30120140506007

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30120140506007

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 64-69 © IAEME 64 HYBRID COMPOSITES- A CONCEPT OF ECOLOGICAL, BIO INSPIRED AND SYNERGISTIC STRENGTHENING MATERIAL BRIJESH PATEL PhD scholar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering & IT, MATS University, Raipur (C.G.) ANIL MURLIDHAR BISEN Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering & IT, MATS University, Raipur (C.G.) J V SAI PRASANNA KUMAR Associate Professor, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering, Tagore Engineering College, Chennai (T.N.) ABSTRACT This paper gives the brief introduction of Hybrid Composites, how it forms and its types. The incorporation of several different types of fibers (Bio fibers, Synthetic Fibers & Metal fibers) into a single matrix has led to the development of hybrid composites. In special cases there may be two resins systems combined to form the Hybrid Composites like an interpenetrating network. The behavior of hybrid composites is the total sum of the individual components in which there is a more constructive balance between their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper the individual studies on various fibers and resins have described. Keywords: Fibres; Composites; Hybrid; Material; INTRODUCTION The combination of numerous different types of fibers (Bio fibers, Synthetic fibers & Metal fibers) into a single matrix or it may be two resin systems which led to the development of hybrid composites. The behavior of hybrid composites is total addition of the individual components in which there is a more favorable balance between the intrinsic advantages and disadvantages. Using a INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 64-69 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/IJMET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 64-69 © IAEME 65 hybrid composite which contains two or more types of fiber, the merits of one type of fiber could compensate with what are lacking in the other. This result a balance in cost and performance can be achieve by proper material design. Properties of a hybrid composite usually depend upon the fiber value, length of individual fibers, direction, extent of combination of fibers, fiber to matrix bonding and arrangement of both the fibers. Highly favorable hybrid material results are obtained when the fibers are highly strain compatible. Fig. 1: Hybrid materials combine the properties of two (or more) colossal materials, or of one material and space. They include fibrous and particulate composites, foams and, sandwiches and almost all natural materials. One might imagine two further dimensions: those of shape and scale I. CONCEPT OF HYBRIDIZATION There is a certain duality about the way in which hybrids are categorized. Some, like filled polymers, composites, wood or metals are treated as materials in their own right, each characterized by its own set of material properties. Others—like steel—are seen as one material (steel) to which a coating of a second (zinc) has been applied, even though this could be regarded as a new material with the strength of steel but the surface properties of zinc (“stinc”, perhaps?). Sandwich panels illustrate the duality, sometimes viewed as two sheets of face-material separated by a core material, and sometimes—to allow comparison with bulk materials—as a “material” with their own density, flexural stiffness and strength. To call any one of these a “material” and characterize it as such is a useful shorthand, allowing designers to use existing methods when designing with them. But if we have to design the hybrid, we have to deconstruct it, and think of it as a combination of materials (or of material and space) in a defined geometry.
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 64-69 © IAEME 66 Fig. 2: possibilities of hybridization. The properties of the Hybrid reflect those of its component materials, combined in one of several possible ways A hybrid material is a combination of two or more materials in a pre arranged specific geometry and scale, optimally serve a specific engineering purpose. Hence we say that hybrid composites as “a + b + shape + scale”. Here we allow for the widest possible choice of a and b, including the possibility that one of them is a gas or simply Space. These new variables expand the design space, allowing an optimization of properties that is not possible if choice is limited to single, monolithic Materials. II. DESIGN OF HYBRIDIZATION The properties of the hybrid system containing two components can be predicted by the rule of mixtures PH = P1 V1 + P2 V2 [1] Where ‘PH’ is the property to be investigate, ‘P1’ the corresponding property of the first system and ‘P2’ the corresponding property of the second system. ‘V1’ and ‘V2’ are the relative hybrid volume fractions of the first and second system and therefore V1 + V2 = 1 [2] A positive or negative hybrid effect is defined as a positive or negative deviation of a various mechanical property from the rule of hybrid mixture.
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 64-69 © IAEME 67 The term hybrid effect has been used to describe the phenomenon of perceptible synergistic enhancement in the properties of a composite containing two or more types of fiber[5]. The selection of the components that manufacture hybrid composite is determined by the purpose of hybridization, requirements to be imposed on the material or the construction being designed. The problem of selecting the type of compatible fibers and the level of their properties is of prime importance when designing and producing hybrid composites. The flourishing use of hybrid composites is determined by the chemical, mechanical and physical strength of the fiber / matrix system. Hybrid fiber reinforced polymer composites are more in demand and ease in manufacturing, the challenge is to replace conventional glass reinforced plastics with biocomposites that exhibit structural and functional stability during storage and use and yet are Susceptible to environmental degradation upon disposal. An interesting approach in fabricating biocomposites of superior and desired properties include efficient and cost effective chemical modification of fibred, judicious selection if fibers, matrix modification by functionalizing and blending and efficient processing techniques. Fig 3: Tri corner approach in designing of high performance biocomposites III. TYPES OF HYBRID COMPOSITES A. BIOFIBER-SYNTHETIC-FIBER COMPOSITE Hybrid biocomposites can be designed by the combination of a synthetic fiber and natural fiber (bio fiber) in a matrix and a combination of two natural fiber / bio fiber in a matrix. Hybridization with glass fiber provides a method to improve the mechanical properties of natural fiber composites and its effect in different modes of stress depends on the design and construction of the composites [11]. The effect of hybridization of glass fiber in thermo set biocomposites has been discussed in detail [7].
