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  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, 2013, pp. 192-200 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET ©IAEME LOCATING & MONITORING OBJECTS USING RF TRANSMITTERS & RECEIVERS AND RETRIEVING DATA USING GSM 1 Jagannath N. Mohite, 2 Prof. J. G. Rana 1 2 ME (App.), JNEC, Aurangabad Head, ECT Department, JNEC, Aurangabad ABSTRACT Locating physical items is a highly relevant application addressed by numerous systems. Many of these systems share the drawback that costly infrastructure must be installed before a significant physical area can be covered, that is, before these systems may be used in practice. In this paper, we build on the ubiquitous infrastructure provided by the mobile phone network to design a wide area system for locating objects. This system provide way for monitoring and locating objects using Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters and receivers, and querying about the objects using mobile phones. An object represents a real world entity. This system is based on RF transmitters that are tagged to the objects of everyday use and have the capability of transmitting signals and a receiver that detects the transmission of the tagged object and stores its corresponding location in the database which is created specifically for information maintenance of the tagged objects. Mobile phones are used to query the location of the tagged object by sending a message to the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) connected to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modem. This GSM modem fetches the location and other relevant information from the database and encapsulates this information into a message which is sent back to the mobile phone that has requested the information. Keywords: RF module, GSM modem, Identification and tracking system. I. INTRODUCTION To be able to locate everyday objects at the touch of a button is a promising application of ubiquitous computing Inexpensive sensing devices are expected to play a major role in future computing systems. They aim to make the daily life of their users easier by monitoring everyday physical processes and providing novel features based on the acquired data. What currently hinders 192
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME most of the conceived systems from becoming commercial applications, however, is a lack of adequate infrastructure of following types: First, a sensing infrastructure must be installed to perform an efficient sensing task. Second, a communication infrastructure is required to distribute and aggregate readings from multiple transmitters. Finally, a commercial infrastructure is needed to manufacture and deploy the transmitting, receiving and communicating devices like GSM modem, and to generate revenue from the system. The mobile phone system provides a unique opportunity to overcome these difficulties. Sensing technologies can be implemented using transmitters and a receiver and accessed from the mobile handset via wireless mobile networks. Wide area communication is a core property of the cellular network. It enables the integration of data from many transmitters and the support of applications with backend services such as data storage. This system is effectively used in the location of important items that are tagged and their location can be queried by various users. Making use of these unique properties of mobile phones and the cellular network, we present a system which is concerned with monitoring and locating objects by means of mobile phones. The objects that are tagged with the hardware i.e. the transmitters in the vicinity are detected by the corresponding receivers and the location are queried using a mobile phone by means of a GSM modem. The dual technique employed in this project is: First, object sensing using the RF transmitters and receivers. Second, user interface provided by the mobile phone aid for sensing and querying the personal items simultaneously. This system allowed us to identify a particular challenge that is common to many applications that makes use of large people-centric infrastructure provided by mobile phones and the cellular network. The challenge is to answer the question of whether a system based on RF transmitters and receiver can provide sufficient coverage in relatively short period of time. In an extensive evaluation, which includes a real world experiment with our object localization prototype, we therefore analyzed the properties of the coverage obtained given a wide range of different operational parameters such as the distance between transmitter and receivers, objects in the path of transmission and range of the transmitters used. In addition to confirming the feasibility of object localization based on mobile phones, the study can provide valuable guidelines for the design of future people-centric sensing systems in general. II. SYSTEM MODEL This section presents an overview of the system and introduces the functionality of each of the individual components. A. Overview This article is a novel approach in locating and also retrieving product related information using mobile phones. It is difficult to go and locate objects manually or search for them in a short period of time especially when object location is unknown. In