International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Vol...
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  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 31 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION: THE COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN BROADCASTING, SATELLITE COMMUNICATION AND CELLULAR SERVICE Deepali Y Kirange1, Kalyani N Neve2 1 Assistant Professor, MCA Department, GHRIBM, Jalgaon, India, 2 Assistant Professor, MCA Department, GHRIBM, Jalgaon, India, ABSTRACT Wireless communication is essentially the transmission of information between two points without using wires. Wireless data services and systems represent a rapidly growing and increasingly important segment of the communications industry. Wireless communications are ubiquitous in the modern society. In this paper we will discuss the importance of the types of wireless communication. And our discussion will focused on three popular types: 1) broadcasting 2) satellite 3) cellular service. We are going to highlight the advantages of each individual system and factors that affect to these types of wireless communication and application of each system. Keywords: Wireless Network, Broadcasting, Satellite Communication, Cellular Communication, Infrared Communication I. INTRODUCTION Wireless communication is among technology’s biggest contributions to mankind. Wireless communications is essentially the transmission of information between two points without using wires to achieve the end. Wireless communications are ubiquitous in the modern society; they enable phone networks to operate, and a greater majority of people are accessing the internet through it. In this fast changing world everyone wants to keep in touch with the changing events. Because of this feature of wireless communication the people are close together and communicate anytime & from anywhere in this global world without the help of wires. Wireless communications systems, of which cordless phones, pagers, and cellular telephones are some of the most familiar examples, have experienced enormous growth over the last decade. In this paper we will discuss the types of wireless communication such as infrared, broadcasting, satellite communication, cellular communication service, and the comparison between broadcasting, satellite communication and cellular communication service. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), pp. 31-41 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 32 2. OVERVIEW Wireless communication involves the transmission of information over a distance without help of wires, cables or any other forms of electrical conductors. The transmitted distance can be anywhere between a few meters (for example, a television’s remote control) and thousands of kilometres (for example, radio communication).Some of the devices used for wireless communication are cordless telephones, mobiles, GPS units, wireless computer parts, and satellite television etc. Following are some reasons because of we are using wireless communication. 2.1 Advantages of Wireless Communication 1. Increased efficiency - Improved communications leads to faster transfer of information within businesses and between partners/customers. 2. Greater flexibility and mobility for users - Office-based wireless workers can be networked without sitting at dedicated PCs. 3. Reduced costs - Relative to 'wired', wireless networks are, in most cases, cheaper to install and maintain. 4. Anywhere, Anytime Work-Through wireless communication, working professionals and mobile workers can work and access the Internet just about anywhere, anytime without the hassles of wires and network cables. 5. Enhanced Productivity- Wireless Internet connectivity options ensures that work and assignments can be completed anywhere and enhance overall productivity of all concerned. 6. Remote Area Connectivity-Workers, doctors and other professionals working in remote- location hospitals and medical centres can keep in touch with anyone through wireless communication. 7. On-Demand Entertainment Bonanza- Wireless communication ensures an entertainment bonanza on--demand and anytime. For those unable to keep away from their daily soap operas, reality-programs, online TV shows and Internet surfing or download activities. 8. Emergency Alerts-Through wireless communication, many emergency situations and crisis situations can be addressed quickly. Help and other assistance can reach affected areas quickly through early alerts and warnings provided with the help of wireless communication. 9. Neat and easy Installation-Since no cable running here and there, just start up the wireless device and we are ready to rumble 10. More users supported - Cable device have limited slots whereas wireless does not. So it is more supported for user. 3. TYPES OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION There are different types of wireless communication such as IR communications, broadcast communication, satellite communication and cellular communication. Each of these types of communications with its working are explained below in detailed. 3.1 Infrared (IR) wireless communication: IR wireless communication communicates data or information in devices or systems through infrared (IR) radiation. Infrared is electromagnetic energy at a wavelength that is longer than that of red light. 3.2 Broadcasts: Broadcasting is the dissemination of content or packet that will be received by every device on the network over a wide geographical area.
