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A STUDY ON THE REASONS FOR TRANSGENDER TO BECOME ENTREPRENEURS

The study explores the reasons for a transgender to become entrepreneurs. In this study transgender entrepreneur was taken as independent variable and reasons to become as dependent variable. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire containing a five point Likert Scale. The study examined the data of 30 transgender entrepreneurs in Salem Municipal Corporation of Tamil Nadu State, India. Simple Random sampling technique was used. Garrett Ranking Technique (Percentile Position, Mean Scores) was used as the analysis for the present study to identify the top 13 stimulus factors for establishment of trans entrepreneurial venture. Economic advancement of a nation is governed upon the upshot of a resolute entrepreneurial doings. The conception of entrepreneurship has stretched and materialized to the socially deflated uncharted sections of transgender community. Presently transgenders have smashed their stereotypes and are making recent headlines of achievements in various fields of our Indian society. The trans-community is gradually being observed in a new light and has been trying to achieve prospective growth in entrepreneurship. The findings of the research revealed that the optimistic changes are taking place to change affirmative societal outlook of the transgender for entrepreneurial ventureship. It also laid emphasis on other transgenders to renovate their traditional living. The paper also highlights that legislators, supervisory body should endorse an impartial canons and reforms in Tamil Nadu Transgender Welfare Board Association.

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https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3888 editor@iaeme.com
International Journal of Management (IJM)
Volume 11, Issue 11, November 2020, pp. 3888-3894. Article ID: IJM_11_11_385
Available online at https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJM?Volume=11&Issue=11
ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510
© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed
A STUDY ON THE REASONS FOR
TRANSGENDER TO BECOME
ENTREPRENEURS
Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer
Full-Time Ph.D Research Scholar, PG & Research Department of Commerce,
Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli,
Tamil Nadu, India.
Dr. V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose
Assistant Professor, PG & Research Department of Commerce, Holy Cross College
(Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.
ABSTRACT
The study explores the reasons for a transgender to become entrepreneurs. In this
study transgender entrepreneur was taken as independent variable and reasons to
become as dependent variable. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire
containing a five point Likert Scale. The study examined the data of 30 transgender
entrepreneurs in Salem Municipal Corporation of Tamil Nadu State, India. Simple
Random sampling technique was used. Garrett Ranking Technique (Percentile Position,
Mean Scores) was used as the analysis for the present study to identify the top 13
stimulus factors for establishment of trans entrepreneurial venture. Economic
advancement of a nation is governed upon the upshot of a resolute entrepreneurial
doings. The conception of entrepreneurship has stretched and materialized to the
socially deflated uncharted sections of transgender community. Presently transgenders
have smashed their stereotypes and are making recent headlines of achievements in
various fields of our Indian society. The trans-community is gradually being observed
in a new light and has been trying to achieve prospective growth in entrepreneurship.
The findings of the research revealed that the optimistic changes are taking place to
change affirmative societal outlook of the transgender for entrepreneurial ventureship.
It also laid emphasis on other transgenders to renovate their traditional living. The
paper also highlights that legislators, supervisory body should endorse an impartial
canons and reforms in Tamil Nadu Transgender Welfare Board Association.
Key words: Trans-Entrepreneurs, Economic advancement, ventureship, Tamil Nadu
Transgender Welfare Board Association.
Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose
https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3889 editor@iaeme.com
Cite this Article: Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De
Rose, A Study on the Impact of Organizational Culture on the Effectiveness of
Performance Management Systems in Healthcare Organizations at Thanjavur,
International Journal of Management (IJM), 11(11), 2020, pp. 3888-3894.
