INTERNATIONALComputer EngineeringCOMPUTER (IJCET), ISSN 0976-  International Journal of JOURNAL OF and Technology ENGINEER...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
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A survey of energy efficient aodv routing algorithms in manet

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A survey of energy efficient aodv routing algorithms in manet

  1. 1. INTERNATIONALComputer EngineeringCOMPUTER (IJCET), ISSN 0976- International Journal of JOURNAL OF and Technology ENGINEERING 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) IJCETVolume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 213-220© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com A SURVEY OF ENERGY EFFICIENT AODV ROUTING ALGORITHMS IN MANET Prerna Malhotra Student PDM College of Engineering for Women, B’Garh ABSTRACT MANET became the focus of researchers as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self- organizing, self-configuring capability in different mobile network scenarios. One significant area of research within ad hoc networks is energy consumption issue. The primary goal of ad hoc networks is to call for the energy- constrained protocols. Energy consumption evaluation methodology is introduced for the protocol consideration in different mobile network. AODV routing protocol performs well on assessment of energy consumption for the mobile ad hoc network with high node mobility. Nodes in MANET networks are basically battery operated, and thus have access to a limited amount of energy. This process proposes an Energy based Ad-Hoc on-Demand Routing algorithm that balances energy among nodes so that a minimum energy level is maintained among nodes and the lifetime of network is increased. In this paper we survey about different Energy efficient AODV routing algorithms designed so far. Keywords: AODV, Energy, MANET, Mobility, Self-configure 1. INTRODUCTION Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) represent the decentralized paradigms where clients themselves sustain the network in the absence of a central infrastructure. MANET does not operate under fixed topology means they are self-organising, self- administrating, self-healing type of network. In MANET, each mobile node operate as both a router and a terminal nodes which is a source or destination, thus the failure of some nodes operation can greatly hinder the performance of the network and also affect the basic accessibility of the network, i.e., energy exhaustion of nodes has been one of the main harm to the connectivity of MANET. Since the mobile nodes in MANET have limited battery 213
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEpower, so it is required to efficiently use energy of every node in MANET. MANET is amulti-hop, in which node can freely move in any direction and have limited battery power.In this type of networks, energy parameter plays an important role in the research. A reliablerouting protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) keeps the energy consumption aslow as possible. To estimate the energy consumption the numerous MANET routingprotocols have been developed for network. The performance of DSDV [1] introduces largeamounts of overhead to the network due to the requirement of the periodic update messages,and the overhead grows at the quantity of O(N2).DSR [2] is that it uses broadcast for routediscovery while broadcast causes too much message forwarding traffic and energyconsumption, especially when the network is large. AODV [3] AODV is based on bothDSDV and DSR algorithm. It uses the route discovery and route maintenance practice ofDSR. DSR packet carries the complete route information, while the packet of AODV onlycarries the destination address, it has less routing overhead than DSR. At the same time,AODV makes use of routing messages and sequence numbering. Here AODV is evaluatedand analyzed from the aspect the energy utilization metric. AODV protocol is a reactiverouting protocol which finds route to destination when required. AODV consists of routingtable which helps to differentiate between expiry and fresh routes. The routing table at nodecontains the sequence number and next hop information. The working of protocol is consistsof two phases:1. Route discovery and2. Route maintenance. In route discovery process, the source node generate RREQ packet, if the path todestination is not stored in the routing table, and pass it to the neighboring nodes. Theneighboring nodes will pass it to their neighbor and so on. When the packet reached to thedestination node, then destination node generates RREP (Route Reply) packet and send itback to the source node. Thus the path is established between source and destination node.In route maintenance process, the source node is being informed by RERR (Route Error)message in case of link breakage. Also the connectivity between the nodes is maintainingusing Hello messages. There are two main factors that cause link failures are:I. Battery life timeII. Mobility2. CATEGORIES OF ROUTING Routing is the process of finding a path from a source to destination amongrandomly distributed routers. The broadcasting [4] is inevitable and a common operation inad-hoc network. It consists of diffusing a message from a source node to all the nodes in thenetwork. Broadcast can be used to diffuse information to the whole network. It is also usedfor route discovery protocols in ad-hoc networks. The routing protocols are classified asfollows on the basis of the way the network information is obtained in these routingprotocols. 214
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME2.1 Proactive (or Table-driven) routing protocol The proactive protocols maintain routing information about each node in thenetwork. The information is updated throughout the network periodically or when topologychanges. Each node requires to store their routing information.For example1. Destination sequenced Distance vector routing (DSDV)2. Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR)2.2 Reactive or On-demand routing protocol The reactive routing protocols look for the routes and are created as and whenrequired. When a source wants to send to a destination, it invokes the route discoverymechanisms to find the path to the destination.For example1. Ad-Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)2. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)3. Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO)2.3 Hybrid Protocols These protocols are using the best features of both the on-demand and tabledriven routing protocols.For example1. Temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA)2. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)These classes of routing protocols are reported but choosing best out of them is verydifficult as one may be performing well in one type of scenario the other may work in othertype of scenario. Fig 1: Types of routing protocol in Manet 215