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 33 3.3 Satellite Communications: Satellite communication is the communication in which an array of orbiting satellites is used to communicate between two distant sites on earth by bouncing signals of satellite. 3.4 Cellular Service: In this communication, area is subdivided into multiple cells or zones with unique frequencies assigned to each cell. Now, in the remaining section we are going to discuss about the detailed working of Broadcasting, Satellite and Cellular communication which helps us to do the comparison of these three types of communication. 4. BROADCAST COMMUNICATION Broadcasting refers to a method of transferring a message to all recipients simultaneously. Broadcasting can be performed as a high level operation in a program, for example broadcasting Message Passing Interface, or it may be a low level networking operation, for example broadcasting on Ethernet. Broadcasting is the distribution of information to all receivers. Information may be anything. It may be audio, video content to a dispersed audience via any audio or visual mass communications medium, but usually using electromagnetic radiation (radio waves). The receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of public. Broadcasting has been used for purposes of private recreation, non-commercial exchange of messages, experimentation, self- training, and emergency communication such as amateur (ham) radio and amateur television (ATV) in addition to commercial purposes like popular radio or TV stations with advertisements. The final leg of broadcast distribution is how the signal gets to the listener or viewer. A broadcast may be distributed to stations or networks through several physical means, such as magnetic tape, compact disc, DVD, and sometimes other formats. It may broadcast through the air as radio waves from radio station or television station to the transmitter to radio/ television antenna and thus to the radio receiver. Programming may also come through a communications satellite, played either live or recorded for later transmission. Or it may broadcast through cable television or cable radio via the station or directly from a network. The "broadcast network" is used to distinguish networks that broadcast an over-the-air television signals and only via cable television. Over the air television signal that can be received using a tuner inside a television set with a television antenna and cable television . Fig 1: Working of Broadcasting
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 34 4.1 Affecting Factors to Broadcasting There are so many factors which can affect the broadcasting communication. Some factors affects on the performance of broadcasting and some of them are affects on the quality of broadcasting. We are going to discuss those factors: 4.1.1 Factors which affects the Performance Peak power, Receiver Sensitivity, Pulse rate, Pulse Width, Antenna Size, External noise. The primary factors limiting performance are typically the transmitter’s maximum duty cycle, and the receiver’s noise. The transmitter duty cycle limits both the maximum pulse rate and the maximum pulse width. The duty cycle is dependent on the transmitter design and type, the modulator and high voltage power supply The factors such as antenna size are factors which can be solved by simply spending more money. External Noise is another factor which affects the performance of broadcasting communication. Reflection from unwanted object example clouds, build up area, hills, aircrafts etc affects the performance of broadcasting. 4.1.2 Factors which affects the Quality Attenuation with distance and Condition and Size of the Reflecting Surface are the factors which affects on the quality of broadcasting. In Attenuation with distance the transmitted electromagnetic energy gets further away from the transmitter, it is dispersed over an increasingly large area and therefore becomes weaker The amount of reflected energy from a given target is dependent upon the size and shape of the reflecting surface. The reflecting surface should made from metal. 4.2 Advantages of Broadcasting: • Communicate in One Voice - Ensure everyone hears the same message from the same source without any delay. Eliminate confusion and rumors. • No limits – Events can run as long as necessary, as they are not limited to TV scheduling, DVD/ video length. • Reach - Due to currently wide range of coverage network, these will be upgraded easily to MBMS/BCMCS efficiency with a relatively larger reach even if minor footprint of individual. • Cost – Webcasting content is cheaper than using commercial television transmission platforms such as satellite. • Interaction – Users can interact with the event, through integrated voting, chat or by accessing website links, resources that relate to the streaming media event. • Contribution – Questions can be posed live to the speakers by email, telephone call or even video conferencing. • On demand - Using pre-recorded clips, true 'video on demand', viewers can opt to watch event highlights, at any time of day or night from any corner of the world. • Security – Using registration or password mechanisms we can either restrict content to known users, or capture valuable marketing information from our viewers. • Marketing – Event organizers can use streaming media to drive visitors to their website, and strong branding messages can be easily integrated in to the viewing experience. • Education - Through special radio programs, classroom lessons of schools and colleges can be supplemented by broadcasting. • Convenience - It helps in faster searching. We can use our internet facility conveniently.