https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJM?Volume=11&Issue=11
1. INTRODUCTION
Transgender is not a new spectacle. In pre-historic intervals they were honored high fecund and
were held as the armed guards for the harams of the Mughals. But slowly the status quo began
to change and is extremely doleful as mostly they are now viewed as the entity for flesh trade
and beggary. They are scattered everywhere but in small troops and face massive complications
related to basic, psychological, social, civil, bureaucratic, economic, political, human rights,
medical, physical, government and as well as parliamentary affairs. There is no symbol of
acceptance in our society. There are too many misapprehensions existing about them among
public. This made the lives of transgender even more miserable. Besides all these hardships,
they have projected and acclaimed a standard as notable achievers in their own field of
specialization. Today they are no less than any ordinary people and have set a platform of
mentor for empowerment of trans-community as whole. They have spread their wings in the
fields of entrepreneurship and few of them are well established. This new attitude of hard work,
confidence and innovation will erase the negative portrayal of the transgender This spirit to
sustain independent living in them has mushroomed to become entrepreneurs today.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Rajan, V. (2018) reported that Preetisha Premkumaran, India’s first transgender delivery agent,
who has partnered with Uber Eats in Chennai. Uber Eats is a food distribution platform offering
diverse meals at varying prices available 24*7. This transgender has shattered the barricades
and sets to be an innovative role model for her community. Sharing her personal experience she
was born in Tirunelveli, the Southern State of Tamil Nadu. In class 9, she started to feel
differently and wanted to become a woman. Her family did not support her. She underwent the
sex-change surgery in Pune and moved to Delhi to make her living. She wanted to be away
from the monotonous way of transgender living. So she started selling key chains in trains and
was able to earn Rs. 400 per day. She also availed the opportunity of becoming an artist by
performing many street plays, dance and sing for marriage celebrations or at new births from
which she gained a lot of exposure. Then she came to Chennai and still continues to be an artist.
The only problem is that there is no stable income in this field.
Rajasekaran R.K. (2017) testified that for being economically self-reliant 22 transgender
was trained in goat rearing. This 80-hour certified training exclusively provided for transgender
in creating awareness about various government schemes available for them and also focused
on handling the social stigma they face regularly. Tirupur, which is notoriously called as Kutti
Japan, excels in knitwear export. Transgenders mostly remain unemployed and take to begging
or flesh trade for survival. Most of them are school dropouts, ostracized by the society and
sidelined with their civic rights. The initiative of District Social Welfare Department is a big
consecration. This training programme had given a wide opportunity to go for self-realization
of an individual. There are about 40 vocational training programmes. But the goat rearing was
selected because meat business has a good future scope and it requires only less capital
investment was reported by a transgender name Divya. Another transgender Dharsana, 34,
expressed a similar view and now has gained confidence after the training to carry out some
business in the future. Speaking to Times of India, Social Welfare Officer Poongothai confessed
that this district is reported to have 115 transgenders and the first challenge was to make them
gather together for 12 days to the sessions. The real success observed when some transgenders
A Study on the Reasons for Transgender to Become Entrepreneurs
https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3890 editor@iaeme.com
who could not give up begging also had changed slowly and now realized the importance of
living in a decent manner. Now the transgender has urged to provide them training on jewel
making. Finally, District Collector K.S Palanisamy distributed the certificates to all the 22
transgenders.
Abraham, R. (2017) advocated that in February 2014, the Supreme Court passed a
milestone declaration for the rights of transgenders in the constitution are equally applicable as
other nationals of the nation. Transgender Persons Protection of Rights Bill, 2016, was
scheduled by Thaawarchand Gehlot, the Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment in the
Lok Sabha and is to be re-introduced in the winter session of Parliament. Then the Bill was sent
to the Standing Committee for consultation. The first effort was made in December 2014 by
Tiruchi Siva, a Political Member of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and Member of Parliament
of Rajya Sabha. It was introduced as a Private Member’s Bill in Rajya Sabha. It was passed in
the Upper House, Lok Sabha but was never discussed. The Bill passed in the Rajya Sabha gave
a platform for creating institutions like the National and State Commission, Transgender Rights
Courts for transgenders so as to prevent sexual discrimination drafted The Rights of
Transgender Persons Bill, 2015. After a considerable revision to 2015, draft Bill was sent to the
Law Ministry. Later it was introduced in the Lok Sabha in August 2016. The 2016 draft Bill,
the committee draws attention to the inadequate definition of the third gender and lends
misrepresentation. Few recommendations have been favoured for the transgender in respect to
the rescue, protection, education (gender-neutral) and rehabilitation. Having formulated with
various welfare schemes such as basic medical facilities including sex reassignment surgery
and vocational training programs are also added to it. The Transgender Persons Protection of
Rights Bill, 2016 is lined up to be re-introduced in the winter session of Parliament which starts
on December 15, 2017.
