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AWARENESS OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS TOWARDS E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHENNAI CITY, TAMIL NADU

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https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1932 editor@iaeme.com
International Journal of Management (IJM)
Volume 11, Issue 9, Sep...
Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu
https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJ...
A. Sivagami and G. Arun Senthil Ram
https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1934 editor@iaeme.com
3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Singh...
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AWARENESS OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS TOWARDS E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHENNAI CITY, TAMIL NADU

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The electronic industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry (Radha, 2002; DIT, 2003). During the last few decades, it has assumed the role of providing a forceful influence to the socio-economic and technological growth of developing countries. The consequences of its consumer oriented growth pooled with rapid e-product obsolescence and technological advancements are a novel environmental challenge - the growing threat of 'Electronics Waste' or 'e-waste' which consists of obsolete electronic devices. It is an upcoming problem as well as a big business opportunity of growing significance, given the volumes of e-waste being created and contents of both toxic and valuable materials with them. This study had been undertaken to investigate the determinants of e-waste management in Tamil Nadu using structured Questionnaire to collect data from the individual consumers along with attitude and knowledge scale to assess their level of awareness on electronic waste disposal and its management. Data has been collected during the month of April - December 2017. The study concluded that most of the respondents were not aware of ewaste management for which intensive awareness campaign has to be commenced by the government for all the stakeholders especially individual consumers, as this is the need of hour.

The electronic industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry (Radha, 2002; DIT, 2003). During the last few decades, it has assumed the role of providing a forceful influence to the socio-economic and technological growth of developing countries. The consequences of its consumer oriented growth pooled with rapid e-product obsolescence and technological advancements are a novel environmental challenge - the growing threat of 'Electronics Waste' or 'e-waste' which consists of obsolete electronic devices. It is an upcoming problem as well as a big business opportunity of growing significance, given the volumes of e-waste being created and contents of both toxic and valuable materials with them. This study had been undertaken to investigate the determinants of e-waste management in Tamil Nadu using structured Questionnaire to collect data from the individual consumers along with attitude and knowledge scale to assess their level of awareness on electronic waste disposal and its management. Data has been collected during the month of April - December 2017. The study concluded that most of the respondents were not aware of ewaste management for which intensive awareness campaign has to be commenced by the government for all the stakeholders especially individual consumers, as this is the need of hour.

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AWARENESS OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS TOWARDS E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHENNAI CITY, TAMIL NADU

  1. 1. https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1932 editor@iaeme.com International Journal of Management (IJM) Volume 11, Issue 9, September 2020, pp. 1932-1943. Article ID: IJM_11_09_184 Available online at https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJM?Volume=11&Issue=9 ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510 DOI: 10.34218/IJM.11.9.2020.184 © IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed AWARENESS OF INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS TOWARDS E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHENNAI CITY, TAMIL NADU Dr. A. Sivagami Head and Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, Government Arts and Science College for Women, (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli), Orathanadu, Tamil Nadu, India Dr. G. Arun Senthil Ram Executive Director, Alchemy Foundation for Sustainable Development, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India ABSTRACT The electronic industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry (Radha, 2002; DIT, 2003). During the last few decades, it has assumed the role of providing a forceful influence to the socio-economic and technological growth of developing countries. The consequences of its consumer oriented growth pooled with rapid e-product obsolescence and technological advancements are a novel environmental challenge - the growing threat of 'Electronics Waste' or 'e-waste' which consists of obsolete electronic devices. It is an upcoming problem as well as a big business opportunity of growing significance, given the volumes of e-waste being created and contents of both toxic and valuable materials with them. This study had been undertaken to investigate the determinants of e-waste management in Tamil Nadu using structured Questionnaire to collect data from the individual consumers along with attitude and knowledge scale to assess their level of awareness on electronic waste disposal and its management. Data has been collected during the month of April - December 2017. The study concluded that most of the respondents were not aware of e- waste management for which intensive awareness campaign has to be commenced by the government for all the stakeholders especially individual consumers, as this is the need of hour. Key words: e-waste, consumers, e-waste management. Cite this Article: A. Sivagami and G. Arun Senthil Ram, Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, International Journal of Management, 11(9), 2020, pp 1932-1943. https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJM?Volume=11&Issue=9
