloud computing to deliver Indian e-Governance projects. Efforts has also been made to estimate the benefits after incorporatingthe cloud computing. The Government of India has prepared a common e-Governance delivery modelacross the country to provide citizen service in better manner. The main objective of thisapproach is to launch state wise application, Common Service Centre (CSC), e-Kioskmachine, State Wide Area Network (SWAN) and State Data Centre (SDC). CSC and e-Kioskdirectly interacts with the common citizen as front tier of this model to collect the datathrough various e-Governance services. In the figure 3, it is being depicted that CSCs and e-Kiosk’s are available at nearest locality of the people so that people can access it easily fornominal fees. These front tier outlets are also broadband enabled, thus it is connecting therural citizens through the Internet and SWAN. The SWAN provides connectivity up to blocklevel with 2 Mbps (E-1 link) leased line of BSNL. The SWAN is conceived as the primaryinformation highway to increase data processing and 65
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEservice delivery efficiency for various e-Governance services across districts through Blocks,Subs Divisional Headquarters, Gram Panchayats, and Municipalities [10]. The main Goal ofSWAN is to provide backbone network for data, voice & video communication. The SDC isconnected with the all CSC through SWAN to provide Central Data Repository of the State,Secure Data Storage, Disaster Recovery, Remote Management and Service Integration etc.SDC would also provide better operation & management control and minimize overall cost ofData Management.5. PROPOSED CLOUD BASED E-GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK As we know that Government of India are deploying e-Governance projects for eachstate under NEGP plan and providing fund for each state to implement the projects in thecountry, GI fetching financial crisis to provide these huge amount of fund and as a result theimplementation process of e-Governance projects are being delayed. We are proposing a newframework to incorporate cloud computing for e-Governance services to minimize theimplementation cost of e-Governance projects in India. In the figure 4, we have mentionedsome e-Governance services of GI like E-Police, E-Court, GIS, Telemedicine, E-District, andEnvironment Management etc. as SAAS of cloud computing for end users. For this purpose,GI can build a single application for each service to share among all the state in India byhosting the application in central web server, which facilitates to reduce deployment cost aswell as maintenance cost and technological up gradation cost. In our framework we haveconsidered all e-Governance application services in central level to give an account wise 66
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEaccess for all application developer as “pay-per-use” basis to deliver PAAS of cloudcomputing. Few of the services is being depicted in the figure Fig-4 like OS provisioning,Queuing, Database service, Middle ware, Server load balance, work flow service, Billingmanagement, Content Management, License management, Integration service, Backupservice, Security service. Application developer will get an access to license for the specificservice as per the requirement and just need to pay membership fees for the license. It will beeffective to save development cost of service or purchase cost of service. To implement e-Governance, GI is about to set up State wise Data Centre to store all the Government datainto one Data Centre regardless of application or nature of the data. Each SDC is having itsown Security plan, Backup plan and Disaster plan to ensure seamless and secure data service.In our proposed framework, we want to incorporate IAAS of cloud computing by introducinga central controller service among the all SDC to backup all data into a single backup serverand backup server will be designed in such a way so that server will be capable to providedata in any kind of disaster. Instead of multiple backup servers and multiple disasterrecovery, single point backup will help to cut down server maintenance cost and Databaseserver hardware cost. Along with this, proposed framework will enable on demand access forall the costly hardware like web server, network bandwidth, storage, DSN and DHCP etc.,mainly used by the Network Architect to avoid individual cost. 67