3. OBJECTIVES
• To find out the percentile position and mean score of stimulus factors that initiated
transgenders in business activities.
• To examine the reasons that provoked the transgenders to start business.
4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1. Research Design and Sample Selection
The geographical location selected for the study was Salem Municipal Corporation of Tamil
Nadu State. The total population of transgender in Salem District is nearly 350. Out of which,
128 are Transgender Entrepreneurs. The sample element was transgender entrepreneurs.
Descriptive research has been undertaken with a cross-sectional study among the transgender
entrepreneurs. Simple random sampling method was used to select 30 respondents from the
District for the study to accompany the Pilot Study. Community Link Leaders abetted the Pilot
Study. The questions were drafted precisely with utmost care with the help of various District
Non-Official Members of Third Gender Welfare Board. 13 items analyzed through Garret
Ranking Technique are considered as the most prioritized reasons. From this, Primary data was
collected through a structured Interview Schedule. Data was availed from Salem
Thirunangaigal Nala Sangam, Kurangusavadi which is the registered Community Based
Organization under Societies Act.
5. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The third gender practically faces a shunted life in the society. They are not accepted in persona.
Therefore, the researcher felt that there is a current need to highlight the potentials of the
transgender entrepreneurs to elevate their status in the society by bringing to limelight a part of
Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose
https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3891 editor@iaeme.com
their community who have made an attempt to socially identify them as successful business
people in spite of the various difficulties they face to survive a normal life. The fear of trans-
phobic attitude should be wiped off and unlike any other human should be respected with
dignity.
6. STATISTICAL TOOLS APPLIED
The Garrett Ranking method is used to find out various elements that actually motivated the
transgenders to initiate their business. Garrett Ranking Technique is used to rank the preference
indicated by the respondents. The percentile position estimated is converted into scores.
Percentile Position = 100 (Rij-) / Nj
Applying this formula, Garrett Ranking Conversion Table scores are obtained and to which
total score and mean scores are further ascertained. The following table presents the 13
variables and their individual scores for ranking purpose.
Table 1 Percentile Position
S.No Percentile Position Garrett Ranking Conversion
Table
1. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 3.84 84
2. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 11.53 74
3. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 19.23 67
4. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 26.92 62
5. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 34.61 58
6. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 42.30 54
7. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 50.00 50
8. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 57.69 47
9. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 65.38 42
10. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 73.07 38
11. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 80.76 33
12. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 88.46 26
13. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 96.15 16
Source : Primary Data
Computation of Mean Score can be obtained by applying the formula :
Table 2 Computation of Mean Score
Variables Mean Score
Variable 1 : Heirloom 3037/100 = 30.37
Variable 2: Socially Idiosyncratic 7025/100 = 70.25
Variable 3 : Self- Distinctiveness 6226/100 = 62.26
Variable 4 : Economic Liberation 6196/100 = 61.96
Variable 5: Individual Survival 5571/100 = 55.71
Variable 6 : Self-Respect 5409/100 = 54.09
Variable 7 : Standard of living 5661/100 = 56.61
Variable 8: Endurance 4606/100 = 46.06
Variable 9: Cut out odd means 4966/100 = 49.66
Variable 10: Empower Trans-Community 5067/100 = 50.67
Variable 11: Acquaintance 4588/100 = 45.88
Variable 12: Government aid 4037/100 = 40.37
Variable 13 : Family Reunification 2748/100 = 27.48
Source : Primary Data
Mean Score = Total Score / Total Respondents
A Study on the Reasons for Transgender to Become Entrepreneurs
https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3892 editor@iaeme.com