  2. 2. Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1933 editor@iaeme.com 1. INTRODUCTION The electronic industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry (Radha, 2002; DIT, 2003). During the last few decades, it has assumed the role of providing a forceful influence to the socio-economic and technological growth of developing countries. The consequences of its consumer oriented growth pooled with rapid e-product obsolescence and technological advancements are a novel environmental challenge - the growing threat of 'Electronics Waste' or 'e-waste' which consists of obsolete electronic devices. It is an upcoming problem as well as a big business opportunity of growing significance, given the volumes of e- waste being created and contents of both toxic and valuable materials with them. The fraction including copper, iron, gold, aluminium and other metals in e-waste is more than 60 percent, while plastics include for about 30 percent and the hazardous pollutants consist about 2.70 percent (Widmer et al., 2005). Solid waste management, that is already an enormous task in India, is becoming more complicated by the invasion of e-waste, particularly computer waste. E-waste from developed countries get an easy way into the developing countries in the name of free trade (Toxics Link, 2004) is complicating the problems further and associated with waste management. 2. STATUS OF E-WASTE IN INDIA India is witnessing a main growth in electronic market. Due to rapid innovation and modernization in communication sector, a large variety of mobiles and communication equipment’s are available and it is mounting rapidly. The computer and its peripheral industries are also booming at a rapid rate. All these things lead to enhancements in e-waste generation in India. In Asia, India is the second largest e-waste generator. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) 2012 report mentions that e-waste output enhances to eight times in last seven years i.e. 8,00,000 tones. In 2005, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) estimated India’s e-waste at 1.47 lacs tonnes or 0.573 MT per day. The major contribution of 60 percent of the total e-waste generated in India is created by sixty five cities. As per the Country level WEEE assessment study (2005) "Seventy five percent of the total e-waste is generated by the top ten states which, includes Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Utter Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab". This increase in the huge amount of e-waste generation is primarily due to increase in demand of products like TV, PC and telephones in the last 5-10 years. The Dept of Information technology projects the future estimate of e-waste as shown in figure. Figure 1 Source : Country level WEEE assessment study by the International Resource Group Systems South Asia Pvt. Ltd, 2005
  3. 3. A. Sivagami and G. Arun Senthil Ram https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1934 editor@iaeme.com 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Singh and Amin (2018) opined that electronic wastes is nowadays the fastest growing pollution issue in a global context. This research provides the summary of E-Waste management in India when compared to other countries. It covers the impact of recycling and management of E- Wastes or human health, society, environment and risk assessment due to pollutants emitted from e-waste recycling in the water, soil and air. Finally E-Waste Management Rules of India and around the world was compared, Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA), shall be adopted for a positive sustainable solution of E-Waste Management to reduce the ill-effects of Informal recycling. Agrawal and Mittal (2017) conducted a study to identify the reasons of the low collection efficiency of household e-waste and to suggest about an organised market with its benefits for proper handling of e-waste that suited to end-users needs. A total of 312 usable responses were gathered from household end-users of EEEs of Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh), India. The study employed descriptive and regression analysis and found that end-users major problems and concerns regarding their e-waste can be solved significantly by online e-waste market and the present e-waste management system had to be changed significantly. Sivathanu (2016) discussed the consumers’ awareness and preference towards the disposal of e-waste. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire among 600 consumers in Pune city. The exploratory factor analysis technique was deployed to identify the awareness factors contributing to the consumer’s preference towards the proper disposal and management of e-waste. The findings showed that awareness of toxic effects on human health, environmental hazards, proper disposal of e-waste, and awareness of e-waste management by various stakeholders and convenience of recycling were the five important contributing factors for disposal. 4. NEED FOR RESEARCH India contributes approximately to 5% of global carbon dioxide emission . In India 770 million people are affected by climate change, 231 million people are under nourished and 600 million people don't have access to electricity. Further, 28% of Indian population live in urban areas of which 20-40% of the urban population live in slums with environmental and health implication . There is a huge depletion in water sources , environment and pollution. (Alaxander J.S., 2017 ) One such reason for depletion of environment is improper waste management. E waste is one such alarming problem that threatens the world community. The major sources of e-waste in India are the private sector, government, OEMs, retailers and individual households. Of the total e-waste quantitative inventory, both the government institutions and the private sector account for 70 percent, while the contribution of individuals is about 15 percent (Sinha and Mahesh, 2007). The treatment of e-waste in India is handled by a better networked and entrepreneurial informal sector and that replicates a long tradition of waste recycling (Widmer et al., 2005). More recently, many formal e-waste recycling entrepreneurial companies have also sprung up similar with the informal sector in the country. Though e-waste management and disposal continues to be driven by global forces, the technicalities will be determined by local conditions. The current e-waste management guidelines formulated by the government, propagates to all the stakeholders down the e-waste for a wider legislation in near future.