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME6. TESTING: THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL TO ADOPTCLOUD COMPUTING IN E-GOVERNANCE PROJECTS It is always difficult to take decision to adopt new technology for any kind ofsituation in enterprise level. So, Hypothetical test for any conceptual model is veryimportant to avoid any bad impact before implementation of the model. TechnologyAcceptance Model (TAM) may be used to test any conceptual model regarding adoptionof new technology, to measure how the users going to accept and use the new technology.The main objective of TAM is to forecast idea about the user acceptance and to find outany design fault before users have any significant experience with a system [4]. Davissuggested that Users inspiration can be explained as perceived usefulness (PU), perceivedease of use (PEOU), attitude toward using, and behavioral intentions to use. Mainly Davishypnotized that behavioral intention of a user determinant that whether users are goinguse or reject the system [4, 5]. Presently, Researchers and practitioners are using this toolenormously to test acceptance of any new technology as it is very cost effective and lesstime consuming. In this study, Authors also have used TAM to test the above mentionedconceptual diagram towards adopting cloud computing in Indian e-Governance projects.The logical flow of TAM is used to measure the user acceptance are shown in Fig-V Fig V: TAM Acceptance diagram Authors have conducted survey among 38 Government IT executives who areclosely working in different e-Governance projects in India and 45 Could Computing ITprofessionals to justify the prospects and benefits of cloud computing adoption in Indiane-Governance projects. Two different set of questionnaires has been used to collect different kind ofinformation from Government IT executives and cloud computing IT professionalsrespectively. 68
  9. 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEThe following constructors have been identified based on the survey response – TABLE 1: Cloud computing, TAM acceptance constructors Constructors Description Response in PercentagePerceived Usefulness Government IT executives & IT professionals believe 92 that use of cloud computing will give extra mileage in the process to roll out e-Governance project.Perceived Ease of Use The degree to which Government IT executives & IT 94 professionals have been agreed that cloud computing will make implementation process, maintenance process and extensible process easier.Attitude Toward Using Good to feel mentality among the Government IT 80 executives & IT professionals to accept cloud computing in e-governance projectsBehavioral Intentions to Having thought in mind to use cloud computing for 84Use long timeUser Satisfaction Government IT executives believe that User 91 satisfaction will extend.World wide popularity of e-governance projects among all 98Acceptability of cloudcomputingDemand of cost Governments are looking for cost reduction in data 93reduction & center investment, and alternative solutions for themaintenance simplicity current complex maintenance e-Governance DataCenter. 69
  10. 10. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEIn respect of above identified constructors, The TAM diagram –Fig. VI, has been used to testthe cloud computing acceptability in Indian e-Governance projects- H1a Technology Acceptance Model PerceivedDemand of cost H3a usefulnessreduction &maintenancesimplicity in e- H5Governance Data H4aCenter Adoption of H2 User Behavioral cloud Satisfaction intention computing in E-GovernanceWorldwideAcceptability H3b Perceived ease H4bof cloud of usecomputing H1b Fig. VI: TAM Diagram towards acceptance of cloud computing in E-GovernanceHypothesisThe below mentioned factors has been hypothesized in this study to realize the acceptance ofcloud computing in Indian e-Governance projects-H1a: Government already having some demand to reduce investment for data center in eachstate in India. Also Government IT Mangers frequently face problem to do maintenance indata center. This kind of thought made influence for perceived usefulness.H1b: Worldwide Acceptability of cloud computing have major role on perceived ease of useto adopt cloud computing in Indian e-Governance projects.H2: Perceived ease of use of cloud computing in e-Governance projects also influenceperceived usefulness to adopt cloud computing in e-Governance projects.H3a: Perceived usefulness to adopt cloud computing in e-Governance projects positivelyincreased user satisfaction in e-Governance projects.H3b: Perceived ease of use to adopt cloud computing in e-Governance projects positivelyincreased user satisfaction in e-Governance projects.H4a: User satisfaction in e-Governance projects has positive effects on Behavioural intentionof user.H4b: Government Leaders having positive attitude to accept cloud commuting in e-Governance projects.H5: Behavioural intention of user positively makes possible to adopt cloud computing in e-Governance projects. 70