From the above Table 1 and 2, Consolidated Ranking can be ascertained using both Mean
and Total Score value for the variables prescribed. The table is presented below:
Table 3 Consolidated Ranking Table
Variables Individual Assigned Ranks Total
Score
Mean
Score
Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Heirloom 11 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 46 37 3,037 30.37 12
Socially
Idiosyncratic
34 32 8 8 3 1 2 2 2 4 1 3 0 7,025 70.25 1
Self-
Distinctiveness
18 24 17 8 3 6 0 3 3 4 6 6 2 6,226 62.26 2
Economic
Liberation
17 9 22 14 9 5 10 1 0 4 5 4 0 6,196 61.96 3
Individual
Survival
8 4 8 25 10 8 7 9 4 3 10 4 1 5,571 55.71 5
Self-Respect 2 7 11 13 17 15 4 5 11 6 5 3 1 5,409 54.09 6
Standard of living 6 6 11 4 21 18 14 8 4 6 2 0 0 5,661 56.61 4
Endurance 2 3 1 5 5 10 18 12 14 14 7 5 4 4,606 46.06 9
Cut out odd
means
1 5 7 6 8 9 15 22 10 5 5 5 2 4,966 49.66 8
Empower Trans-
Community
0 6 7 9 9 14 9 12 17 12 2 2 1 5,067 50.67 7
Acquaintance 1 1 6 7 6 6 7 14 17 2 10 3 2 4,588 45.88 10
Govt Aid 1 1 0 2 6 6 7 7 12 16 30 11 1 4,037 40.37 11
Family
Reunification
0 0 1 1 1 2 4 6 4 6 15 12 48 2,748 27.48 13
Source : Primary Data
7. FINDINGS
• The first rank is chosen for the variable socially coherence. It is observed that the
transgender are generally treated vulnerably in all means and phase of life. In order to
remark vivid perception about transgender, the trans-people have an urge to become an
entrepreneurs, which is the foremost factor determined.
• The second rank is opted for passion for entrepreneurship. This denotes that the
transgender do possess the self-identity based on the experience and family background.
• It is found that since the transgender do not have any employment prospects for their
livelihood nor have any economic viability. It is observed that the respondents have
ranked financial independence as third rank to sustain on their own feet and be free from
any dependable source.
• By being an entrepreneur it is quite natural that the standard of living shall be elevated
and shall gain more confidence. The overall socio-economic status is well-structured by
making profits and therefore empowerment can be realized by improvement in saving
habits, purchase of property etc. Therefore, standard of living is ranked fourth.
• Respondents have their own personal attire for engaging themselves in the
entrepreneurial venture and it is the fifth rank.
• To possess respect and have a dignified life, there should be a stable means of
occupation. They must have their own identity. Since they lack employment
opportunities and there is a lack of acceptance for them in the community, this made
them to be an entrepreneur and they possess self-respect.
Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose
https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3893 editor@iaeme.com
• Empowering trans-community is possible only if the traditional stereotypes are
expatriated. Therefore there is a close ranking factor for these two variables as they are
highly correlated and be in tune with ranking.
• For the purpose of survival of their livelihood and to be self-reliant the transgender have
chosen the platform of being entrepreneurs.
• It is expected that the Government will provide all possible support for this community
by granting loans, subsides and concessions. But it is also true that policies have been
framed but there is no implementation and there is stagnant in the bureaucracies and
norms for them. A larger enhancement is expected in future for the upcoming trans-
entrepreneurs.
• Only few respondents belong to the category of hereditary and this has enabled them to
start the business.
• The last rank is preferred by the reunion of the family. Most of the respondents do not
want to get back with their families. It is because the first rejection starts from parents,
relatives’ neighbourhood and are left alone with any proper care and basic amenities. It
is because of the lack of acceptance they face hardships personally and also in society.
8. SUGGESTIONS
• Acceptance by the parents is must and awareness regarding the gender types must be
made known to every individuals.
• Legal registration process can be simplified and more of concessions can be granted
exclusively for them.
• Transgender entrepreneurs should have their autonomous SHGs and Advisory Councils
so that there is all time mobility of funds and can help in boosting more entrepreneurship
among transgenders.
• Professional Training and Counseling Programmes may be enthralled regularly.