  4. 4. Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1935 editor@iaeme.com 5. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • To portray the association between socio-demographic profile of the respondents with their awareness, practice and attitude on e-waste. • To analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice of e-waste management among the stakeholders in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. 6. RESEARCH DESIGN In the present study, the researcher has applied sequential explanatory mixed methodology and it has helped the researcher to blend different approaches and has allowed the researcher to design apt research questions within the research context. The sequential explanatory mixed methodology includes a multiple level strategy incorporating a two phase approach where quantitative data is collected first from consumers through survey, followed by qualitative research methods wherein focused group discussions were conducted among the informal and formal recyclers and case studies were done among the NGO representatives, government officials and manufacturing company. 7. UNIVERSE / SAMPLING OF THE STUDY The population for this current research had been selected from Chennai Corporation of Tamil Nadu. Area sampling method was adopted to identify the respondents for this study. At the first level, Chennai corporation had been selected randomly in Tamil Nadu based on the criteria that it is the corporation which generates more e-waste as per Toxics Link report, 2009. At the second level, 5 fully urbanized zones (heart of Chennai Corporation) out of 15 zones had been selected simple random sampling. At the next level, 10 wards had been selected out of 200 wards by simple random sampling out of which 418 respondents were selected by simple random sampling method. Then 350 questionnaires completed in all aspects were selected for analysis and interpretation. Figure 2
  5. 5. A. Sivagami and G. Arun Senthil Ram https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1936 editor@iaeme.com 7.1. Key Findings Table 1 Association between Socio Demographic Variables of the Respondents and their Perception towards E-waste Variables Respondents Perception towards E-waste Statistical Inference Yes No Total n % n % N % Age 26-30 years 31-35 years 36-40 years 41-45 years 46-50 years 22 44 12 14 20 9.1 18.7 3.4 5.7 5.1 31 124 58 14 11 6.0 29.4 16.6 2.3 3.7 53 168 70 28 31 15 48 20 8 9 X2 = 44.8790 df = 4 0.012<0.05 Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Gender Male Female 94 53 26.9 15.1 179 24 51.1 6.9 273 77 78 22 X2 = 0.003 df = 1 0.960>0.05 Not Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Religion Hindu Christian Muslim Others 81 32 20 14 23.1 9.2 5.7 4.0 114 21 52 16 32.6 6.0 14.8 4.6 195 53 72 30 55.7 15.1 20.6 8.6 X2 = 5.823 df = 3 0.016<0.05 Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Social status FC BC SC/ST Others 8 112 10 17 2.3 32.0 2.9 4.8 13 173 10 7 3.7 49.4 2.9 2.0 21 285 20 24 06.0 81.5 05.7 06.8 X2 = 0.629 df = 3 0.730>0.05 Not Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Educational Qualification No education School education Collegiate Professional Higher education 12 24 84 20 7 3.4 6.9 24.0 5.7 2.0 20 53 98 24 8 5.7 15.1 28.0 6.9 2.3 32 77 182 44 15 09.1 22.0 52.0 12.6 4.3 X2 = 6.173 df = 4 0.082>0.05 Not Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Type of Family Nuclear Joint 78 69 22.3 19.7 139 64 39.7 18.3 217 133 62 38 X2 = 221.840 df = 1 0.21<0.05 Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Marital Status Married Single 112 35 32 10 126 77 36 22 238 112 68 32 X2 = 80.254 df = 1 0.034<0.05 Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Family Size 1 - 3 Persons 4 - 6 persons 6 and above 18 105 24 5.1 30.0 6.9 24 168 11 6.9 48 3.1 42 273 35 12 78 10 X2 = 58.481 df = 2 0.02<0.05 Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Nature of Residence Owned Rented Lease 68 70 9 19.4 20.0 2.8 65 98 40 18.6 28.0 11.4 133 168 49 38 48 14 X2 = 5.030 df = 2 0.081>0.05 Not Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Type of House Concrete Tiled 85 62 24.3 17.7 105 98 30.0 28.0 190 160 54.3 45.7 X2 = 1.778 df = 1 0.182>0.05 Not Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Monthly Income
