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  1. 1. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME 18 DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PLAN IN A TECHNICAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION THROUGH SWOT ANALYSIS Dr. A Thimmana Gouda1 , Veerabhadrappa Algur2 , R G Vani3 1, 2, 3 Dept. of Industrial Production Engineering, R Y M Engineering College, Bellary, Karnataka, India, ABSTRACT Strategic planning is a process in which future aims are determined together with the stakeholders and responsibilities as well as resources are allocated in accordance with these future aims. It is a process between the points an institution stands presently and the points it tries to reach in a certain period of time. Institutions are expected to make strategic planning to gain better perception of ongoing quest for quality education and fulfilling its mission and realizing its vision. In order to determine where it is going, the organization needs to know exactly where it stands, then determine where it wants to go and how it will get there. The resulting document is called the "strategic plan." This case study is towards achieving quality education which is initiated with a strategic planning tool like SWOT analysis, and thereby identifying the thrust areas for development. The strategic plan henceforth developed is discussed in this paper. Keywords: Quality Education, Stakeholders, Strategic Plan, SWOT Analysis, Thrust Areas. 1. INTRODUCTION The aim of strategic planning is to produce planned facilities, embody the appointed policies, follow the application efficiently and take the initiative and provide the effective participation. The concept of strategic planning is closely related with the concept of foresight. In this regard strategic planning can be considered as the collection of systematic efforts of experts for the best choice of the future. In the process of strategic planning, some of the fundamental questions are needed to be answered. Those are, where are we? How can we reach our desired goal? And how can we evaluate our success [1]. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJIERD) ISSN 0976 – 6979 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6987 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2014): 5.7971 (Calculated by GISI) IJIERD © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME 19 Hax and Maijluf [2] emphasized that to confront changes in the external and internal environment, to respond to emerging challenges and to achieve organizational excellence, strategic planning is needed. Strategic planning aligns an organization with its environment, to accomplish goals, and provides direction to achieve organization's desired future. It involves all the employees of the organization by proper dialogue, to develop, foster and internalize the vision and also the ownership of the action plan, setting up the priorities, and aligning the plan to the environment prevailing, thus accomplishing the goals. Rowley, Lujan, & Dolence [3], highlighted that “Strategic planning helps a university identify and maintain an optimal alignment with the most important elements of the environment within which the university resides." This environment consists of "the political, social, economic, technological, and educational ecosystem, both internal and external to the university" Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people [4]. Various analysis techniques can be used in strategic planning, including SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. Problem statement To know and analyze the prevailing quality of technical education in an institution and to come out with possible solutions for optimum quality through SWOT Analysis. 1.1. Strategic planning of the case study Two day workshop was conducted in the Institution (RYM Engineering College, Bellary, Karnataka, India), to appraise the strategic planning process, its need and utility in the present circumstances. In the workshop, top management representatives, principal, representatives from various departments, office and administrative staff and a few alumni representing different organizations were involved. The workshop emphasized the operational procedure, and requirements for setting up the strategic planning culture in the organization. The representatives of the department, arranged weekly meetings in their respective departments and initiated the process of strategic planning and took the confidence of the staff (both teaching and Non-teaching), so that activities occurred simultaneously in each department. The representatives of the student community were also involved. SWOT analysis was carried out at the departmental level. This process continued for 3 months. Strategic planning began with environmental scanning; each department participated in a structured, in-depth interview followed by feedback survey to assess the environment. 2. SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT, is an analysis method, which is used in strategic planning for the institutions and consists of the initial letters of concepts of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats [5]. 2.1 Salient points As a medium of administration, SWOT analysis is used in making a plan, defining a problem and also solution of it, making a strategy and giving an analytic decision [6]. It is a tool for auditing an institution and its environment. It is a first stage of planning which helps to focus on key issues. The role of SWOT analysis is to take the information from the
