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  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), pp. 78-83 © IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) IJMET ©IAEME INVESTIGATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF E-GLASS AND FLYASH REINFORECED AL 8011 BASED HYBRID COMPOSITES 1 Yogananda A, 2 Dr. H. K. Shivanand, 3 Santhosh Kumar S 1 Research Scholar, Bangalore University, UVCE, Bangalore-01 Associate Professor, University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering (UVCE), Bangalore-01 3 Assistant Professor, R N Shetty Institute of Technology, Bangalore-98 2 ABSTRACT The objective of present investigation is to study the effect of reinforcements on the Mechanical properties of E-Glass short fibres and Flyash reinforced Al 8011 hybrid. The alloy of Al 8011 reinforced with E-glass and fly ash particulates are prepared by using graphite die for casting. The MMC is obtained for different composition of E-glass and flyash particulates (varying E-glass with constant fly ash and varying flyash with constant E-glass percentage). The test specimens are prepared as per ASTM standard to conduct tensile and compression tests. Keywords: E-Glass, Flyash, Stir Casting, Metal Matrix Composite, Al 8011 I. INTRODUCTION A composite material is a heterogeneous solid consisting of two or more different materials that are mechanically or metallurgically bonded together. Composite materials in this regard represent nothing but a giant step in the ever constant endeavor of optimization in the materials. Composite material offer flexibility in design i.e., one can make material as per specification of an optimum design. Now a days the particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composite are gaining importance because of their low cost with advantages like isotropic properties and the possibility of secondary processing facilitating fabrication of secondary components. Cast aluminium matrix particle reinforced composites have higher specific strength, specific modulus and good wear resistance as compared to unreinforced alloys .While investigating the opportunity of using fly-ash as reinforcing element in the aluminium melt, R.Q.Guo and P.K.Rohatagi observed that the high electrical resistivity, low thermal conductivity and low density of fly-ash may be helpful for making 78
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME a light weight insulating composites. The particulate composite can be prepared by injecting the reinforcing particles into liquid matrix through liquid metallurgy route by casting. Casting route is preferred as it is less expensive and amenable to mass production. Among the entire liquid state production routes, stir casting is the simplest and cheapest one. The only problem associated with this process is the non uniform distribution of the particulate due to poor wet ability and gravity regulated segregation. Gonzalez – Doncel. G., [1] investigated the mechanical behavior and the changes in the orientation of Al – 4% Cu-0.1% Fe single crystals during tensile deformation at room temperature. Kato Hiroshi and Cahoon [5] studies the tensile properties of directionally solidified Al – 4 Wt % Cu alloys with columnar and equiaxed grains. Shyong J.H [6] reported, the deformation characteristics of aluminium alloy 6061 reinforced with particulate SiC particulate 3, 10 and 30 micro meter size by varying the SiC vol percentage(0.5, 10 and 20 %) using experimental numerical methods. They measured tensile strength and stiffness of the composite subjecting the matrix to dispersoid content. They observed that the tensile strength and stiffness of the composites were found to increase with the increasing particle content (volume fraction) for heat treatment provided that it was over a limiting value. Choon Weng wong, Manoj Gupta [8] studied aluminium based metallic matrices having varying weight fractions of copper(1 wt% Cu and 4.5 wt% Cu) were reinforced with SiC particulates using a partial liquid phase casting technique. The results of their investigation showed smaller sized and higher weight percent of copper in the matrix. According to S.P. Divecha, S.G.Fishman & S.D.Karmakar [9] a new class of composites SiC reinforced aluminum developed exhibited promising improvement in tensile strength (30 – 50%) over unreinforced alloy. They also illustrated extremely low ductility composite fabrication from potentially cheap constituents II. EXPERIMENTAL a. MATERIALS Aluminium alloy 8011 with copper as the primary alloying element is selected has a base material for present investigation. Flyash and short E-Glass fibers are selected as a reinforcement material. The present study is mainly concentrated on effect of reinforcement on composites. b. FABRICATION OF COMPOSITES A stir casting consisted of a resistance Muffle furnace and a stirrer assembly, was used to fabricate the composites. The melting range of Al 8011 alloy is of 700 – 8000C. A known quantity of Al 8011 ingots were pickled in 10% NaOH solution at room temperature for 10 min. Pickling was done to remove the surface impurities. The cleaned ingots after drying in air were loaded into the Graphite crucible of the furnace for melting. The melt was super heated to a temperature of 8000C and maintained at that temperature. The molten metal was then degassed using Hexo chloro ethane tablets for about 8min. Then reinforcements are added to molten metal and stirring has been done. After few minutes of stirring, the liquid metals with reinforcements are poured into the dies to get the required castings. Finally the casted specimens obtained were machined on a CNC Lathe according to ASTM standards for Tension and Compression test. 79