  6. 6. Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1937 editor@iaeme.com Rs.10,001 - 20,000 Rs.20,001 - 30,000 Rs.30,001 - 40,000 Rs.40,001 - 50,000 Rs.50,001 - 60,000 65 32 15 28 7 18.6 9.1 4.3 8.0 2.0 89 45 20 35 14 25.4 12.9 5.7 10.0 4.0 154 77 35 63 21 44 22 10 18 6 X2 = 0.723 df = 4 0.697>0.05 Not Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 Occupation Housewives Government Business Private Professionals 12 69 31 5 30 3.4 19.7 8.9 1.4 8.6 16 92 46 9 40 4.6 26.3 13.1 2.6 11.4 28 161 77 14 70 8 46 22 4 20 X2 = 35.539 df = 4 0.025<0.05 Significant 147 42 203 58 350 100 There is a significant association between the socio-demographic profile viz. age, religion, type of family, family size and occupation of the respondents with their perception towards e- waste. In all these, since the calculated value (age =0.012, religion = 0.016, type of family = 0.021, number of persons in the family = 0.034, occupation = 0.025) is less than the table value p=0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence the research hypothesis is accepted which indicates that there is a significant relationship between the socio-demographic profile viz. age, religion, type of family, number of persons in the family and occupation of the respondents with their perception towards e-waste. With regard to gender, social status, education, nature of residence, type of house and monthly income of the respondents, they do not have any association with their perception on e-waste. In all these, since the calculated value (gender = 0.960, social status = 0.730, education = 0.082, nature of residence = 0.081, type of house = 0.182 monthly income = 0.697) is greater than the table value p=0.05, the research hypothesis is rejected and hence the null hypothesis is accepted which indicates that there is no significant association between the socio demographic profile of the respondents viz. gender, social status, education, nature of residence, type of house and monthly income of the respondents and their perception towards e-waste. Table 2 Association between Educational Qualification of the Respondents and their methods of E- waste Disposal Disposal methods Education of the Respondents Total Illiteracy School education Collegiate education Profess- ional Higher education To friends &relatives 3 (0.9) 6 (1.7) 7 (2.0) 5 (1.4) 3 (0.9) 24 (6.8) Second hand sales 4 (1.1) 3 (0.9) 9 (2.6) 6 (1.7) 2 (0.6) 24 (6.8) Donated for charity 2 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) 8 (2.3) Stored it for long 10 (2.9) 26 (7.4) 86 (24.6) 12 (3.4) 3 (0.9) 137 (39.2) Given to scrap collector 9 (2.5) 20 (5.7) 61 (17.4) 13 (3.7) 4 (1.1) 107 (30.6) Thrown away 4 (1.1) 20 (5.7) 18 (5.1) 6 (1.7) 2 (0.6) 50 (14.3) Total 32 (9.1) 77 (22.0) 182 (44.0) 44 (12.6) 15 (4.3) 350 (100)
  7. 7. A. Sivagami and G. Arun Senthil Ram https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1938 editor@iaeme.com Chi-square test was used to test the above hypothesis of association of educational qualification of the respondents with their e-waste disposal methods while buying the household EEE goods taken for the study. The calculated value is 79.4 and table value at 0.05 confidence level and degree of freedom, value of chi-square is 24.9. Hence it is observed that the calculated value is higher than the table value thus rejecting null hypothesis and accepting alternate hypothesis. The study proves that there