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  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 145 TO IMPROVE ENERGY-EFFICIENT AND SECURE MULTIPATH COMMUNICATION IN UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORK Prathap P PG Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, KCG College of Technology, Chennai, India Manjula S Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, KCG College of Technology, Chennai, India ABSTRACT UWSN are attracting researchers in terrestrial radio-based sensor network development in order to monitor the events such as contaminants, marine life and intruders via acoustic modems and report it in a realtime medium through radio or wireless communication. In this, changes in ocean currents, weak reliability and wormhole attack are the major challenges in underwater sensor network. Although Multipath communication coupled by Forward Error Correction and localization for wormhole attack provides high performance for USNs, still there is false alarms and low probability of successful recovery of received packets in destination node, which in turn becomes a major problems for reliability and accuracy. In this paper Hamming code based segment combination and localization based wormhole attack has been proposed to prevent and helps to attain secure and efficient way of communication in acoustic modems in UWSN’s. Index Terms: Underwater Sensor Network, Multipath Communication, Energy Efficiency, Hamming Coding, Localization, Acoustic Modems. I. INTRODUCTION The unexplored vastness of the ocean, covering about two-third of the surface of the earth and many researchers are attracted by it. In order to monitor and explore the activities at the ocean underwater sensors have been established. This plays an important in supporting variety of applications from monitoring the real-time events at the underwater seismic or weather conditions or INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 4.4012 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 146 navigation and report to the nearby data analytics centre. UWSN face variety of challenges as the sensor have deep difference between the underwater and the terrestrial radio propagation environment and the major reason is whether the terrestrial radio propagation can be reused for the underwater communication. However in the meantime lots of researches have been done under the acoustic modems to develop the communication. But currently available acoustic modems support low-data-rate and the delay-tolerant. These modems were vulnerable to wormhole attacks. By using point-to-point acoustic modems use signaling schemes which can achieve data rates of lower than 20 Kbits/s it require lots of energy in order to achieve low bandwidth due to the medium of communication. Underwater acoustic modems can achieve 10-9 -10-7 Bit Error Rate as they lead to transmit of model power in the range of 1-40w as the devices are heavy and expensive this affects the deployment of large-scale USN’s. Major Challenges in the design of underwater acoustic networks Battery power is limited and usually batteries cannot be recharged, also because solar energy cannot be exploited. The available bandwidth is severely limited. Channel characteristics, including long and variable propagation delays, multi-path and fading problems. High bit error rates. Underwater sensors are prone to failures because of fouling, corrosion, etc. In this paper, we analyze energy efficient communication and the wormhole attack in a experimental and theoretical way. The marine environment is vulnerable to various kinds of attacks due to the high bit error rates, large and variable propagation delays, and low bandwidth of acoustic channels. Achieving reliable energy efficient, inter vehicle and sensor-acoustic modems communication are difficult due to the mobility of modems and the movement of sensors changes according to the water currents. This paper present smooth communication between the acoustic modems without any packet loss or low bandwidth communication. Low bandwidth is one of the remarkable features of acoustic channels. Underwater sensor networks have some similarities with their ground-based counterparts such as their structure, function, computation and energy limitations. Underwater communication systems have more severe power requirements than terrestrial systems. The typical transmission distances in UASNs are greater, higher transmit power is required to ensure coverage. High bit error rate causes packet errors. Therefore, significant security packets can be lost. Wireless underwater channels can be overhearing the transmitting packets. Attackers may intercept the information transmit and attempt to modify or packets drop frequently. Malicious nodes can create