  3. 3. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME 20 environmental scan and separate it into internal and external issues. SWOT analysis determines if the information indicates something that will assist the institution in accomplishing its objectives or if it indicates an obstacle that must be removed or minimized to achieve desired results. SWOT analysis is scalable, collaborative, integrateable, simple and cost efficient. 2.2 SWOT analysis limitations The classification of some factors as Strengths or Weaknesses, or as Opportunities or Threats is somewhat arbitrary. For example, a particular institution’s culture can be either Strength or a Weakness. A technological change can be an either a Threat or an Opportunity. Perhaps what are more important than the superficial classification of these factors are the institutions awareness of them and its development of a strategic plan to use them to its advantage. 3. SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE INSTITUTION The Strength and weakness of the Institution were broadly categorized under People (Human resources), Properties (Infrastructural facilities), Process (covering the operational process) and Product (covering the students, alumni). Opportunities and threats were based on the external environment. The details are given in Table 1 to 5. Table 1: SWOT Analysis of the college [People] PEOPLE STRENGTHS WEAKNESS I) FACULTY ☺ Qualified faculty ☺ Committed faculty ☺ Young and enthusiastic staff ☺ Quest for higher learning ☺ Active participation in the college development ☺ High Co-ordination, teamwork ☺ Healthy relationship amongst the faculty Willingness to undergo appraisal process by the stakeholders. ☺ Appropriate student/staff ratio II) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF ☺ Adequate number of office staff. ☺ Reasonably punctual, sincere & co-operative office staff ☺ Obedient Supporting staff ☺ Faith in traditional human values I) FACULTY Lack of involvement in Technical activities Lack of initiation. Inability to cope up with changing technology Fewer quests for higher goals. Low expertise in computer field Unaware of responsibilities Less involvement in R&D activities by the qualified staff. Non-sharing of the information by the faculty. Lack of exposure and interaction with industries. II) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF Pessimistic attitude Poor communication skills. Escapism Lack of Leadership Lack of Peer groups Lack of Role Models Lack of awareness of optimal use of resources Unsynchronized goals of the individual and the institution. Poor Student-Staff interaction
  4. 4. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME 21 Table 2: SWOT Analysis of the college [Properties] PROPERTIES STRENGTHS WEAKNESS ☺ Sufficient built up area with scope for expansion ☺ Well equipped laboratories for most of the departments. ☺ Independent computing facilities for each of the departments ☺ Adequate standby power supply facility to conduct the laboratories. ☺ Adequate Audio Visual Aids facilities ☺ Well furnished classrooms. ☺ Good hostel facilities. ☺ Good play ground and upcoming indoor facilities. ☺ Good Auditorium facility. ☺ Existence of good transportation facility ☺ Xerox facility in library Inadequate Library and information Services Inadequate Computing facilities Non existence of Office and Library automation Inadequate Internet facilities Improper sharing of resources Non existence of medical facilities Inadequate basic amenities No Guest house facility. No recreational facilities. Inadequate Canteen facilities Lack of R&D infrastructure Non replacement of the obsolete equipment. Imbalance between expenses and revenue generated Table 3: SWOT Analysis of the college [Process] PROCESS STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES ☺ Supportive management body ☺ Potentiality to tap the resources from the funding agencies ☺ Adaptability to change ☺ Sincere and obedient students ☺ Successful ISTE chapter Improper Organizational structure Inadequate financial assistance Non availability of the Resource Persons Non streamlined administration Lack of empowerment Lack of recognition Lack of Administrative knowledge Unscientific recruitment process with higher inbreeding. No Benchmarking of any of the activities No MIS in the system Lack of student activities Inadequate student support system No student counseling No parents interaction Low quality input Rural and Semi urban background input Lack of Technical activities Lack of publication Poor Industry Institute Interaction Poor Consultancy No Appraisal systems Inefficient utilization of manpower resources Poor Placement facilities Poor transparency in the avenues available for staff development Poor communicational channel between staff and administration Lack of liaison between external environment and the institute for enhancing consultancy. Lack of image building activity. Poor Alumni association Lack of interdisciplinary activities Lack of confidence in the system by the students.
  5. 5. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME 22 4. THRUST AREAS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COLLEGE 4.1Thrust areas SWOT analysis revealed the scope for improvement. Broad thrust areas identified are student development and staff development. Table 4: SWOT Analysis of the college [Product] PRODUCT STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES ☺ Excellent Academic Results ☺ Sincere, hardworking and well disciplined students ☺ Good representation of student projects with many awards won at the state level contests like “SHRISTI”. Insufficient value added courses Lack of Industrial Awareness Lack of Pragmatism Weak profile in personality development Poorly conducted Alumni activities Lack of awareness to competitive exams like GATE/CAT etc. Lack of Self confidence. Table 5: SWOT Analysis of the college [Opportunities & Threats] OPPORTUNITIES & THREATS OPPORTUNITIES THREATS ☺ Reputed Engineering College in the district ☺ Bellary identified as Steel District ☺ Supportive Management ☺ Scope for lot of Steel and Allied industries ☺ High demand for IT sector supported by IT policies ☺ Application of technology in Government works ☺ Recognition of educational Institutions as a certifying authority and training centre. ☺ Growth of Internet facility and Distance learning program. ☺ Supportive Industry ☺ Government focus on infrastructure and rural development ☺ Good Transportation facilities ☺ Quality consciousness in society ☺ Privatization of PSU’s. ☺ Demand for consulting services. ☺ Proximity to commercial centers. ☺ Funding support from various funding agencies Like MHRD, VTU, AICTE VTU curriculum Opening up of more number of Engineering colleges Non availability of high quality academicians Imbalanced focus on IT sector Average input quality Rapid technological changes Tapering of funds Lack of Governments vision towards technical education Politicizing the education Low profile of Industry Institute Interaction Lack of concern and support from the industries for education