this paper we are attempting to locate objects irrespective of its distance from the user who is trying to track the object. Objects can be located more easily if they are equipped with Bluetooth or Infra-Red facilities which nowadays are commonly found in electronic devices likes Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), laptops. However the drawback of this is the limited range. But we are extending the idea to locate objects both stationary and mobile using RF transmitters and receivers with greater range. On a larger scale this project can be implemented for locating landmarks in a city or items in a warehouse. The implementation is based on two criteria. Firstly, we assume that the objects being tagged are accompanied with a unique ID. Secondly, each receiver is given a unique location ID that determines the current location of the object. 193
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME B. Architecture The system architecture comprises of three parts that is the sensing functionality, storing functionality and querying service. The sensing functionality comprises of RF transmitters and receivers that are used to sense the presence of tagged objects within the region. The storage functionality is used to store all relevant information of the object in the database. The operator provides a user with a database service in which the user can store application data such as reports and other information regarding the objects. The querying service is used by the user for querying necessary information associated with the object using GSM network and Short message service (SMS)[2,6]. The choice of transmitter architecture is determined by two important factors: wanted and unwanted emission requirements and the number of oscillators and external filters. In general, the architecture and frequency planning of the transmitter must be selected in conjunction with those of the receiver so as to allow sharing hardware and possibly power. C. Object Tracking The object tracking application is used for locating and managing objects using Use case via mobile phones. Use cases are specified for various functions such as detecting of objects within the sensing range, notify objects that have left the sensing range, querying about objects, identifying new objects entering and leaving the sensing range. These use cases are defined as follows: Out-Region: This Use case allows the user to set up their cell phones to keep track of objects which leave the receiver sensing region. This includes tracing of object location before and after the loss event. Most recent location of the object will be stored and notification will be sent when an object leaves the sensing region using Out-Region(obj) function. In-Region: This Use case allows the user to set up their cell phones to keep track of all objects within the receiver sensing region. This includes tracing of objects location and storing it in the database. Current location of the object will be stored and notification will be sent to indicate the presence of object in the sensing region using In-Region(obj) function. Find: This Use case allows the user to query an object from the list of objects that are already being detected and stored in the database. The system will forward this query to the GSM modem, which looks for the corresponding object in the database. Various object search strategies can be employed such as string matching, keyword followed by the object name e.g., Locate CRO or just CRO. The GSM modem will notify the user with a short message containing object’s location and its description using ObjLocation() and ObjDescription() function. Query In-Region Out-Region Find Gate Trigger In-Region (Obj) Out-Region (Obj) In-Region (Obj) In-Region (Any) Report Obj-description ( ) Obj-Location ( ) In-Region(obj ) Out-Region (Obj) Obj Descriptive() Objlocation() Obj location() In-Region(Obj) Tmax ∞ ∞ A ∞ Nmax B1 ∞ B2 B3 Qmax ∞ ∞ C ∞ Table1- Parameter setting for 4 use cases 194
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Gate: This Use case act as a gatekeeper keeping track of new objects entering the sensing region and old objects leaving the sensing region by sending corresponding notifications. The data is correspondingly updated in the database. This Use case provides useful information that helps in Find query. Query services and functions implementing the above use cases are provided in Table I. The parameter A, B1, B2, B3 and C in the table represent the values used in actual system. Trigger service is used to indicate when the query should produce a result. If the queried object is in the sensing region then query produces a result otherwise it sends a default message “Object Not Found”. Report service specifies the information the query should generate if the object is found. The report consists of location and complete description of the object e.g., a restaurant object consists of a report specifying the location, type, theme and facilities. Different system limits can be specified using the following parameters. Tmax: maximum time taken by a query or the maximum query time. Nmax: maximum number of objects detected by the receiver. Qmax: maximum no of reports that can be generated by the system. For Out-Region scenario Tmax, Nmax, Qmax all are irrelevant since the object is outside the