is a significant association between the educational qualification of the respondents and their disposal methods of e-waste. Figure 3 Respondents Perception on the Responsibility of E-waste Management The perception of consumers on the responsibility of e-waste management is vital in its management. The perception may be based on number of aspects around the consumers. The delegation of responsibility of e-waste management does not purely depends upon single responsibility holder rather it is a shared responsibility among the stakeholder involved in EEE manufacturing and disposal. According to the present data, 20 percent of the respondents thought that the government had the responsible mechanism of proper electronic disposal. This may be due to the fact that the Government is implementing waste management practices including Municipal solid waste management. Another 14 percent transferred the responsibility directly to the manufacturers who produce EEE. The respondents think that the manufacturer is totally aware of the product, they know its proper disposal. They have the opinion that the manufacturer starts the Life Cycle of the product and hence they are responsible for ending that life cycle properly. About 22 percent of the respondents transferred the responsibility of e-waste to the product seller. This category perceive that the seller/distributor is close to the consumers. ,One third of the respondents ie.34 percent felt that it is their own responsibility to dispose the e-waste and a negligible portion 10 percent of the respondents felt that the proper disposal of e-waste rests on everyone in the chain ie. shared responsibility of stakeholders.
  8. 8. Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1939 editor@iaeme.com Figure 4 Respondents Awareness on Hazardous contents of E-waste This data assess the respondents awareness on toxic and hazardous substances in e-waste equipments. According to the study, 28 percent of the respondents had no idea about hazardous contents of e-waste and about 28.9 percent had little awareness on it. This cannot be considered as active level of awareness to make decisions with regard to e-waste and its disposal. About 28 percent had general awareness on these toxic substances and 4 percent had good amount of awareness while 11.1 percent of the respondents had higher level of knowledge about its contents. When further analysed the data, it shows that 56.9 percent of the respondents did not have proper knowledge on hazardous contents while only 15.1 percent of the respondents had fair knowledge to make decisions accordingly. The study identified Computer and Mobile phones are rich in hazardous and toxic contents than other electronic products. Hence it is necessary to monitor the consumers level of awareness towards these contents. Table 3 Respondents Practice towards the Disposal of Obsolete Electronics S.N. Condition of Respondents Electronic Products at the time of Disposal No. of Respondents (n = 350) Percentage a b Not discarded Discarded 42 308 12 88 Items discarded * (n = 460) a b c d Computers and laptops Printers, telephones Modems Monitors, Mobile phones 115 202 46 97 25.0 43.9 10.0 21.1 * Non addictive Percentage The study noted that a vast majority 88 percent of the respondents had discarded electronic equipments or accessories of one or the other kind, out of which 25 percent had discarded desktop computers and laptops, about 43.9 percent had discarded printers and telephones, 10 percent discarded modems and monitors and mobile phones by 21.1 percent of the respondents. This concludes that the study shows an indicator of a high accumulation of e-waste. The study also found that the duration the respondents owned the EEE before they discarded it and over 50 percent of the consumers revealed that they kept the computers over five years.