out of band connections above the water surface via the fast radio or wired links, which are referred to as wormholes. Since sensors are mobile, their relative distances vary with time; the dynamic topology of the underwater sensor network not only facilitates the creation of wormholes, but also makes difficulties their detections. As power consumption in underwater communications is higher than the terrestrial radio communications and underwater sensors are sparsely deployed, the energy feature attacks to consume the batteries of nodes pose a serious hazard for the network lifetime. II. RELATED WORK In this section, the major challenges of energy efficient techniques and wormhole prevention in UWSN that has been studied earlier. The existing studies implies have shown that the PER is extremely unreliable area for robustness, scalability and that can be simultaneously reduced if the FEC scheme is employed. Therefore, Xie and Cui employed tornado code instead of the FEC scheme and they have proposed a Segment data reliable transport in order to achieve the extreme bit rate. However, SDRT leads to much long delay because Tornado code requires more redundant blocks and thus SDRT is not utilized in the multipath communication. Furthermore Vishwanathy et al. proposed a single-path edge-to-edge packet-level FEC for core networks. Cohen et al. proposed in a cross-layer hybrid FEC/ARQ reliable multi-cast scheme for
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 147 multiple-path communications. It is shown that multiple-path communications can eliminate retransmission of redundant packets in high-PER networks and can perform well when the destination nodes combine these redundant packets using the bit-based majority voting scheme. On the other hand, Hamming Coding, especially for multiple sources, is treated as a potential solution for FEC in the high-BER networks. Moreover, the probability of recovering the original packet in the destination node is determined by the packet combination efficiency. In this Multi-path routing, plays a major role technique in UWSN the reason behind is the adapablity of the real time application. As the node denser implies the denser of the wireless communication to the other nodes in order to make the multipath routing more unreliable network Further research technique made multipath routing reliable to data delivery to balance the traffic in network among those power consumption between the nodes also to implies the end-to-end delay in the network. In the previous analysed work the basic approach is to combine the large amount of corrupted packet to one packet to recover the original packet. Sometimes researches merge the one or more coded packet together to form the original packet from the corrupted packet. Along with the original packet it’s necessary to find whether the received packet has been forwarded from the malicious node or the authorized node. In order to find the above categories and satisify the needs of the high end packet rate, researches cmae with the technique to received the original packet from the corrupted packet without collecting the multiple corrupted packets. This can be done by using the hamming code using the segement based combination technique along with the localization in order to prevent the wormhole attack between the modems. So researches extended the packet combining scheme using voting based technique this can be achieved through the multi-path hop wireless connection. As the further researches concluded that that a detection approach based on localisation of nodes using the Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) technique of localisation is proposed, enabling comparison to be made on the structure of the network with and without the attack. By detecting the anomalies introduced by the fake connections, the attack is detected. It however, like many MDS techniques has a problem of scalability since it relies on a central processing node for all the computations. Wang et al Presents a similar approach in [15] but takes into account the existence of more than one wormhole threat and is also robust against distance estimation errors. [16] on the other hand concentrates on the underwater scenario. He uses ToA based technique to measure the distances between the sensor nodes. ToA requires the sensors to be equipped with hardware components for timing, hence is undesirable since it has a high implication on cost. MDS on the other hand concentrates more on the general layout of the network and not the nodes position accuracy. Our approach uses RSS for distance measurement which does not require any extra hardware, and emphasis is put on the accuracy of the nodes positioning. This is mainly to avoid any false alarms during our detection process.