sensing region of the system. In In-Region scenario Nmax is relevant as it specifies the maximum number of objects the receiver can detect and if the system exceeds this limit then unused objects or out of region objects should be replaced by new ones. In Find scenario Tmax and Qmax are relevant .Tmax is dependent upon the network traffic and distance between the user and the GSM modem. Tmax is also limited by the effective search strategy employed in the system. The Find query is sent to backend database of the system is sent. Qmax is limited on the number of objects stored in the database. Maximum number of reports is proportional to the maximum number of objects stored in the database .Gate scenario is concerned with Nmax parameter, when an object is identified it verifies with the Nmax before its information is stored in the database. III. SYSTEM DESIGN The system design provides the details of the components employed in the system. It consists of RF transmitters incorporated into the objects, RF receiver, and a database to store all the relevant information regarding the objects and a GSM modem used for sending and receiving SMS regarding querying of the objects and its location. The components of the system are provided in Fig.1. The RF transmitters operate in a radio frequency range of 3 KHz to 300 GHz. RF transmitters are programmed at different frequencies and integrated with objects to be located. Each RF transmitter will be associated with a unique ID.RF transmitters can be used to operate in low frequency range as well as high frequency range depending upon its application. Frequency range switch is used to select the desired frequency range for each transmitter. Modulation techniques employed by the transmitter are Amplitude modulation (AM), Frequency modulation (FM), Frequency shift key (FSK), Amplitude shift key (ASK), Phase shift key (PSK). Data rate is the amount of data transmitted in bits per second. RF transmitters are available in market with a wide range of specifications e.g., LR series, LC series, HP3 series. RF transmitters transmit the unique ID via the communication network. RF receivers are electronic devices that separate radio signals from one another and use demodulator to convert specific signals into audio, video, or data formats. Radio techniques limit localized interference and noise. Each RF receiver is associated with a unique location ID. This ID is used to determine the location of the object. RF receivers display the unique object ID being detected; all the relevant data of this object are stored in the database along with its location. RF receivers are also available in market with various specifications e.g., MC33591, U4311B. 195
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME An object could be a stationary or a mobile object. It could represent any real world entity. The objects are incorporated with transmitters that are programmed with different frequencies and identified by a unique ID. The RF receivers are used to identify these objects within the region. The area of the region depends upon the receiver used. The wireless communication network is built on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) running over Internet Protocol (IP). Database represents a storage device like hard disk. Size of the database depends upon the application. Database is attached to the GSM modem. A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC Card / PCMCIA Card. GSM modem requires a SIM card from a wireless carrier in order to operate. All SIM cards are associated with a Personal Identity Number (PIN) used to unlock the mobile station (MS). All the queries regarding the objects are sent to this SIM via the GSM network. GSM modems support a common set of standard AT commands used to provide Short message service e.g., SIM300_HD_V1.07. User agent is a potential user who sends short message queries regarding the object using mobile devices such as cell phone, PDA. The queries are sent to the GSM modem via the GSM network using the find use case. The GSM modem interacts with the database and sends back the corresponding information to the user via the GSM network. Figure1 System development IV. PROTOCOL STACK The protocol stack provides the integration and functionality of various parts of the model as shown in Fig.2. The protocol stack can be divided into two parts: the hardware specification, which describes the protocols for RF transmitters, RF receivers and database, and the software specification, which provides protocols and function needed to query information from the GSM modem. The protocol stack comprises of the following elements RF transmitters are integrated to the objects. They are programmed to use a particular frequency in the radio frequency range. An RF transmitter generally includes a modulator that modulates an input signal and a radio frequency power amplifier that is coupled to the modulator to amplify the modulated input signal. The radio 196