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 35 • Devices - Wireless broadcasting serves us through various devices. Laptops, Blackberry devices, handled computers and mobile phones are included in wireless broadcasting. 4.3 Disadvantages of Broadcasting: • Speed - Broadcasting is transmits through signals so it is unreliable due to its speed which can be low or high anytime because of signals dropping problem. Signals become weak or missing. Weather is also interrupt in signals and become a reason of weak connection. • Interactivity - Because of backward areas networks of broadcasting is limited and thus no connection between them. 5. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION A satellite communications system uses satellites to relay radio transmissions between earth’s terminals. The two types of communications satellites are ACTIVE and PASSIVE. A passive satellite only reflects received radio signals back to earth. An active satellite acts as a REPEATER; it amplifies signals received and then retransmits them back to earth. This increases signal strength at the receiving terminal to a higher level than would be available from a passive satellite. A typical operational link involves an active satellite and two or more earth terminals. One station transmits to the satellite on a frequency called the UP-LINK frequency. The satellite then amplifies the signal, converts it to the DOWN-LINK frequency, and transmits it back to earth. The signal is next picked up by the receiving terminal. Fig 2 shows a satellite communications. Fig: 2 Working of Satellite Communication All satellite communications earth terminals are equipped with specially designed, highly sensitive RECEIVERS. These receivers are designed to overcome down-link power losses and to permit extraction of the desired communications information from the weak received signal. The terminals currently in use have specially designed preamplifiers mounted directly behind the antennas.
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 36 All earth terminal TRANSMITTERS generate high-power signals for transmission to the communications satellites. High-powered TRANSMITTERS and highly directional, high-gain antennas are combined in this configuration. This is necessary to overcome up-link limitations and to ensure that the signals received by the satellite are strong enough to be detected by the satellite. Each transmitter has an exciter/modulator and a power amplifier. The modulator accepts the input signal from the terminal equipment and modulates an IF carrier. The exciter translates the IF signal to the up-link frequency and amplifies it to the level required by the power amplifier. Transmitters used in earth terminals have output power capabilities that vary from 10 watts to 20 kilowatts, depending on the type used and the operational requirements. Telemetry equipment is included in all communications satellite systems. This permits monitoring of the operating conditions within the satellite. Telemetry can be used also for remote control of satellite operations, such as energizing axial jets for changing the spin axis of the satellite. Satellites are specifically made for telecommunication purpose. They are used for mobile applications such as communication to ships, vehicles, planes, hand-held terminals and for TV and radio broadcasting. They are responsible for providing these services to an assigned region (area) on the earth. The power and bandwidth of these satellites depend upon the preferred size of the footprint, complexity of the traffic control protocol schemes and the cost of ground stations. 5.1 Affecting Factors to satellite communication There are so many factors which can affect the satellite communication. Some factors affects on the performance of satellite communication and some of them are affects on the quality of satellite communication. We are going to discuss those factors: 5.1.1 Factors which affects the Performance • Type and Strength of radio signal The performance of a satellite system is related to the type and strength of radio signal used between the vessels mounted transmitter and the satellite. The type of radio signal used by transmitters relevant to fisheries MCS (Multi Channel Satellite) is usually within the microwave band and as such is highly reliable and relatively low powered. The signal is not greatly affected by atmospheric conditions. 5.1.2 Factors which affects the Quality • Cosmic noise, atmospheric noise, rainfall noise, ground noise, interfering noise and multipath fading. • Different weather conditions can affect a satellite system. Winter: Very cold weather can slow down or even totally spoil the satellite motor. This will obviously mean no picture. This will severely affect the picture and quality. Storms: Winds of high speeds can dis-align the satellite dish and disrupt our picture. Very bad storm such as a hurricane could even cause the dish to fall over. Lightning can also strike a satellite dish and cause it to malfunction. To avoid this you can use a surge protector that will protect your dish from power fluctuations. The Sun: The sun, the earth, and the satellites over the equator, come into alignment two times annually. At these times, solar outages occur which can affect the satellite dish. But this condition lasts for only few minutes at a time, over two weeks and is a problem only in the daytime and not during night. 5.2 Advantages of Satellite: • Cost Effectiveness - Cost of satellite capacity does not increase with the number of users/receive sites, or with the distance between communication points. Whether crossing continents or staying local, satellite connection cost is distance insensitive.