9. CONCLUSION
The largest and most distinct burst of transgender activism is taking place in all spheres of living
and they are accepted judiciary as Third Gender by the NALSA Judgement and are almost
demanding for all rights. A well-structured Government-funded vocational rehabilitation,
professional training programs must be initiated so that the transgender entrepreneurs can
improve their skill set margin and this can completely eliminate them from sex drive,
prostitutions and drug addictions. This will not only enlighten their status in the trans-
community but will bring an ironic change in the community as a whole.
REFERENCES
[1] https://www.thebetterindia.com/152133/first-trangender-delivery-agent-chennai-india-
news/
[2] https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/coimbatore/helping-transgenders-become-self-
reliant/articleshow/60486982.cms.
[3] https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/all-you-need-to-know-about-the-transgender-
persons-bill-2016/article21226710.ece
[4] https://www.hrc.org/resources/understanding-the-transgender-community
[5] https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00367/full
[6] https://www.apa.org/topics/lgbtq/transgender

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A STUDY ON THE REASONS FOR TRANSGENDER TO BECOME ENTREPRENEURS

  • 1. https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3888 editor@iaeme.com International Journal of Management (IJM) Volume 11, Issue 11, November 2020, pp. 3888-3894. Article ID: IJM_11_11_385 Available online at https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJM?Volume=11&Issue=11 ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510 © IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed A STUDY ON THE REASONS FOR TRANSGENDER TO BECOME ENTREPRENEURS Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer Full-Time Ph.D Research Scholar, PG & Research Department of Commerce, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. Dr. V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose Assistant Professor, PG & Research Department of Commerce, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. ABSTRACT The study explores the reasons for a transgender to become entrepreneurs. In this study transgender entrepreneur was taken as independent variable and reasons to become as dependent variable. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire containing a five point Likert Scale. The study examined the data of 30 transgender entrepreneurs in Salem Municipal Corporation of Tamil Nadu State, India. Simple Random sampling technique was used. Garrett Ranking Technique (Percentile Position, Mean Scores) was used as the analysis for the present study to identify the top 13 stimulus factors for establishment of trans entrepreneurial venture. Economic advancement of a nation is governed upon the upshot of a resolute entrepreneurial doings. The conception of entrepreneurship has stretched and materialized to the socially deflated uncharted sections of transgender community. Presently transgenders have smashed their stereotypes and are making recent headlines of achievements in various fields of our Indian society. The trans-community is gradually being observed in a new light and has been trying to achieve prospective growth in entrepreneurship. The findings of the research revealed that the optimistic changes are taking place to change affirmative societal outlook of the transgender for entrepreneurial ventureship. It also laid emphasis on other transgenders to renovate their traditional living. The paper also highlights that legislators, supervisory body should endorse an impartial canons and reforms in Tamil Nadu Transgender Welfare Board Association. Key words: Trans-Entrepreneurs, Economic advancement, ventureship, Tamil Nadu Transgender Welfare Board Association.
  • 2. Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3889 editor@iaeme.com Cite this Article: Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose, A Study on the Impact of Organizational Culture on the Effectiveness of Performance Management Systems in Healthcare Organizations at Thanjavur, International Journal of Management (IJM), 11(11), 2020, pp. 3888-3894. https://iaeme.com/Home/issue/IJM?Volume=11&Issue=11 1. INTRODUCTION Transgender is not a new spectacle. In pre-historic intervals they were honored high fecund and were held as the armed guards for the harams of the Mughals. But slowly the status quo began to change and is extremely doleful as mostly they are now viewed as the entity for flesh trade and beggary. They are scattered everywhere but in small troops and face massive complications related to basic, psychological, social, civil, bureaucratic, economic, political, human rights, medical, physical, government and as well as parliamentary affairs. There is no symbol of acceptance in our society. There are too many misapprehensions existing about them among public. This made the lives of transgender even more miserable. Besides all these hardships, they have projected and acclaimed a standard as notable achievers in their own field of specialization. Today they are no less than any ordinary people and have set a platform of mentor for empowerment of trans-community as whole. They have spread their wings in the fields of entrepreneurship and few of them are well established. This new attitude of hard work, confidence and innovation will erase the negative portrayal of the transgender This spirit to sustain independent living in them has mushroomed to become entrepreneurs today. 