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME frequency power amplifier is coupled to an antenna that transmits the amplified modulated input signal. The modulation techniques are as follows: Figure 2 Protocol Stack 1) AM causes the baseband signal to vary the amplitude of the carrier wave to create the desired information content. 2) FM causes the instantaneous frequency of a sine wave carrier to depart from the centre frequency by an amount proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. 3) ASK transmits data by varying the amplitude of the transmitted signal. 4) FSK is a digital modulation scheme using two or more output frequencies. 5) PSK is a digital modulation scheme in which the phase of the transmitted signal is varied in accordance with the baseband data signal. Each RF transmitter transmits a unique ID that represents the object associated with it to the corresponding receiver. This data signal is transmitted using wireless network with TCP/IP and UDP protocol. RF receivers are located in each region with a unique location ID. This Location ID is used to locate the region in which RF receiver is placed. RF receivers use wireless network to receive the signals transmitted by the RF transmitters within its sensing region. RF receiver displays the unique ID of the object detected along with its location ID. These IDs are sent to the front end. Visual studio along with programming language like java, .NET, VB can be used to create a front end forms to enter the description of the object and send it to the data base. RF receivers detect all signals transmitted in the radio frequency range. Database comprises of secondary memory devices such as hard disk. Size of the database is directly proportional to the area of application. RF receivers are used to store the description and location of the objects in the database. And the GSM modem is used to query the objects from the database. The database can be created using software toolkit like My SQL. The database is integrated to RF receivers and GSM modem using programming languages like .NET, J2ME, Java, VB running on Windows or Linux Operating System (OS).Database should be frequently updated to provide valid data to the users of the system. Radio frequency specifies the air interface, which also includes the frequencies used, modulation technique employed and power transmitted. Radio frequency operates 197
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME over a range of 3 KHz to 300 GHz. Baseband provides a description of basic connection establishment, packet formats, timing and basic Quality of service (QoS) parameters used by the system. Link manager is used for link set-up and management of connections between devices like database, GSM modem, transmitters and receivers. Link manager performs functions such as synchronization, capability management, and quality of service, power control, transmission mode and authentication. The network applications make use of standard TCP and UDP protocol. Transmission Control Protocol sends the data directly between two components, and stay connected for the duration of the transfer. User Datagram Protocol sends the data packets it into the network without requiring prior connections and provides best effort service. TCP/UDP protocol runs over standard IP protocol. TCP/UDP over IP is described in [3]. GSM modem is integrated to the database. E.g., VB platform are used to interface GSM with the database. It makes use of standard AT modem commands for sending and receiving SMS. Each GSM modem is associated with a SIM that is used by the user to query Information about an object. All SMS are sent to the SIM of the GSM modem. GSM network is used for transmission of messages from the mobile station to the GSM modem. User interface consists of cell phones, PDA and so on. They are used to query about the object by sending SMS to the GSM modem via the network. V. RESULTS Fig.3 shows the actual GUI which we see after running code. In this icon which looks like a telephone shape is used for serial communication (NOT SHOWN IN RESULT WINDOW). Two shapes for two serial communication; one is for microcontroller & other one is for GSM Modem. GSM Communication section is just for read only purpose & works with GSM Modem & cannot be edited. Object Database is used with microcontroller circuit. Now first we have to update database in order to get its location. For that first connect microcontroller & other circuitry to serial port. It will receive data A106. From that A1 is shelve location number & 06 is device identification number. In location column A1 data will get added automatically and also an image of the object is displayed & we can see it in object database section as shown in fig.3 Figure 3 Result 198
  8. 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME In GSM communication section, we have to send sms as CRO or any required object (not case sensitive). After sending sms VB code will read received sms. It will check which device you want to search. Then it will compare received sms with available database. If VB founds data then it will sms back ” Name: CRO LOCATION A1” on same number from which sms has been received. VB will send sms containing name of searched device & its current location. In GSM communication we will have data whenever someone sends sms. It will show mobile number of sms sender, its name if available, then received time, date & actual message. Data available on result window can’t be edited while project is running. V. CONSTRAINTS The constraints that limit the design of the system are: Frequency: If two or more transmitters are programmed to operate at the same frequency, then it is