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 148 Segment-Based Combination: The M-FEC scheme accesses all the segment sets {Sk| 1 ≤ k≤ v|}, compares them in turn and chooses the segment that appears most frequently as the final data segment in its position. If two or more segment in the same position has identical count, the one appearing earlier is selected as the winner. Especially, if the domain “Flag” equals 1 after CRC checking in the packet header, all the segments in the packet are right and are regarded as the final ones. Thus, the kth final segment in the data packet is expressed as where Sak is an arbitrary segment in Sk, and Count (Sik, Sk) the function of counting the number of Sik in Sk. All the final segments and the original header are combined and encapsulated into a new packet. Furthermore, this procedure applies to al l the packet sets. The packet set is {pi| 1 ≤ i ≤ 10|}. Then the segment set,{Sk| 1 ≤ k≤ 3|}, are compared recursively. Finally, the final corrected segments, {Sk| 1 ≤ k≤ 3|} are obtained as follows:S1= S21, S2= S12and S3 = S13. Decision and Feedback. The M-FEC program checks the final combined packets whether they are right or not using CRC data according to ID in the CRC packets. If all of them are right or the overall PER is even low, the destination will send feedback to the source to decrease the number of transmission paths. However, if the overall PER is high in an unacceptable range, the destination wills end feedback to the source to increase the number of transmission paths. The procedure lasts until the overall PER is within a reasonable range. Thus, the number of paths can be maintained in a reasonable range. Additionally, the error packet swill be requested to retransmit from the source node by giving a repeat-request. III. PROPOSED WORK In the proposed work, mainly we are going to assume that distance between the two sensor nodes and their neighboring distance. If the distance is shorter than r, r is the max transmission node to its neighbor. In this neighbor are connected via plotted graph according to their distance. In order to make the nodes more reliable and energy-efficient communication in USNs will undergo the multihop multipath communications. Furthermore they propose a novel based segment packet combination along with the localization of the wormhole technique. In this novel based packet combination approach the destination node as it calculates the timestamp and distance between the source and the destination node. The calculation will be forwarded to the data centre in a period of the time as the nodes are movable. The major advantage is the proposed segment combination in FEC in the destination will improve packet recovery in order to increase efficiency to enchance the reliability along with this localization scheme has been established as the distance between the sensor nodes are available and it can be specifically calculated through the bilateration involves the combinations of each two reference. Bilateration technique is employed to derive the positions of sensor nodes. It is a well- known approach to find coordinates of an unknown point according the available information including coordinates of two reference points and the distances of unknown point from each reference point. It is given by the following equations: Eq1: (XB1– XU)2 + (YB1– YU)2= DistB1 are respectively the distances between unknown node and each beacon. As there are four equations, then there are multi values for X U and Y U. To have an accurate estimation, we evaluate all possible values for X and Y . Therefore, two different combinations are organized to generate all possible pairs of X and Y.
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 149 i. 6 different combinations available among the equations because there are states for n equations. Therefore, bilateration method has to be applied for six pairs of reference nodes. ii. From the bilateration results, there are two X and Y values for each pair of equations. Hence, a combinations of all X and Y derived from the bilateration Equations are produced. Accordingly, there are totally 24 pairs of different X and Y values. Once all possible values are extracted, the right coordinates are determined through the refinement process, which is divided into two different stages. The flowchart below represents a complete view of the refinement section in details. There are two refinement levels which are simply called first and second refinement. As the the below equations calculate the wormhole attack in the further proecures of timestamps with the help of the bilateration method. And it will be applied to all the nodes as te pairs. This refinement process also includes the values of both X an Y values. Along with this novel based Multiple-path FEC approach will be proposed along with the hamming coding in order to improve the reliability The dense node deployment makes multipath routing a natural and promising technique to cope with the unreliable network environments and large end-to-end packet delays. Thus, multipath communication enables to improve the robustness and reduce end-top-end delays for USNs. As illustrated in Figure.4.1, the broadcast technology is handled in the source node to deliver the same packets to the same destination in multiple paths. Specifically, in the source node, the data packet is encoded using Hamming Coding approach and is delivered using Multicast Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) protocol to establish multipath routing through the intermediate nodes. In each intermediate node, the data packet will be dropped without any further processing if any error occurs in its header. Otherwise, the used decoder of Hamming Coding will recover some corrupted segments into the original one Figure. 4.1 System Architecture IV. RESULTS The simulation result are in the order to compare the decoding efficiency for M-FEC, MPC, and single-path communications impartial, all nodes in the simulation experiments are deployed as the maximum transmission power so that they can provide best-effort communication in Scenario-2. Fig. 5 depicts the results of the overall PER versus the number of retransmission, u. In this figure, the X-axis represents u and the scale of Y-axis is log10 of the overall PER.