  9. 9. A. Sivagami and G. Arun Senthil Ram https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1940 editor@iaeme.com Table 4 Education of the Respondents and their Awareness on E-Waste Education of the respondents Awareness on E-waste Total Statistical Inference Aware Not aware No education 30 12 42 (12) X2 =0.372 Df=3 0.372>0.05 Not Significant School education 47 30 77 (22) Collegiate education 93 89 182 (52) Professionals 35 14 49 (14) TOTAL 205 (58.5) 145 (41.5) 350 (100) Figures in Parenthesis indicate percentages Majority ie. 58.5 percent of the consumers were aware of e-waste management and 36.6 percent of them were post graduate and professionals. Since the calculated value 0.372 is greater than the table value p=0.05, the research hypothesis is rejected and hence the null hypothesis is accepted which indicates that there is no significant association between educational qualification and their awareness on e-waste and its management. Table 5 Knowledge of the Respondents about E-Waste S.N. Respondents Knowledge Mean Std. Deviation 1 E-waste should not be mixed with organic waste 2.19 0.656 2 E-waste causes hazard to the environment 2.11 0.487 3 E-waste is produced from electronic products 2.03 0.484 4 E-waste should be segregated and disposed 1.99 0.467 5 More use of electronic products leads to more e-waste generation 1.56 0.538 It can be observed from the table no.4.30 that the respondents did not have adequate knowledge that e-waste must not be mixed with the other general wastes. As it is dangerous to the environment, it must be handled in a separate way. They did not also aware that more use of electronic products leads to more e-waste generation and hence it is necessary to adapt an eco-friendly way of life and do not involve in the activity that is threatening the environment. Hence the community needs to be given awareness on the generation of e-waste and its disposal. Mean score is found to be 1.956 which means that most of the respondents did not have awareness on e-waste, which may affect the attitude of the respondents towards generation, separation and disposal of e-waste and its management. Table 6 Oneway Analysis of Variance among the Respondents educational qualification and their Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour towards E-waste n Mean S.D SS Df MS Statistical inference Knowledge of the Respondents on E-waste Between Groups 170.677 4 42.669 F=3.043 .017<0.05 Significant No education 32 21.35 2.996 School education 77 19.83 4.052 Collegiate 182 20.30 3.540 Professional 44 19.75 3.820 Higher education 15 19.68 4.466 Within Groups 5300.190 378 14.022 Attitude of the respondents towards E-waste Between Groups 13.837 4 3.459 F=.426
  10. 10. Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1941 editor@iaeme.com No education 32 20.13 2.954 .790>0.05 Not Significant School education 77 20.18 3.020 Collegiate 182 20.22 3.058 Professional 44 20.50 2.893 Higher education 15 20.59 2.395 Within Groups 3069.662 378 8.121 Behaviour of the respondents towards E-waste Between Groups 16.669 4 4.167 F=.448 .774>0.05 Not Significant No education 32 19.50 3.071 School education 77 19.03 3.322 Collegiate 182 19.26 3.074 Professional 44 19.64 2.706 Higher education 15 19.35 2.622 Within Groups 3513.357 378 9.295 There is a significant difference among the educational qualification and Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour of the respondents towards e-waste. One way ANOVA ‘F’ test was used to test the above hypothesis. This table reveals that there is no significant difference among the educational qualification of the respondents and their Attitude and Behaviour towards e- waste. But the knowledge of the respondents is being influenced by their educational qualification. Since the calculated value 0.017 is less than the table value (P>0.05), the research hypothesis is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected which proves that the educational qualification has its own influence in the knowledge of the respondents towards e-waste management including its disposal. Hence there is a significant difference among the educational qualification and the knowledge of the respondents towards e-waste and there is no significant difference among the educational qualification and attitude and behaviour of the respondents towards e-waste. 8. TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis 1 : There is a significant association between the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and their perception towards e-waste. Chi-square test was used to test the above hypothesis. Since the calculated value is less than the table value p=0.05 for age, religion, type of family, number of persons in the family and occupation of the respondents, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence the research hypothesis is accepted which indicates that there is a significant association between the socio-demographic profile viz. age, religion, type of family, number of persons in the family and occupation of the respondents with their perception towards e-waste. Hypothesis 2 : There is a significant association between the educational qualification of the respondents and their disposal methods of e-waste. Chi-square test is used to test the above hypothesis. It is observed that the calculated value is higher than the table value thus rejecting null hypothesis and accepting alternate hypothesis. The study proves that there is significant association between the educational qualification of the respondents and their disposal methods of e-waste. Hypothesis 3 : There is a significant association between the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and their knowledge on e-waste. Chi-square test was used to test the above hypothesis. Since the calculated value is less than the table value p=0.05 for age, education and occupation of the respondents, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence the research hypothesis is accepted which indicates that there is a significant association between the socio- demographic profile viz. age, education and occupation of the respondents with their knowledge on e-waste.