  6. 6. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME 23 4.2 Goals and Objectives Goals and objectives have basically the same meaning. However, it is possible to differentiate between the two by using goals for long-term planning and objectives for short- term planning. The goal is to win the war; the objective is to capture the bridge [7]. For the student development the major goals identified are Academic Excellence, Overall Personality development, Value Addition, Staff-Student Interaction, Student Welfare Activity, Placement and Career counseling. And for each of the goals various objectives have been identified. They are detailed out in Table 6. Similarly for the staff development the major goals identified are Technical knowledge up gradation, HRD and Managerial skills, Career growth. The detailed objectives are shown in Table 6. The financial outlay of resources for the five years in terms of recurring and non- recurring funds required for the development has been devised. The important initial outlay were centered on Basic amenities for students, library and office automation, teaching aids, transportation avenues, staff quarters, phase wise modernization of different laboratories, training for the non-teaching staff, setting up of HRD cell, modernization of computer center, Seminar/conference hall, establishment of Memorandum of understanding with different institutions and industries and establishment of R&D center. Table 6: Thrust areas, Goals and Objectives of the college THRUST AREAS GOALS OBJECTIVES Student Development Academic Excellence Good Results with reduced drop outs Attracting Meritorious Students. Equip with the state of Art Technology Increase employability Platform for Technical Activities. Overall Personality development Increase employability Enhance communication Skills Build Self Esteem and Self confidence To develop Leadership qualities. To develop Professionalism Value Addition Prepare to the Market requirements Enhance job opportunities Self Employability Additional qualification Staff-Student Interaction Create congenial Learning environment Develop Openness Develop Channel of informal feedback Student Welfare Activity To provide basic amenities To increase sense of Belongingness To develop sense of Security Establish Parent Institute Interaction Placement and Career counseling Image building in Industrial sector Increase employability Establish Information Centre Vocational training Enhance campus placement recruitment Staff Development Technical Knowledge Upgradation Academic Excellence In tune with technology Teach effectively Develop R&D capability Imbibe forecasting and proactive attitude. HRD & Managerial skills To be more effective in Profession To be a facilitator Develop Leadership and communicational skills, Optimal utilization of Resources. Career growth To motivate To develop awareness of Responsibilities and Accountability
  7. 7. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, March - April (2014), pp. 18-24 © IAEME 24 5. CONCLUSION The strategic quality planning was initiated by conducting two day workshop in the college by involving top management representatives, principal, representatives from various departments, office and administrative staff and a few alumni representing different organizations. The SWOT analysis highlighted, what constitutes excellence in an educational institute, as perceived by the stakeholders and based upon which the Strategic planning is suitably designed. It established the scope that was available for improvement, progress that was taking place and gave an indication of culture that prevails thereby identifying the thrust areas for development satisfying as many stakeholders as possible and keeping alive the quality movement in the case study as presented above. The methodology used for assessment of the environment in the institution can be generalized for most of the colleges. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Huseyin Gul, “SWOT Analysis of Technical Education and the Evaluation of its Effectiveness”, World Applied Science Journal 4 (supple 1): 45-50, 2008 [2] Hax. A.C. and N.S. Maijluf (1996), The Strategy Concept and Process: a Pragmatic Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. [3] Rowley, D. J., Lujan, H. D., & Dolence, M.G. (1997). Strategic Change in Colleges and Universities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. [4] Moving Forward: A 2010-2015 Strategic plan for UGSS EROS, Department of the interior, U.S. Geological Survey, January 12m 2010. [5] ( [6] A Case study on SWOT Analysis & IDP Action Plan Preparation for JCEM, June- August 2010. [7] George P. Bohan, “Focus the Strategy to Achieve Results,” Quality Progress (july 1995): 89-92. [8] Dr.V.Antony Joe Raja, “World Market Statistical Survey in Stakeholders: International Level Enhancing Business Efficiency Through Company Ethical Behavior”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), Volume 5, Issue 1, 2014, pp. 23 – 30, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6324, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6332. [9] C.Ramanigopal, “Knowledge Management Strategies in Higher Education”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 20 - 29, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6324, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6332. [10] Irfan Gulbarga, Dr.Soam V Chetty and Dr. Jagadeesh P Ganjigatti, “NN/BRT Based Model for Evaluating Impact of TQM on Higher Technical Education”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 518 - 531, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [11] E. Raj Kumar and K.Annamalai, “An Investigation on Faculty Development and Retention in Technical Education”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 117 - 125, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. [12] K.L. Jeyaraj,C. Muralidharan, T. Senthilvelan and S.G. Deshmukh, “A Hybrid Business Strategy Selection Process for a Textile Company using SWOT and Fuzzy Anp–A Case Study”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 124 - 143, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.