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Rajan, V. (2018) reported that Preetisha Premkumaran, India’s first transgender delivery agent, who has partnered with Uber Eats in Chennai. Uber Eats is a food distribution platform offering diverse meals at varying prices available 24*7. This transgender has shattered the barricades and sets to be an innovative role model for her community. Sharing her personal experience she was born in Tirunelveli, the Southern State of Tamil Nadu. In class 9, she started to feel differently and wanted to become a woman. Her family did not support her. She underwent the sex-change surgery in Pune and moved to Delhi to make her living. She wanted to be away from the monotonous way of transgender living. So she started selling key chains in trains and was able to earn Rs. 400 per day. She also availed the opportunity of becoming an artist by performing many street plays, dance and sing for marriage celebrations or at new births from which she gained a lot of exposure. Then she came to Chennai and still continues to be an artist. The only problem is that there is no stable income in this field. Rajasekaran R.K. (2017) testified that for being economically self-reliant 22 transgender was trained in goat rearing. This 80-hour certified training exclusively provided for transgender in creating awareness about various government schemes available for them and also focused on handling the social stigma they face regularly. Tirupur, which is notoriously called as Kutti Japan, excels in knitwear export. Transgenders mostly remain unemployed and take to begging or flesh trade for survival. Most of them are school dropouts, ostracized by the society and sidelined with their civic rights. The initiative of District Social Welfare Department is a big consecration. This training programme had given a wide opportunity to go for self-realization of an individual. There are about 40 vocational training programmes. But the goat rearing was selected because meat business has a good future scope and it requires only less capital investment was reported by a transgender name Divya. Another transgender Dharsana, 34, expressed a similar view and now has gained confidence after the training to carry out some business in the future. Speaking to Times of India, Social Welfare Officer Poongothai confessed that this district is reported to have 115 transgenders and the first challenge was to make them gather together for 12 days to the sessions. The real success observed when some transgenders
  • 3. A Study on the Reasons for Transgender to Become Entrepreneurs https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3890 editor@iaeme.com who could not give up begging also had changed slowly and now realized the importance of living in a decent manner. Now the transgender has urged to provide them training on jewel making. Finally, District Collector K.S Palanisamy distributed the certificates to all the 22 transgenders. Abraham, R. (2017) advocated that in February 2014, the Supreme Court passed a milestone declaration for the rights of transgenders in the constitution are equally applicable as other nationals of the nation. Transgender Persons Protection of Rights Bill, 2016, was scheduled by Thaawarchand Gehlot, the Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment in the Lok Sabha and is to be re-introduced in the winter session of Parliament. Then the Bill was sent to the Standing Committee for consultation. The first effort was made in December 2014 by Tiruchi Siva, a Political Member of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and Member of Parliament of Rajya Sabha. It was introduced as a Private Member’s Bill in Rajya Sabha. It was passed in the Upper House, Lok Sabha but was never discussed. The Bill passed in the Rajya Sabha gave a platform for creating institutions like the National and State Commission, Transgender Rights Courts for transgenders so as to prevent sexual discrimination drafted The Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2015. After a considerable revision to 2015, draft Bill was sent to the Law Ministry. Later it was introduced in the Lok Sabha in August 2016. The 2016 draft Bill, the committee draws attention to the inadequate definition of the third gender and lends misrepresentation. Few recommendations have been favoured for the transgender in respect to the rescue, protection, education (gender-neutral) and rehabilitation. Having formulated with various welfare schemes such as basic medical facilities including sex reassignment surgery and vocational training programs are also added to it. The Transgender Persons Protection of Rights Bill, 2016 is lined up to be re-introduced in the winter session of Parliament which starts on December 15, 2017. 