A new parameter proposed for route selection in routing protocol


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A new parameter proposed for route selection in routing protocol

  1. 1. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME31A NEW PARAMETER PROPOSED FOR ROUTE SELECTION INROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MANETAarti Bairagi1(Student, M.Tech.) and Shweta Yadav2(Head of Department)Department of Information Technology, M.I.T., UjjainUjjain, IndiaABSTRACTA Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a network consisting of a set of mobile hostscapable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. Thedynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of aMANET routing protocol. In recent years, a variety of routing protocols have been developedand their performance simulations are made by network researchers. Conventional routingprotocols such as AODV, DSR and OLSR use minimum hop count or shortest path as themain metric for path selection. However, networks that require high Quality of Service (QoS)needs to consider several criteria’s that could affect the quality of the chosen path in packetforwarding process. An efficient approach is to consider routing algorithm in which bestavailable route is determined in the process of establishing routes. Hence, Performance is animportant issue for different protocols. Therefore in this paper we try to propose a newparameter for route selection , to improve Qos in ad hoc network. To provide an optimumMANET routing solution, in this paper we presented a new parameter for route selection inwhich the best available route is based on the maximum RSP value of route.Keywords— Mobile Ad-Hoc Network, Routing, AODV, DSR, RSP.I. INTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORKMobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a network where autonomous mobile nodeswith wireless interfaces construct a temporary wireless network. In mobile ad hoc networksthere are no dedicated routers. Each node operates as a router and transmits packets betweensource and destination. The node within the transmission range of the source node and is notthe destination node, accepts the packet sent by the source and forwards it along the route tothe destination node [1]. A number of MANET routing protocols have been proposed in thelast decade. These protocols can be classified according to the routing strategy that they followINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY &MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (IJITMIS)ISSN 0976 – 6405(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), pp. 31-37© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijitmis.htmlJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.2372 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJITMIS© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME32to discover route to the destination. These protocols perform variously depending on type oftraffic, number of nodes, rate of mobility etc [2].Over the last 10 years, various MANET routing protocols have been proposed bynetwork researchers and designed primarily to improve the MANET performance with respectto establishing correct and efficient routes between a pair of nodes for packet delivery [3].Examples of popular MANET routing protocols are: Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector(AODV) [5], and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [6].Limited resources in MANETs made a very challenging problem that is represented indesigning of an efficient and reliable routing strategy [4].Conventional routing protocols such as AODV, DSR and OLSR use minimum hopcount or shortest path as the main metric for path selection. However, networks that requirehigh Quality of Service (QoS) needs to consider several criteria’s that could affect the qualityof the chosen path in packet forwarding process [9]. looked into analysing performance ofMANET routing protocols. Their study involved comparison of OLSR, DSR and AODV withself similar traffic like CBR, Pareto, and Exponential. They argued that DSR performance wasbetter for packet delivery ratio and OLSR performance degraded in situations where highmobility and network load exist [8]. On the other hand, it was argued that AODV provides themost average performance amongst all. AODV and DSR are two most widely used protocolsfor routing in mobile ad-hoc networks, So Performance analysis and comparison of these tworeactive protocols done through simulations for QoS support [7, 10].To provide quality of service in routing protocols, extensions can be added to themessages used during route discovery. These extensions specify the service requirementswhich must be met by nodes rebroadcasting a Route Request or returning a Route Reply for adestination [11]. A new variant M-AODV based on AODV is proposed to improve QoS in adhoc network that discovers in a first step, all possible paths between sources and destinationsand maintain them during all data transfer phase. In case of a failure of the actual route, thedata transfer will use one of the previously established routes (secondary routes) [12]. In thispaper, the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is revised bycalculating the corresponding QoS provision values to find the best routes and applying themechanism of carrier sense in IEEE 802.11b to obtain the available bandwidth[13].Therefore in this paper we try to propose a new parameter as route metric for routeselection based on routing protocol.The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section I briefly describes the MANETintroduction and related work. Section II discusses the most important on-demand routingprotocols. Section III defines a proposed parameter for route selection. Section IV presents alist of quantitative metrics to assess the performance. Section V represents a conclusion of thepaper.II. SOME IMPORTANT ON DEMAND OR REACTIVE ROUTING PROTOCOLSOn-demand routing protocols were designed with the aim of reducing controloverhead, thus increasing bandwidth and conserving power at the mobile stations. Theseprotocols limit the amount of bandwidth consumed by maintaining routes to only thosedestinations for which a source has data traffic.Some of the most popular on demand routing protocols are: AODV [5] and DSR[6].The emphasis in this research paper is concentrated on the proposed method of routeselection and it’s performance comparison with On Demand/Reactive Protocols such asAODV and DSR as these are best suited for Ad Hoc Networks.