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3. TYPE OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN MANET Energy Management is defined as the process of managing the sources andconsumers of energy in a node or in a network as a whole for enhancing the lifetime of thenetwork [5].Energy Management can be classified into the following categories:1. Transmission Power Management: The power consumed by the radio frequency (RF)module of a mobile node is determined by several factors such as the state of operation. Thetransmission power, and the technology used for the RF circuitry. The state of operationrefers to the transmit, receive, and sleep modes of operation. The transmission power isdetermined by the reachability requirement of the network, the routing protocol and theMAC protocol employed. The RF hardware design must ensure minimum powerconsumption in all the three stages of operation.2. Battery Energy Management: The battery management is aimed at extending the batterylife of a node by taking advantage of its chemical properties, discharge patterns, and by theselection of a battery from a set of batteries that is available for redundancy.3. Processor Power Management: The clock speed and the number of instructions executedper unit time are some of the processor parameters that affect power consumption. The CPUcan be put into different power saving modes during low processing load conditions. TheCPU power can be completely turned off if the machine is idle for a long time. In suchcases, interrupts can be used to turn on the CPU upon detection of user interaction or otherevents.4. Devices Power Management: Intelligent device management can reduce powerconsumption of a mobile node significantly. This can be done by the operating system (OS)by selectively powering down interface devices that are not used or by putting devices intodifferent power-saving modes depending on their usage[2]. Fig 2: Different metric classifications 216
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4. RELATED WORKS A lot of research has been done on energy efficient AODV routing algorithms inMANET. Below shows few algorithms based on Energy efficiency mechanism.4.1 Energy Efficient Adaptive Routing Algorithm in MANET with Sleep Mode T r i p t i N e m a e t a l , proposed an Energy based Ad-Hoc on-Demand Routingalgorithm that balances energy among nodes so that a minimum energy level is maintainedamong nodes and the life of network is increased. We focused on increasing the extensiveexistence of node in the network. In our proposed work we set the minimum energythreshold limit of a mobile node, when a node reached up to the threshold limit the nodegoes to sleep mode, save energy and join in the event as long as possible[6] No. of Network End to End Packet delivery Nodes lifetime delay fraction 10 Increased Increased Increased4.2 OAODV Routing Algorithm for Improving Energy Efficiency in MANET Suvarna P. Bhatsangave et al., In this, the node does not forward RREQ unlessthere is sufficient energy (battery lifetime), and until the node density in its surroundingexceeds a particular threshold. These two parameters are defined taking into considerationvarious statistics. Optimized AODV analyzes these two parameters, when implementingrouting discovery, and avoiding the unnecessary information sending efficiently.[7] No. of Simulation Energy consumed Average Nodes time throughput 10 to 50 120s Reduced Good4.3 An Efficient Secure AODV Routing Protocol in MANET Durgesh Wadbude et al., Some of the attacks such as modification, fabrication,impersonation and denial of service attacks are due to misbehavior of malicious nodes,which disrupts the transmission. In this paper we proposed an efficient secure AODVrouting protocol.[8] No. of Route discovery packets End to end delay Nodes 10 to 60 More efficient More efficient 217
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4.4 Energy based AODV Routing Algorithm with Sleep Mode in MANETs Tripti nema et al, focused on increasing the prolonged existence of node in the network.In this proposed work, one set the minimum energy threshold limit of a mobile node, when a nodereach the minimum threshold limit the node goes to sleep mode, save energy and participate in theevent as long as possible. The research papers are published to improve the network lifetime on thenetwork layer.[9] No. of Network lifetime End to End delay Packet delivery fraction Nodes 10 Increased Increased Increased4.5 Design of an Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANETs based on AODV Annapurna P Patil et al, concentrate on emergency search and rescue operations whichrely heavily on the availability of the network. The availability is a direct cost of the overall networklifetime, i.e., energy of the nodes. The first objective of our work is to select two existing energy efficient routingprotocols based on AODV, each of which is based on a different energy cost metric. We thenpropose the design of a protocol that is a combination of two energy cost metrics in a singleprotocol. The second objective is to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol against thetwo protocols chosen for combination and against the traditional AODV.[5]4.6 Cross-Layer design of energy-saving AODV routing protocol Bing li et al, routing protocol which adopts cross-layer mechanism and energy-awaremetric to improve AODV routing protocol to reduce the energy consumption and then prolong thelife of the whole network. In CEAODV, the link layer and the routing layer work together to choosethe optimized transmission power for nodes and the route for packets. The link layer provides theenergy consumption information for the routing layer and the routing layer chooses routeaccordingly and conversely controls the link layer to adjust the transmission power.