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 37 • Global Availability - Communications satellites cover all land masses and there is growing capacity to serve maritime and even aeronautical markets. Customers in rural and remote regions around the world who cannot obtain high speed Internet access from a terrestrial provider are increasingly relying on satellite communications. • Reliability - Satellite communications can operate independently from terrestrial infrastructure. When terrestrial outages occur from man-made and natural events, satellite connections remain operational. • Performance - Satellite is unmatched for broadcast applications like television. For two-way IP networks, the speed, uniformity and end-to-end control of today's advanced satellite solutions are resulting in greater use of satellite by corporations, governments and consumers. • Immediacy and Scalability - Additional receive sites, or nodes on a network, can readily be added, sometimes within hours. All it takes is ground-based equipment. Satellite has proven its value as a provider of "instant infrastructure" for commercial, government and emergency relief communications. • Versatility - Satellite solutions are highly flexible and can operate independently or as part of a larger network. • Easy to install new circuits – This communication contains circuits. The circuits are easy to install. • High Bandwidth – Because of high bandwidth signal is good in quality. 5.3 Disadvantages of Satellite: • Signal delay - Because the satellite is 36,000km from the earth there is an appreciable delay (around 0.25s in one direction, 0.5s for a round trip); this can introduce unacceptable latency into two-way data networks (e.g. Internet) and make conversation difficult in voice circuits. • Cost - Satellites are large and expensive, thus there is a large capital cost in building and launching a satellite. • Impossibility to repair and maintain - It's not possible to get a repair person out to the GSO, so if components fail they can't be fixed; satellites are made from "space qualified" components with high reliability but redundant components also have to be flown and switched in if elements do fail; a major failure can result in the loss of the whole satellite. • Noise and Interference – When this communication is perform some times noise will be occur in the signal. And sometimes two signals interfere with each other. 6. CELLULAR SERVICE A mobile cellular communication system provides a wireless connection to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) for any user located within the radio range of the system. The evolution of mobile cellular communications the cellular concept is concept of dividing a large coverage zone into small cells. The same spectrum can be reused by different cells, which are separated by a minimum reuse distance, to increase spectrum usage. The analog systems using frequency division multiple access (FDMA).Popular systems examples include Advance Mobile Phone System (AMPS) in the US, European Total Access Cellular System (ETACS) in Europe and Nippon Telephone (NTT) system in Japan. Today cellular network are generally called second generation or 2G technologies that conform to the 2G standards. 2G standards use digital modulation formats and TDMA/frequency division duplex (FDD) and CDMA/FDD multiple access techniques. The most popular 2G standards include three TDMA standards and one CDMA standard: a) Global System Mobile (GSM), which is widely used in Europe, Asia, Australia, South America and some parts of US; b) Interim Standard 136 (IS- 136), which is also known as North American Digital Cellular (NADC) and popular in
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 38 America; c) Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC), which is a Japanese TDMA; d) Interim Standard 95 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) ,which is widely developed in countries such as North America, Japan, China, South America and Australia. In cellular communications, the choice of multiple accesses is one of the most important issues. There are three important basic properties of a multiple access. The properties are flexibility, quality and capacity. Operational flexibility includes easy frequency/cell planning. Abilities to operate in different environment provide different services for different cell types and users to support coexistence with other systems. Quality will include good speech quality. This can be determined by a subjective test. Quality will also include good coverage to provide the service to users on demand and reliable communication in terms of low number of dropped calls. High capacity radio access is vital for cellular radio because it ensures maximum efficiency for the limited and expensive spectrum. The basic important properties of different multiple access technologies used for cellular systems. Time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA). When we entered a phone number into our cell phone and pressed the [SND] key. Following sequence happens next: 1. Scan Control Channels: Our cell phone needs to use the "closest" base station because that's the one with the strongest signal and the one that will give the best connection. To find the closest base station, our phone checks all 21 control channels and determines which has the strongest signal. 