  3. 3. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME33A. AODV ProtocolThe Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing algorithm is a routingprotocol designed for ad hoc mobile networks. AODV is a modification of the DSDValgorithm. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is an on demandalgorithm, meaning that it builds routes between nodes only as desired by source nodes. Itmaintains these routes as long as they are needed by the sources. Additionally, AODV formstrees which connect multicast group members. The trees are composed of the group membersand the nodes needed to connect the members. AODV uses sequence numbers to ensure thefreshness of routes. It is loop-free, self-starting, and scales to large numbers of mobile nodes.AODV builds routes using a route request / route reply query cycle.1) Route Discovery: When a source node desires a route to a destination for which it doesnot already have a route, it broadcasts a route request (RREQ) packet the network.Nodes receiving this packet update their information for the source node and set upbackwards pointers to the source node in the route tables. In addition to the source nodes IPaddress, current sequence number, and broadcast ID, the RREQ also contains the most recentsequence number for the destination of which the source node is aware. A node receiving theRREQ may send a route reply (RREP) if it is either the destination or if it has a route to thedestination with corresponding sequence number greater than or equal to that contained in theRREQ. If this is the case, it unicast a RREP back to the source. Otherwise, it rebroadcasts theRREQ. Nodes keep track of the RREQs source IP address and broadcast ID. If they receive aRREQ which they have already processed, they discard the RREQ and do not forward it.2) Route Reply: As the RREP propagates back to the source, nodes set up forward pointersto the destination. Once the source node receives the RREP, it may begin to forward datapackets to the destination. If the source later receives a RREP containing a greater sequencenumber or contains the same sequence number with a smaller hop count, it may update itsrouting information for that destination and begin using the better route.3) Route Maintenance: As long as the route remains active, it will continue to bemaintained. A route is considered active as long as there are data packets periodicallytravelling from the source to the destination along that path. Once the source stops sendingdata packets, the links will time out and eventually be deleted from the intermediate noderouting tables. If a link break occurs while the route is active, the node upstream of the breakpropagates a route error (RERR) message to the source node to inform it of the nowunreachable destination(s). After receiving the RERR, if the source node still desires the route,it can reinitiate route discovery.B. DSR ProtocolThe Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is a simple and efficient routing protocoldesigned specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. DSRallows the network to be completely self-organizing and self-configuring, without the need forany existing network infrastructure or administration.DSR has been implemented by numerous groups, and deployed on several test beds.Networks using the DSR protocol have been connected to the Internet. DSR can interoperatewith Mobile IP, and nodes using Mobile IP and DSR have seamlessly migrated betweenWLANs, cellular data services, and DSR mobile ad hoc networks.The protocol is composed of the two main mechanisms of "Route Discovery" and"Route Maintenance", which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain routes toarbitrary destinations in the ad hoc network.