3. OBJECTIVES • To find out the percentile position and mean score of stimulus factors that initiated transgenders in business activities. • To examine the reasons that provoked the transgenders to start business. 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.1. Research Design and Sample Selection The geographical location selected for the study was Salem Municipal Corporation of Tamil Nadu State. The total population of transgender in Salem District is nearly 350. Out of which, 128 are Transgender Entrepreneurs. The sample element was transgender entrepreneurs. Descriptive research has been undertaken with a cross-sectional study among the transgender entrepreneurs. Simple random sampling method was used to select 30 respondents from the District for the study to accompany the Pilot Study. Community Link Leaders abetted the Pilot Study. The questions were drafted precisely with utmost care with the help of various District Non-Official Members of Third Gender Welfare Board. 13 items analyzed through Garret Ranking Technique are considered as the most prioritized reasons. From this, Primary data was collected through a structured Interview Schedule. Data was availed from Salem Thirunangaigal Nala Sangam, Kurangusavadi which is the registered Community Based Organization under Societies Act. 5. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The third gender practically faces a shunted life in the society. They are not accepted in persona. Therefore, the researcher felt that there is a current need to highlight the potentials of the transgender entrepreneurs to elevate their status in the society by bringing to limelight a part of
  • 4. Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3891 editor@iaeme.com their community who have made an attempt to socially identify them as successful business people in spite of the various difficulties they face to survive a normal life. The fear of trans- phobic attitude should be wiped off and unlike any other human should be respected with dignity. 6. STATISTICAL TOOLS APPLIED The Garrett Ranking method is used to find out various elements that actually motivated the transgenders to initiate their business. Garrett Ranking Technique is used to rank the preference indicated by the respondents. The percentile position estimated is converted into scores. Percentile Position = 100 (Rij-) / Nj Applying this formula, Garrett Ranking Conversion Table scores are obtained and to which total score and mean scores are further ascertained. The following table presents the 13 variables and their individual scores for ranking purpose. Table 1 Percentile Position S.No Percentile Position Garrett Ranking Conversion Table 1. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 3.84 84 2. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 11.53 74 3. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 19.23 67 4. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 26.92 62 5. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 34.61 58 6. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 42.30 54 7. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 50.00 50 8. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 57.69 47 9. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 65.38 42 10. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 73.07 38 11. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 80.76 33 12. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 88.46 26 13. 100 ( 1 - 0.5) / 13 = 96.15 16 Source : Primary Data Computation of Mean Score can be obtained by applying the formula : Table 2 Computation of Mean Score Variables Mean Score Variable 1 : Heirloom 3037/100 = 30.37 Variable 2: Socially Idiosyncratic 7025/100 = 70.25 Variable 3 : Self- Distinctiveness 6226/100 = 62.26 Variable 4 : Economic Liberation 6196/100 = 61.96 Variable 5: Individual Survival 5571/100 = 55.71 Variable 6 : Self-Respect 5409/100 = 54.09 Variable 7 : Standard of living 5661/100 = 56.61 Variable 8: Endurance 4606/100 = 46.06 Variable 9: Cut out odd means 4966/100 = 49.66 Variable 10: Empower Trans-Community 5067/100 = 50.67 Variable 11: Acquaintance 4588/100 = 45.88 Variable 12: Government aid 4037/100 = 40.37 Variable 13 : Family Reunification 2748/100 = 27.48 Source : Primary Data Mean Score = Total Score / Total Respondents
  • 5. A Study on the Reasons for Transgender to Become Entrepreneurs https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3892 editor@iaeme.com From the above Table 1 and 2, Consolidated Ranking can be ascertained using both Mean and Total Score value for the variables prescribed. The table is presented below: Table 3 Consolidated Ranking Table Variables Individual Assigned Ranks Total Score Mean Score Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Heirloom 11 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 46 37 3,037 30.37 12 Socially Idiosyncratic 34 32 8 8 3 1 2 2 2 4 1 3 0 7,025 70.25 1 Self- Distinctiveness 18 24 17 8 3 6 0 3 3 4 6 6 2 6,226 62.26 2 Economic Liberation 17 9 22 14 9 5 10 1 0 4 5 4 0 6,196 61.96 3 Individual Survival 8 4 8 25 10 8 7 9 4 3 