[10] No. of Simulation time Energy consumed Performance Nodes 10 to 50 120s Reduced by 8% Better4.7 Energy Efficient AODV Routing in CDMA Ad Hoc Networks Using Beamforming Nie Nie and Cristina Comaniciu, propose an energy aware on demand routing protocolfor CDMA mobile ad hoc networks, for which improvements in the energy consumption are realizedby both introducing an energy based routing measure and by enhancing the physical layerperformance using beamforming. Exploiting the cross-layer interactions between the network and the physical layer leadsto a significant improvement in the energy efficiency compared with the traditional AODV protocoland ensures a faster response to system changes, and reduced overhead. [11] No. of Simulation time Energy End to End latency Nodes 50 1200s Reduced Increases 218
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME Table 1: Comparison of different Energy efficient AODV routing algorithms Name of the Resource Network Energy End to End Result paper lifetime consumed delay Energy Efficient International Increased Reduced Increased Uses less Adaptive RoutingJournal of energy and Algorithm in Advanced throughput MANET with Computer has increased Sleep Mode Research OAODV International Reduced Good Consumes less Routing Journal of energy and Algorithm for Computer has good Improving Applications throughput Energy Efficiency in MANET An Efficient International Increased More Improvement Secure AODV Journal of Efficient of the network Routing Engineering and performance, Protocol in Innovative in terms of MANET Technology overhead, and (IJEIT) end to end delay to the secure AODV routing protocol. Energy based International increased Reduced Increased Overall AODV Journal of MANET’s Routing Computer efficiency is Algorithm Applications enhanced. with Sleep Mode in MANETs Cross-Layer Springer Improves Reduced by Better The design of lifetime 8% performance energy-saving is better when AODV the traffic load routing is higher in protocol the network Energy EURASIP Reduced Increased ensures a Efficient Journal on faster AODV Wireless response to Routing in Communications system CDMA Ad and Networking changes, and Hoc Networks reduced Using overhead. Beamforming Design of an IJCSI Not simulated Energy International as yet Efficient Journal of Routing Computer Protocol for Science MANETs based on AODV 219
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME5. SUMMARY To evaluate the energy consumption the numerous MANET routing protocols have beenbuilt up for network. Energy exhaustion of nodes has been one of the main impairment to theconnectivity of MANET. The significance of sleep mode for the systems finally depends on the wake-up time forvariety of nodes. The initiation of the consciousness in the power management is proposed. In orderto, recover the energy based problem and inhibit the link breakage. As a result, we know that sleepmode and other energy efficient algorithms to AODV protocol gives noticeable result to boost theentire network lifetime.REFERENCES[1] C. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing(DSDV) for mobile computers,” in ACM SIGCOMM94 Conference on CommunicationsArchitectures, Protocols and Applications, 1994, pp. 234–244.[2] D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks,” in MobileComputing, Imielinski and Korth, Eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, vol. 353. pp. 153-181.[3] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer and S. Das, “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)Routing,” RFC 3561 (Experimental), Jul. 2003. [Online].[4] Parma Nand, Dr. S.C. Sharma, “Performance study of Broadcast based Mobile Adhoc RoutingProtocols AODV, DSR and DYMO”, International Journal of Security and Its Applications ,Vol. 5No. 1, January, 2011[5] Annapurna P Patil, Dr K Rajani kanth , BatheySharanya, M P Dinesh Kumar, Malavika J,“Design of an Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANETs based on AODV”, IJCSIInternational Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 4, No 1, July 2011 ISSN (Online):1694-0814[6] Tripti Nema, Akhilesh Waoo, P.S.Patheja, Dr.Sanjay Sharma, “Energy Efficient AdaptiveRouting Algorithm in MANET with Sleep Mode”, International Journal of Advanced ComputerResearch (ISSN (print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970) Volume-2 Number-4 Issue-6December-2012.[7] Suvarna P. Bhatsangave, V. R. Chirchi, “OAODV Routing Algorithm for Improving EnergyEfficiency in MANET” , International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume51– No.21, August 2012[8] Durgesh Wadbude, Vineet Richariya, “ An Efficient Secure AODV Routing Protocol inMANET”,International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1, Issue4, April 2012[9] Tripti Nema, Akhilesh Waoo, P.S.Patheja, Dr.Sanjay Sharma, “Energy Efficient AdaptiveRouting Algorithm in MANET with Sleep Mode”, International Journal of Computer Applications(0975 – 8887) Volume 58– No.19, November 2012.[10] Bing Li, Zhigang Jin, Yantai Shu, “Cross-layer design of energy-saving AODV routingprotocol”, Transactions of Tianjin University October 2009, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 343-349.[11] Nie Nie and Cristina Comaniciu, “Energy Efficient AODV Routing in CDMA Ad HocNetworks Using Beamforming”, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and NetworkingVolume 2006 Issue 2, April2006 Pages 14-14.[12] Sunita Kushwaha, Bhavna Narain, Deepti Verma and Sanjay kumar, “Effect of ScenarioEnvironment on the Performance of Manets Routing Protocol: AODV” International journal ofComputer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 33 - 38, ISSN Print:0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.[13] Prof. S.V.M.G.Bavithiraja and Dr.R.Radhakrishnan, “Power Efficient Context-AwareBroadcasting Protocol For Mobile Ad Hoc Network”, International journal of Computer Engineering& Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 81 - 96, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367,ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 220

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