not possible to run them simultaneously. The transmitter closer to the receiver will be detected. Range: The range of detection may vary from a few meters to several kilometers depending on the transmitters used. Higher range transmitters increase the overall cost of the system. Reliability: Since electronic circuits are used, reliability is a factor of concern. The operation of equipments depends on the lifetime of hardware. Power Consumption: The power consumption increases as higher capacity transmitters and receivers are used. Analysis Performance: For small companies and organizations with relatively few hundred messages passing in and out simultaneously from the GSM modem is feasible. However for global organizations where several thousand messages per minute could be anticipated, then the performance of GSM modem degrades. VI. APPLICATIONS The system being developed has a wide range of applications. Based on the capacity of transmitters and receiver, the usability can range from a small house or building to a large area such as a city. Some of the applications are as follows: • Locating landmarks in a city: A transmitter can be attached to each landmark and its location and related description can be stored in a database. A visitor to the city can query from any mobile phone and get information about the location. • Managing items in a warehouse: Finding an item in a huge warehouse is a task that can be accomplished using the design. • Usage as emergency services: A helpline number attached to the GSM can be used by people to locate hospitals, fire station and police station in case of emergencies. • Locating personal objects: Objects used by people on a daily basis like spectacles, wallet, and so on may get displaced very often. Using transmitter and receiver, these objects can be tracked. • Organization support: Within an institution it can be used to locate libraries, canteens, departments and sport complex. VI. CONCLUSION A comprehensive system for managing and identifying essential objects relying on mobile phones as omnipresent object-sensing devices is presented. Significant effort was spent on modeling and testing the system for detecting objects under various circumstances. The results are encouraging 199
  9. 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME but due to the constraints of cost, implementation was not done on large scale basis. The system provides a relatively less accurate positioning for moving objects, but the total overhead for distributing an object search query remains acceptably low. The system does not change the basic fact that the objects out of sensing region will not be detected. For objects within the sensing region, system is feasible. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Behzad Razavi. RF Transmitter Architectures and Circuits. IEEE 1999, Custom Integrated Circuits Conference. Jochen Schiller. Mobile Communications. Pearson Educational Limited, 2003. Andrew S Tanenbaum. Computer Networks. Pearson Educational Limited, 2003. CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network Rogier Noldus, 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Andreas Eisenblatter, Hans-Florian Geerdes, and Ulrich Turke. Public UMTS radio network evaluation and planning scenarios. International Journal on Mobile Network Design and Innovation, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 40-53, ISSN: 1744-2869, Oct. 2005. Phillip B. Gibbons, Brad Karp, Yan Ke, Suman Nath, and Srinivasan Seshan. IrisNet: An Architecture for a worldwide sensor web. IEEE Pervasive Computing, IEEE ultimedia. Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 8-13, Oct-Dec 2007. Gaetano Borriello, Waylon Brunette, Matthew Hall, Carl Hartung, and Cameron Tangney. Reminding about tagged objects using passive RFIDs. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Ubiquito’s Computing, Nottingham, UK, Sept. 7-10, 2004. Christian Frank, Philipp Bolliger, Christof Roduner, and Wolfgang Kellerer. Objects calling home: Locating objects using mobile phones. Christian Frank, Christof Roduner, Philiip Bolliger, Chie Noda, and Wolfgang Kellerer: A service architecture for monitoring physical objects using mobile phones. In Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop, Santander, Spain, May 2007. Frank Siegemund, Christian Florkemeier. Interaction in Pervasive Computing Settings using Bluetooth-enabled Active Tags and Passive RFID Technology together with Mobile Phones. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, Page: 378, 2003. Ashish Jadhav, Prof. Minakshi Pawar, Mahesh Kumbhar, Mahesh Walunjkar and Tejas, “Advanced Design for Implementing Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) as an Alternative Mean of Communication to RF Communication”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 263 - 270, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Manish M. Patil and Prof. Chhaya S. Khandelwal, “Implementation of Patient Monitoring System using GSM Technology”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 18 - 24, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Pradnya K. Dhamal, Prof. Virendra V. Shete and Prof. S.B.Somani, “Mobile Tour Guide Combining GPS and RFID”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 61 - 67, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 200