10 4 1 5,571 55.71 5 Self-Respect 2 7 11 13 17 15 4 5 11 6 5 3 1 5,409 54.09 6 Standard of living 6 6 11 4 21 18 14 8 4 6 2 0 0 5,661 56.61 4 Endurance 2 3 1 5 5 10 18 12 14 14 7 5 4 4,606 46.06 9 Cut out odd means 1 5 7 6 8 9 15 22 10 5 5 5 2 4,966 49.66 8 Empower Trans- Community 0 6 7 9 9 14 9 12 17 12 2 2 1 5,067 50.67 7 Acquaintance 1 1 6 7 6 6 7 14 17 2 10 3 2 4,588 45.88 10 Govt Aid 1 1 0 2 6 6 7 7 12 16 30 11 1 4,037 40.37 11 Family Reunification 0 0 1 1 1 2 4 6 4 6 15 12 48 2,748 27.48 13 Source : Primary Data 7. FINDINGS • The first rank is chosen for the variable socially coherence. It is observed that the transgender are generally treated vulnerably in all means and phase of life. In order to remark vivid perception about transgender, the trans-people have an urge to become an entrepreneurs, which is the foremost factor determined. • The second rank is opted for passion for entrepreneurship. This denotes that the transgender do possess the self-identity based on the experience and family background. • It is found that since the transgender do not have any employment prospects for their livelihood nor have any economic viability. It is observed that the respondents have ranked financial independence as third rank to sustain on their own feet and be free from any dependable source. • By being an entrepreneur it is quite natural that the standard of living shall be elevated and shall gain more confidence. The overall socio-economic status is well-structured by making profits and therefore empowerment can be realized by improvement in saving habits, purchase of property etc. Therefore, standard of living is ranked fourth. • Respondents have their own personal attire for engaging themselves in the entrepreneurial venture and it is the fifth rank. • To possess respect and have a dignified life, there should be a stable means of occupation. They must have their own identity. Since they lack employment opportunities and there is a lack of acceptance for them in the community, this made them to be an entrepreneur and they possess self-respect.
  • 6. Lubna Suraiya Mohamed Hummer and V. Josephine Lourdes De Rose https://iaeme.com/Home/journal/IJM 3893 editor@iaeme.com • Empowering trans-community is possible only if the traditional stereotypes are expatriated. Therefore there is a close ranking factor for these two variables as they are highly correlated and be in tune with ranking. • For the purpose of survival of their livelihood and to be self-reliant the transgender have chosen the platform of being entrepreneurs. • It is expected that the Government will provide all possible support for this community by granting loans, subsides and concessions. But it is also true that policies have been framed but there is no implementation and there is stagnant in the bureaucracies and norms for them. A larger enhancement is expected in future for the upcoming trans- entrepreneurs. • Only few respondents belong to the category of hereditary and this has enabled them to start the business. • The last rank is preferred by the reunion of the family. Most of the respondents do not want to get back with their families. It is because the first rejection starts from parents, relatives’ neighbourhood and are left alone with any proper care and basic amenities. It is because of the lack of acceptance they face hardships personally and also in society. 8. SUGGESTIONS • Acceptance by the parents is must and awareness regarding the gender types must be made known to every individuals. • Legal registration process can be simplified and more of concessions can be granted exclusively for them. • Transgender entrepreneurs should have their autonomous SHGs and Advisory Councils so that there is all time mobility of funds and can help in boosting more entrepreneurship among transgenders. • Professional Training and Counseling Programmes may be enthralled regularly. 9. CONCLUSION The largest and most distinct burst of transgender activism is taking place in all spheres of living and they are accepted judiciary as Third Gender by the NALSA Judgement and are almost demanding for all rights. A well-structured Government-funded vocational rehabilitation, professional training programs must be initiated so that the transgender entrepreneurs can improve their skill set margin and this can completely eliminate them from sex drive, prostitutions and drug addictions. This will not only enlighten their status in the trans- community but will bring an ironic change in the community as a whole. REFERENCES [1] https://www.thebetterindia.com/152133/first-trangender-delivery-agent-chennai-india- news/ [2] https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/coimbatore/helping-transgenders-become-self- reliant/articleshow/60486982.cms. [3] https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/all-you-need-to-know-about-the-transgender- persons-bill-2016/article21226710.ece [4] https://www.hrc.org/resources/understanding-the-transgender-community [5] https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00367/full [6] https://www.apa.org/topics/lgbtq/transgender
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