2. Choose Strongest: Our cell phone chooses the strongest signal and decides to use that one for placing the call. 3. Send Origination Message: Our cell phone now transmits a very short message that contains the MIN (Mobile Identification Number, aka our cell phone number), its ESN (Electronic Serial Number), and the number we just dialed. 4. Get Channel Assignment: After the cellular service provider verifies that we are a valid, paying customer (based on the MIN and ESN our phone sent), the base station sends a Channel Assignment message to our phone. This message tells our phone where (that is, on which channel) the conversation will take place. 5. Begin Conversation: Our cell phone tunes to the assigned channel and begins the call. The spurts we hear that indicate the phone is ringing at the other end (which is called "ring back") or the busy signal that we hear do not begin until we get to this step. Both of these are transmitted by the base station as an audio signal just like the voice of the person we are calling. 6.1 Affecting Factors to Cellular Communication There are so many factors which can affect the Cellular communication. Some factors affects on the performance of Cellular communication and some of them are affects on the quality of Cellular communication. We are going to discuss those factors: 6.1.1 Factors which affects the Performance Coverage, topography, capacity, network architecture are important factors which can affects the performance. Coverage the strength of the measured signal is used to estimate the size of the cell. when a carrier publishes maps showing coverage in a certain geographic area, a subscriber may not be able to complete a call due to limitations in topography (the surroundings), capacity (how many callers are communicating with the same cell site at a given time), and network architecture (where antennas are located).
  9. 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 39 6.1.2 Factors which affects the Quality Accessibility and monitoring are the factors which can affect the quality. • Accessibility is about determining the ability of the network to handle successful calls from mobile-to-fixed networks and from mobile-to-mobile networks. Connection duration of call is in terms of seconds or minutes. Packet transmission or serving measured in milliseconds or even microseconds user movement measured in seconds, minutes or hours. • Audio quality: monitoring a successful call for a period of time for the clarity of the communication channel. 6.2 Advantages of Cellular Service: • Higher capacity - Implementing SDM allows frequency reuse. If one transmitter is far away from another, i.e. outside the interference range it can reuse the same frequency. As most of mobile phone systems assign frequencies to certain users, this frequency is blocked for other users .But as frequency is a scarce resource the number of concurrent users per cell is also very limited. • Less transmission power - While power aspects are not a big problem for base stations, they are indeed a problematic for mobile stations. A receiver far away from the base station would need much more transmit power than the current few watts. • Local interference only - Having long distances between sender and receiver results even more interference problems. With the small cell mobile stations and base stations only have to deal with local interference. • Robustness - Cellular systems are decentralized and so, more robust again the failure of single components. If one antenna fails, these only influence communication within small area. 6.3 Disadvantages of cellular communication: • Infrastructure needed - In Cellular communication systems need a complex infrastructure to connect all base stations .This includes many antennas, switches for forwarding .location registers to find a mobile station etc, which make the whole system quite expensive. • Handover needed - The mobile station has to perform a handover when changing from one cell to another. Depending on the cell size and the speed of movement ,this can happen quite soon 7. COMPARISON BETWEEN BROADCASTING, SATELLITE AND CELLULAR SERVICE From above study of all types of communication, we can accomplish up to some judgments as follows: Broadcasting Satellite Cellular Performance GOOD EXCELLENT GOOD Depends on Whether YES YES Sometimes Standard ARIB SCPC/DVB MCPC GSM,GPRS Infrastructure No Need No Need Needed Capacity Medium Low High Application Radars,Airtraffic Control, Microphone is a crucial link to the audience Telivision,Digital Cinema, Radio, Internet Access Military Mobile Renovate Not Possible Not Possible Possible Handover Not Required Not Required Required Device Blackberry Device,Laptops,Mobile Televisions, Radios Mobiles Reliable NO YES YES Cost Fair Normal Expensive Fair Normal Life NORMAL VERY HIGH NORMAL Coverage With in world With in world (35863 km) With in world