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 150 It can be seen that the overall PER of M-FEC(7-4) is less than those of MPC and single-path communications. With the increase of u, the overall PER of all the curves in the figure decreases. A. Nodes And Energy Saving The 7-4 Hamming Coding-based M-FEC schemes are compared with the bit-based FEC in single-path communications and in multiple-path communications to demonstrate the advantages of decreasing packet delay and saving energy in different scenarios. Noting that A, B, C on the X-axis denotes the results when these simulation experiments are conducted with PREQ 0:001;0:0001;0:00001. B.CONSUMED ENERGY COMPARISON The below figure reveals the comparison of energy consumption per each packet achieved by M-FEC (7-4), single-path communications, and MPC for both scenarios based on segment packet combination and bit packet combination in the destination.
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 151 Thus, the payload of the three schemes is the same. Moreover, theenergy consumption for transmission of feedback messages in M-FEC(7-4) communication is set to be 8 mW per 100 packets. ACKNOWLEDGMENT In this project, a novel FEC approach has been performed, namely M-FEC, designed with Hamming Coding for multiple path communications along with the localization of the wormhole attack in USNs. This kind of segment-based packet combination and recovery technology for FEC with Hamming Coding which can improve both energy efficiency and reliability in USNs. The proposed M-FEC integrates multiple-path communications and Hamming Coding to eliminate retransmission and enhance reliability. To reduce the consumed energy of transmission, the Markovian model is used to calculate the overall PER in order to make a decision for the number of multiple paths guaranteeing the desirable PER. Extensive simulation experiments based on NS-2 have shown that the proposed approach can significantly outperform conventional multiple-path communications and single-path communications in terms of an energy efficiency and reliability. REFERENCES [1] D. Pompili and I.F. Akyildiz, “Overview of Networking Protocols for Underwater Wireless Communications,” IEEE Comm. Maga-zine, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 97-102. [2] J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. Levine, “A Survey of Practical Issues in Underwater Networks,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev.,vol. 11, pp. 23-33. [3] K. Park and V. Rodoplu, “Uwan-Mac: An Energy-efficient Mac Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.,vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 710-720. [4] “Soundlink Underwater Acoustic Modems,” http://www.link-quest.com/. [5] U. Lee, P. Wang, Y. Noh, L.F.M. Vieira, M. Gerla, and J.-H. Cui, “Pressure Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM ’. [6] D. Pompili, T. Melodia, and I.F. Akyildiz, “A CDMA-Based Medium Access Control for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1899-1909 [7] H. Yang, B. Liu, F. Ren, H. Wen, and C. Lin, “Optimization of Energy Efficient Transmission in Underwater Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Globecom ’09,pp. 1-9. [8] V. Rodoplu and M.K. Park, “An Energy-Efficient Mac Protocol for Underwater Wireless Acoustic Networks,”Proc. IEEE/MTS OCEANS,pp. 1198-1203.
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 145-152 © IAEME 152 [9] P. Casari and A.F. Harris, “Energy-Efficient Reliable Broadcast in Underwater Acoustic Networks,” Proc. Second ACM Int’l Workshop Underwater Networks, pp. 49-56. [10] D. Pompili, T. Melodia, and I.F. Akyildiz, “Routing Algorithms for Delay-Insensitive and Delay-Sensitive Applications in Under-water Sensor Networks,”Proc. MobiCom. [11] J. Yick, Mukherjee, B. and Ghosal, D., "Wireless sensor network survey," Computer Networks., vol. 52(12), pp. 2292 – 2330., 2008. [12] Junfeng Xu, Keqiu Li,Member, IEEE, and Geyong Min, Member, “Reliable and Energy- Efficient Multipath Communications in Underwater Sensor Networks” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 7, JULY 2012 [13] T.Dhanalakshmi, M.Sasitharagai, E.Angel Anna Prathiba and P.Premadevi, “Energy Efficient and Scheduling Techniques for Increasing Life Time in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 129 - 136, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [14] P.T.Kalaivaani and A.Rajeswari, “The Routing Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks Through Correlation Based Medium Access Control for Better Energy Efficiency”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 294 - 300, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [15] Basavaraj S. Mathapati, Siddarama. R. Patil and V. D. Mytri, “Power Control with Energy Efficient and Reliable Routing Mac Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 223 - 231, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.