  4. 4. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME341) Route Discovery: When anode wishes to establish a route, or issues a Route Request toall of its neighbours. Each neighbour rebroadcasts this Request, adding its own address in theheader of the packet.2) Route Maintenance: When the Request is received by the destination or by a node with aroute to the destination; a Route Reply is generated and sent back to the sender along with theaddresses accumulated in the Request header. The responsibility for assessing the status of aroute falls to each node in the route. Each must insure that packets successfully cross the linkto the next node. If it doesn’t receive an acknowledgement, it reports the error back to thesource, and leaves it to the source to establish a new route. While this process could use up alot of bandwidth, DSR gives each node a route cache for them to use aggressively to reducethe number of control messages sent. If it has a cache entry for any destination requestreceived, it uses the cached copy rather than forward the request. In addition, it promiscuouslylistens to other control messages for additional routing data to add to the cache. DSR has theadvantage that no routing tables must be kept to route a given packet, since the entire route iscontained in the packet header. The caching of any initiated or overheard routing data cansignificantly reduce the number of control messages being sent, reducing overhead. Usingonly triggered updates furthers that same goal.All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-demand, allowing the routing packetoverhead of DSR to scale automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the routescurrently in use.The protocol allows multiple routes to any destination and allows each sender to select andcontrol the routes used in routing its packets, for example for use in load balancing or forincreased robustness. Other advantages of the DSR protocol include easily guaranteed loop-free routing, support for use in networks containing unidirectional links, use of only "softstate" in routing, and very rapid recovery when routes in the network change. The DSRprotocol is designed mainly for mobile ad hoc networks of up to about two hundred nodes, andis designed to work well with even very high rates of mobility.III. PROPOSED PARAMETER FOR ROUTE SELECTIONIn simple reactive protocol like AODV and DSR, the route discovery is done byselection of best route on the basis of coordinate distance & some other methods are alsoproposed but they all are based on fixed rate system. Here we are considering the multiplecharacteristics of nodes to decide the route according to their scores on the basis of ourdeveloped formula explained below.Our proposed parameter for route selection is RSP (route selection parameter) which iscalculated by each node and use it as metric for route selection combined with the number ofhops.In order to use RSP as a metric for route selection each node in the network has tomaintain the value of its RSP in their routing table (or cache).The calculation of value of RSPat each node is given by:RSP = PFR * (1-MOB) * MBW * MNNThe definitions of terms used to calculate RSP are described below:1) PFR (packet forwarding ratio):PFR = successful forwarded packets/total packets
  5. 5. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME35Packet delivery ratio is calculated by dividing the number of packets received by thedestination through the number of packets originated by the application layer of thesource (i.e. CBR source). It specifies the packet loss rate, which limits the maximumthroughput of the network. The better the delivery ratio, the more complete and correct isthe routing protocol.2) MOB (Mobility index):MOB = non availability of node/total requirement to nodeIt represents the mobility lesser the stability. Hence it reduces the selection chances ofnode for route.3) MBW(Maximum Bandwidth):MBW = Maximum Bandwidth of the nodeRoute selection based on the available bandwidth between intermediate nodes includedin the route, to choose as route the one having the greatest available bandwidth.4) MNN (maximum numbers of neighbors):MNN = maximum number of nodes attached at any nodeRouting protocol perform better when the number of nodes increases because nodesbecome more stationary will lead to more stable path from source to destination.All four metrics PFR, MOB, MBW and MNN are combined to calculate the value of RSPat each node. Therefore each node has an estimated value of its available RSP, which isinjected in the header of route discovery request to be used for route selection by thedestination.Hence when a destination node receiving a set of route requests, it chooses as main route theone having the maximum RSP.IV. QUANTITATIVE METRICS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONThere are number of qualitative and quantitative metrics that can be used to comparereactive routing protocols. Most of the existing routing protocols ensure the qualitativemetrics. Therefore, The following is a list of quantitative metrics that can be used to assess theperformance of any routing protocol.1) Average Delay: This metric represents average end-to-end delay and indicates how long ittook for a packet to travel from the source to the application layer of the destination. It ismeasured in seconds.2) Throughput: This metric represents the total number of bits forwarded to higher layers persecond. It is measured in bps. It can also be defined as the total amount of data a receiveractually receives from sender divided by the time taken by the receiver to obtain the lastpacket.3) Media Access Delay: The time a node takes to access media for starting the packettransmission is called as media access delay. The delay is recorded for each packet when it issent to the physical layer for the first time.V. CONCLUSIONThe field of ad-hoc mobile networks is rapidly growing and changing and while it isnot clear that any particular algorithm or class of algorithm is the best for all environment ,each protocol has definite advantages and disadvantages , and is well suited for certainsituations. The Efficient routing protocols can provide significant benefits to mobile ad hoc