  11. 11. A. Sivagami and G. Arun Senthil Ram https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1942 editor@iaeme.com 9. RECOMMENDATIONS The general public may opt for upgrading their computers or other electronic equipments to the latest versions rather than buying new equipments. • Every user should take efforts to increase the usable life of electronic and electrical appliances. EEE may be donated for reuse in order to extend the end of life (EoL) of valuable products and sustain its life thus keeping them out of waste. • The concept of 5 R's in waste management reduce, reuse, recycle, recover and residual management may be propagated among the consumers. This study may evolve a sixth R ie Refurbish. Hence concept of 6 R's may be advocated and practiced to the consumers for extending the EoL of the EEE. • Electrical and Electronic Equipment's may be chosen based on few toxic constituents, RoHS compliance, recycling content, energy efficient, designed for ease upgrading, minimal packaging, etc. • The citizens may buy the products considering the responsibility of EPR of the manufacturing companies ie. take back options. • Consumer should segregate the waste at the source and should not mix up the e waste along with municipal solid waste (MSW) • Consumer should try to buy newer gadgets only by exchanging their older products if it's not for the first time purchase. 10. CONCLUSION Awareness of Individual consumers plays a key role in proper disposal of e-waste and its management. The present study found that 32 percent of the consumers (out of 350) surveyed in Chennai city had awareness on e-waste management. This study makes contributions to both academic field and practical field. From academic view point, it contributes to the literature existing in the area of consumer awareness, e-waste management and disposal. Future researchers can also use this research to study the importance of variety of stakeholders including formal and informal sectors and e-waste management techniques. REFERENCES [1] AjeetSaoji (2012) : E-Waste Management: An Emerging Environmental and Health Issue in India, National Journal of Medical Research, Volume 2, Issue I. [2] Chibunna (2010) : Awareness towards E-waste Management: A case study of UKM Malaysia, Journal of Solid Waste Technology & Management, Vol. 36 Issue 3, p548-556 [3] Kousar Jahan Ara Begum (2013) : Management in India: A Review, Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, Volume 10, Issue 4, PP 46-57 [4] Li, Y., Richardson, J.B., Walker, A.K. & Youn, P.-C. (2006) TCLP heavy metal leaching of personal computer components. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 132, 497—504 [5] Milojkovic, J. & Litovski, V. (2005) Concepts of computer take-back for sustainable end-of- life. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. Working and Living Environmental Protection, 2, 363—372. [6] Osibanjo, O. & Nnorom, I.C. (2007) Environmental implications of material flow of waste electrical electronic equipments (WEEE) into developing countries: Nigeria, a case study. Waste Management (in press).
  12. 12. Awareness of Individual Consumers Towards E-Waste Management in Chennai City, Tamil Nadu https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 1943 editor@iaeme.com [7] Rajesh Kumar & Karishma (2016) : Current Scenario of e-waste management in India:issues and strategies, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 1. [8] Ravi, V., Shanker, R. & Tiwari, M.K. (2005) Analyzing alternatives in reverse logistics for end- of-life computers: ANP and balanced score-card approach. Computer and Industrial Engineering, 48: 327—356. [9] Roman, L.S. & Puckett, J. (2002) E-scrap exportation: challenges and considerations . In: Proc. International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment 2002 IEEE, May 6—9, 2002, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 79—84. [10] Sastry & Ch. V. Ramachandra Murthy (2012) : Management of e-Waste in the Present Scenario, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, No. [11] Scharnhorst, W., Althaus, H.-J., Classes, M., Jolliet, O. & Hilty, L.M. (2005) The end of life treatment of second generation mobile phone networks: strategy to reduce the environmental impact. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 25, 540—566 [12] Thomas, V.M. (2003) Product self-management: evolution in recycling and reuse. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 5297—5302. [13] Toxic Dispatch (2004) Environmentalists Denounce Toxic Waste Dumping in Asia. A newsletter from Toxic Links, pp 1—2 Toxic Dispatch No 23 September, 2004. [14] Usha Poomman (2014) : A Survey of Consumer Behaviour towards E-waste Management in the City of Mumbai, International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences Vol. 2, Issue 8. [15] Williams, E.D. (2003) Extending PC lifespan through secondary markets . In: Proc. 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, May 19—22, 2003, pp. 255

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