  11. 11. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME7. RESULT In a nutshell, from the TABLE I and FIG. VI, World wide acceptance of cloudcomputing in various kind of data center is a main factor which helps to all Government ITexecutives, Leaders and IT professionals in different domains to make some perception thatuses of cloud computing in e-Governance projects also would be easy to use. Theimplementation cost and maintenance cost of data center for each state is always treating asroad blockage for Indian government as the cost is used to get simply multiplied by thenumber of states that are going to use the data center. So, cost reduction is always in mind ofGovernment, IT executives, & Leaders, which influenced to them to make some perceptionthat usefulness of cloud computing in e-Governance data center would be great success. Thepast experience of IT professionals in cloud computing also has put them in same perceptionabout the usefulness of cloud computing in e-Governance projects.Users those are using cloud computing in others field has got tremendous success and uses ofe-Governance in India are also being able to make user happy to get Government services,these points leads to get perception that users would be satisfied. Therefore, cloud computing in e-Governance projects could be a solution to roll out e-Governance projects in India.8. CONCLUSION Adoption of Cloud Technology to e-Governance in India will improve theinterconnectivity, radical cost reduction, easy maintenance of application and Data Centre.This study also concludes that Pay-per-use concept helps to speed up to roll out e-Governance project in India.REFERENCE[1] Bagga, R. K. and Gupta, P. “TRANSFORMING GOVERNMENT: e- GOVERNANCE INITIATIVES IN INDIA”, Icfai University Press, 2009.[2] Borko, F., Armando, E., “Handbook of Cloud Computing”, Springer, 2010. Coursey, D. and Norris, D. “Models of e-Government; Are they correct? An empirical assessment”, Public Administration, Review, volume 68, Number 3, pp 523- 536,2008.[3] Chanwick, A. and May, C., “Interaction between states and Citizens in the age of the internet: E-Government in the United States, Britain and the European Union, Governance” An International Journal of policy, Administration and Institutions, volume 16, Number 2, pp 271-300, year 2003.[4] Davis, F.D. “Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology”. MIS Quarterly, 13 (3), pp. 318-340, 1989.[5] Davis, F.D. “User acceptance of information technology: system characteristics, user perceptions and behavioural impacts”. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 38, pp. 475-487, 1993.[6] Grant G., and Chau D., “Developing a Generic Framework for E-Government”, Journal of Global Information Management, Volume 13, Number 1, pp 1-30,year 2005. 71
  12. 12. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME[7] Gartner Hype Cycle for Cloud Computing, 2009.[8] Gujarathi, D.M., Patil Rakesh, S. “Role of ICT and e-governance for rural development”, International Referred Research Journal ISSN- 0975-3486 VOL, I *ISSUE-9 RNI: RAJBIL /2009/30097, 2009.[9] Mukherjee, K., Shaoo, G. “Cloud Computing: Future framework for e-Governance”, International Journal of computer Applications (0975-8887) Volume 7 –No.7, October 2010.[10] Ministry of Communication and Information technology web Site, Government of India,[11] National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST).[12] Prasad, A.,Chaurasia, S.,Singh, A., Gour, G. “ Mapping Cloud Computing onto useful e-Governance”, International of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2010.[13] Rastogi, A., “A Model based Approach to implement Cloud Computing in E- Governance”, International Journal of computer Applications (0975-8887), Volume 9 –No.7, November 2010.[14] Shirin, M., “E-Governance for Development”, London: PlangraveMacmillan, 2009.[15] Saxena, M., “ICT in Rural India: E-Governance”, Icfai University Press, 2008.[16] Sun Micro System White Paper, “Introduction to cloud Computing Architecture”, 2009.[17] Tripathi, A. and Parihar, B., “E-Governance Challenges and Cloud Benefits”, VSRD- IJCSIT, Vol. 1 (1), 2011, 29-35.[18] Gurudatt Kulkarni, Jayant Gambhir and Amruta Dongare, “Security In Cloud Computing” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 258 - 265, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.[19] Abhishek Pandey, R.M.Tugnayat and A.K.Tiwari, “Data Security Framework For Cloud Computing Networks” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 178 - 181, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 72