  6. 6. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME36networks, in terms of both performance and reliability. Many routing protocols for suchnetworks have been proposed so far. Amongst the most popular ones are Ad hoc On-demandDistance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR).Most of the existing MANET routing protocols optimize hop count as building a routeselection. But routing in MANET using the shortest path metric is not a sufficient condition toconstruct high quality paths, because minimum hop count routing often choose routes thathave significantly less capacity than the best paths that exist in the network.To provide an optimum MANET routing solution, in this paper we presented a newparameter for route selection in which the best available route is based on the maximum RSPvalue of route. To calculate this parameter packet forwarding ratio (PFR), MaximumBandwidth (MBW), Mobility (MOB) and Maximum Number of neighbors (MNN) areconsidered as prime concern. It is proposed here that for each node all the metrics arecombined to calculate the value of its RSP. The estimated RSP value of each node containedin the received route discovery requests used as a metric for route selection by destinationnode. In future work we will evaluate the performance of proposed method by a networksimulator.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe authors of this paper would like to acknowledge the help and support from ourorganization in this work.REFERENCES[1] S. Corson, J. Macker, “Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET): Routing ProtocolPerformance Issues and Evaluation Considerations”, RFC 2501, January 1999.[2] G.Vijaya Kumar , Y.Vasudeva Reddyr , Dr.M.Nagendra, “Current Research Work onRouting Protocols for MANET: A Literature Survey”, G.Vijaya Kumar et. al. /(IJCSE) International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol. 02,pp. 706-713, No. 03, 2010.[3] Sunil Taneja, Ashwani Kush, “A Survey of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad HocNetworks”, International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1,No. 3,( ISSN: 2010-0248) August 2010.[4] Arun Kumar B. R., Lokanatha C. Reddy, Prakash S. Hiremath “PerformanceComparison of Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols” IJCSNSInternational Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.6, pp.337-343,June 2008.[5] C. Perkins, E. B-Royer and S. Das, “Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV)routing”, RFC 3561, July, 2003.[6] D. B. Johnson , D. A. Maltz , Y. C. Hu, “ The Dynamic Source Routing Protocolfor Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR)”, IETF Draft, April 2003, work in progress.http://www.ietf.org /internet -drafts/draft-ietf-manet-dsr -9.txt.[7] Amit N. Thakare, Mrs. M. Y. Joshi, “Performance Analysis of AODV & DSRRouting Protocol in Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, IJCA Special Issue on “Mobile Ad-hocNetworks” MANETs, 2010.[8] Al-Maashri, Ahmed and Mohamed Ould-Khaoua, “Performance Analysis of MANETRouting Protocols In Presence Of Self-Similar Traffic” – Dept. of Electrical andComputer.
  7. 7. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME37[9] S.Sridhar, R.Baskaran “A Survey on QoS Based Routing Protocols for MANET”International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 8– No.3,October 2010.[10] Nidhi Sharma, Sanjeev Rana, R.M. Sharma, “Provisioning of Quality of Service inMANETs Performance Analysis & Comparison (AODV and DSR )”, 2nd InternationalConference on Computer Engineering and Technology,Volume 7, IEEE,2010.[11] Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer, “Quality of Service for Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing”, 14 November 2001,INTERNET DRAFT draft-perkins-manet-aodvqos-00.txt.[12] Maamar Sedrati, Azeddine Bilami, Mohamed Benmohamed, “M-AODV: AODVvariant to Improve Quality of Service in MANETs”, IJCSI International Journal ofComputer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 1, January 2011.[13] Yu Ping, Wang Ying, "A revised AODV protocol with QoS for Mobile Ad hocNetwork," iccsit, pp.241-244, 2nd IEEE International Conference on ComputerScience and Information Technology, 2009.[14] V.Ramesh and Dr.P.Subbaiah, “Energy Efficient Preemptive Dynamic Source RoutingProtocol for Manet”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology(IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 213 - 222, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSNOnline: 0976 – 6375.[15] Prerna Malhotra, “A Survey of Energy Efficient AODV Routing Algorithms inManet”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET),Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 213 - 220, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online:0976 – 6375.[16] Sunita Kushwaha, Bhavna Narain, Deepti Verma and Sanjay kumar, “Effect ofScenario Environment on the Performance of Manets Routing Protocol: AODV”,International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 2,Issue 1, 2011, pp. 33 - 38, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.