  10. 10. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 40 8. CONCLUSION As we know that, wireless network is boon to the human being. Due to this network and this wireless communication the world becomes nearer. In our paper we mainly focus on the types of communication, their working, pros and cons and the factors who affect the communication. And finally according to the factors and advantages and disadvantages we are trying to do the comparison between them. After doing the comparison we are concluded that we should take care while selecting the wireless communication. This means that select it as per the need because each type of communication has some positive points and some negative points. For example, satellite communication is good in terms of performance, life, reliability, and infrastructure. But its capacity is low, cost is high and after some damage renovation is not possible. REFERENCES [1] Yashpal Singh, Er .Anurag Sharma,” Study of Broadcasting and Its Performance Parameter in VANET”,International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-2, May 2012 [2] Wong Ngee Hui,” Comparison between CDMA and TDMA Air Interface for Cellular Systems” [3]http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~dil/thesis_mosaic/subsection2_7_2_2.html [4] http://www.telesat.com/about-us/why-satellite/advantages-satellites [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcasting [6] http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w9633e/w9633e09.htm [7] http://www.ips.gov.au/Educational/1/3/2 [8] http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Can_the_weather_affect_your_satellite_system [9] http://www.typesof.com/tech/types-of-wireless-communications/ [10]http://computernetworkingnotes.com/wireless-networking-on-cisco-router/types-of-wireless- networks.html [11] http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/wireless_communication [12] http://freewimaxinfo.com/wireless-network.html [13]Satellite communication An Introduction [14]Introduction to satellite communication, Chapter 4 [15] Clint Gilham, Jean-Paul Van Belle,” Factors Affecting the Adoption of Mobile Content Services amongst Youth in the Western Cape, South Africa” Information Management in Modern Enterprise: Issues & Solutions 477 [16] http://www.radar-sales.com/PDFs/Performance_RDR%26TDR.pdf [17]http://www.theairlinepilots.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=838&sid=903bd501b6b0699bee2d5c33 568e9f7f [18]http://www.theairlinepilots.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=838&sid=903bd501b6b0699bee2d5c33 568e9f7f [19] http://soe.northumbria.ac.uk/ocr/teaching/mobile/pp/partIII-nv1.pdf [20] http://soe.northumbria.ac.uk/ocr/teaching/mobile/pp/partIII-nv1.pdf [21] Prof. S.V.M.G.Bavithiraja and Dr.R.Radhakrishnan, “Power Efficient Context-Aware Broadcasting Protocol For Mobile Ad Hoc Network (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 81 - 96, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375, Published by IAEME. [22] Dr. V. Murali Krishna, Karimella Vikram and Prof. Narasimha, “Broadband Wireless Communication” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 217- 226, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6472, Published by IAEME.
  11. 11. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), © IAEME 41 [23] Mrs.R.Rajasree, Dr.G.Kalivarathan, “A Review On Routing Protocols And Non Uniformity With Wireless Sensor Networks” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 348 - 354, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375, Published by IAEME. [24] S.V.Annlin Jeba, Dr.B. Paramasivan, “An Evaluation Of En-Route Filtering Schemes On Wireless Sensor Networks” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 62 - 73, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375, Published by IAEME. [25] Pravin W. Raut And Dr. S.L. Badjate, “Diversity Techniques For Wireless Communication” International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 144 - 160, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499, Published by IAEME

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