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 64-69 © IAEME 68 A negative hybrid effect was experimentally observed for the tensile strength and Young’s modulus while a positive hybrid effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites will increased with the addition of glass fibers. In general, composite containing 10% glass fiber gave an optimum tensile and impact strength for treated and untreated hybrid composites. Tensile properties were found to increase with addition of coupling agent. These hybrid cellular bio fiber-based composites were found to provide an economic and environmentally friendlier alternative to entry-level synthetic composites. B. BIOFIBER- BIOFIBER COMPOSITE Another innovative approach to hybrid composites is the integration of two natural fibers in a matrix system. The mechanical performance of shortly & randomly oriented by reinforced polyester composites which was reference to the relative volume fraction of the two fibers at a constant total fiber loading of 0.40 volume fraction (Vf). A positive hybrid effect will obtained in the flexural strength and flexural modulus of the hybrid composites. The tensile strength of the composites showing a positive hybrid effect when the relative volume fraction of the two fibers was varied, and maximum tensile strength was found in the hybrid composite. C. HYBRID TEXTILE BIOCOMPOSITES The development of textile technologies such as weaving, knitting and braiding has resulted in the formation of composites that have superior mechanical properties, where as continuous orientation of fibers will not be restricted at any point. In applications where more than one fiber orientation is required, a fabric combining 0° and 90° fiber orientations is useful. Woven fabrics which is formed by the interlacing of warped (0°) fibers and weft (90°) fibers in a regular pattern or weaved style. The fabric's integrity is maintained by the mechanical interlocking of the fibers. Drape which means the ability of a fabric to conform to a complex surface, surface softness and stability of a fabric are controlled principally by the weave style. D. SYNTHETIC METAL FIBRES COMPOSITES This is the innovative composite material in which Includes micro-synthetic or macro- synthetic fibers and metal fibers. The micro-synthetic fiber category includes monofilament and fibrillated polypropylene or monofilament nylon fibers. Macro-synthetic fibers have no standard configuration. Metal fibers which are of circular, rectangular or shaped circular in cross-section. The various standard configurations which have are constantly deformed, end deformed or hooked end. IV. CONCLUSION Hence incorporation of several different types of fibers into a single matrix has led to the development of hybrid composites. The behavior of hybrid composites is a weighed sum of the individual components in which there is a more favorable balance between the inherent properties of individual material. Also, using a hybrid composite that contains two or more types of fiber, the advantages of one type of fiber could complement with what are lacking in the other.
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 64-69 © IAEME 69 REFERENCES [1] GuruRaja M. N, A. N. HariRao, “Hybrid effects on tensile properties of carbon/glass angle ply composites”, Advances in Materials 2013; 2(3): 36-41. [2] Girisha.C, Sanjeevamurthy, Gunti Rangasrinivas, Manu.S, “Mechanical Performance of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy-Hybrid Composites”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) 2248-9622 September- October 2012. [3] Ion DINCĂ, Adriana ŞTEFAN, Ana STAN, “Aluminum/glass fibre and aluminum/carbon fibre hybrid laminates” INCAS BULLETIN, Volume 2, Number 2/ 2010. [4] R.T. Durai Prabhakaran, Tom L. Andersen, C.M. Markussen, Bo Madsen, Hans Lilholt “TENSILE AND COMPRESSION PROPERTIES OF HYBRID COMPOSITES – A COMPARATIVE STUDY” ICCM19. [5] F.R Jones. (1994), Handbook of Polymer Composites, Longman Scientific and Technical. [6] A Bakar., A Hariharan., Abdul Khalil (2005) H.P.S J. Comp. Mater. 39 8 663. [7] D Ray., J Rout (2005) , Natural Fibers, Biopolymers and Biocomposites Edited by Mohanty A.K., Misra M., Drzal L.T., CRC Press 347. [8] G Mehta., A.K.Mohanty, K Thayer., M Misra., L.T Drzal (2005) Journal of Polymers and the Environment 13 2. [9] Kromm FX, Quenisset JM, Harry R, Lorriot T. An example of multimaterial design. Adv Eng Mater 2002; 4:371–4. [10] Maya Jacob, K.T. Varughese and Sabu Thomas, “Durability and ageing characteristics of hybrid bio-fiber reinforced natural rubber biocomposites”, Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy 1, 118-126, 2007. [11] B Singh., M Gupta., A Verma (1995) Const. Build. Mater., 9 39. [12] S.Shankar, Dr.H.K.Shivanand and Santhosh Kumar.S, “Experimental Evaluation of Flexural Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 504 - 510, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [13] Ajay Dev Boyina, M. Vijaya Sekhar Babu, K. Santa Rao and Dr. P.S. Rao, “Investigation of Mechanical Behaviour of Ilmenite Based Al Metal Matrix Particulate Composites”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 111 - 115, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [14] R. Anbazhagan and Dr.G.P. Rajamani, “Review on Polyurethane-Matrix Nano Composites, Processing, Manufacturing and Application”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 722 - 729, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [15] V.Suresh, Dr. R.Sivasubramanian and R.Maguteeswaran, “Study and Investigation of Analysis of Metal Matrix Composite”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 171 - 188, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [16] Siddhant Datta, B.M. Nagabhushana and R. Harikrishna, “A New Nano-Ceria Reinforced Epoxy Polymer Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 248 - 256, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.

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