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Fig. 1: Adding Reinforcent Materials Fig. 2: Stirring after Adding Reinforcements c. TESTING OF COMPOSITES Tension Test While subjecting a prepared of specimen of specified shape and size to a gradually increasing uni-axial load (force) until failure occurs, simultaneous observations are made on the elongation of the specimen. The operation is accomplished by gripping opposite ends of the work piece and pulling it, which results in elongation of test specimen in a direction parallel to the applied load. The ultimate tensile strength tests were done in accordance with ASTM E8-82 standards. The tensile specimens of diameter 10mm and gauge length 60mm were machined from the cast specimens with the gauge length of the specimens parallel to the longitudinal axis of the casting. Compression Test Specimens were machined according to ASTM [E9] standards. Diameter=20mm and length=20mm and test was conducted on the computerized UTM. It can be seen that the compressive strength of the hybrid composites increases monotonically as the reinforcement contents are increased. Earlier researchers observed similar results, when they conducted tests on whiskers reinforced composites. 80
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS a. Tensile Test Results Specimen C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 Peak Load in KN 8.20 6.30 8.50 8.80 9.20 8.40 9.2 9.6 9.4 9.9 10.62 10.41 10.43 10.85 10.16 10.00 9.47 9.09 9.10 5.85 Average Peak Load in KN 7.25 8.65 8.8 9.4 9.65 10.51 10.64 10.08 9.28 7.47 % of elongation 7.02 5.56 8.08 8.02 11.26 7.62 8.24 10.24 9.70 10.15 7.22 9.90 8.08 10.80 9.66 7.24 9.14 8.56 11.84 4.76 Average % of elongation 6.29 8.05 9.42 9.24 9.92 8.56 9.44 8.45 8.85 8.3 Tensile strength In MPa 107.38 81.67 111.31 114.77 121.95 114.13 117.16 122.96 120.26 126.27 135.32 132.67 132.86 138.23 129.43 127.32 120.67 115.78 113.12 74.23 Average Tensile strength In MPa 94.67 113.04 118.04 120.06 123.26 133.39 135.54 128.37 118.22 93.67 Table 1: Tensile Test Results Fig. 3: Comparative Bar Chart of Tensile Strength with Al 8011 It is clear that ultimate tensile strength increases with increase in percentage composition of constituent material with Aluminium 8011. The increase in ultimate tensile strength is due to the addition of E-glass fiber which gives strength to the matrix alloy there by enhanced resistance to tensile stresses, there is a reduction in the inter-spatial distance between the particles this leads to restriction to plastic flow due to the random distribution of the particulate in the matrix. 81
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME b. Compression Test Results Specimen C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2 Peak Load In KN 100.080 104.940 108.060 153.360 117.660 189.300 44.460 50.280 51.900 100.140 116.280 106.620 41.400 84.00 121.080 78.300 103.860 109.440 102.720 98.400 Average Peak Load In KN 102.51 130.71 153.48 47.37 76.02 111.45 62.7 99.69 106.65 100.56 Compression Strength In Mpa 759.83 796.73 807.89 1146.57 885.08 1123.99 332.40 375.91 392.82 757.95 881.47 808.24 318.73 631.88 915.03 591.73 774.12 811.98 771.51 740.20 Average Compression Strength In Mpa 814.41 977.23 1004.53 354.15 575.38 844.85 475.30 753.38 793.05 755.85 Table 2: Compressive Strength Results Fig. 4: Comparative Bar Chart of Compression Strength From the above results, It is seen that the compressive strength of the Al 8011 based hybrid composites increases monotonically as reinforcement contents are increased. The increase in compressive strength is mainly due to the decrease in the inter-particle spacing between the particulates since fly ash powder and E-glass fiber are much harder than Al8011 alloy. The presence of E-glass fiber and fly ash resists deforming stresses and thus enhancing the compressive strength of the composite material. 82
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME IV. o o o o CONCLUSIONS New MMC’s can be synthesized by liquid metallurgy technique successfully with enhanced properties using low cost E glass and Fly ash particulate reinforcement. Stir and permanent mould castings can be obtained with microscopically uniform distribution of particles. The tensile strength of the hybrid composite material increases monotonically up to 8% of fly ash. The increase in tensile strength may be due to the addition of e-glass fiber acting as barriers to dislocations in the microstructure. The results obtained from the tensile and compression test of the ascast specimens showed that as the E-glass and Flyash content in the composite is increase, the tensile and compression strength of the hybrid composite materials increases monotonically by significant amounts. On the addition of E-Glass and flyash there was an increase in strength because E-Glass and Flyash gives higher strength when compared with base alloy Al 8011. V. REFERENCES [1] M.A.Gonzalez-nunez, C.A.Numez-Lopez, P.Skeldon, G.E.Thompson, H.Karimzadeh, P.Lyon, & T.E.Wilks,1995, “A non-chromate conversion coating for magnesium alloys and magnesium-based metal matrix composites”, Corrosion Science, vol.37(11), , pp.1763-1772. [2] Laffin C.L. and Lopez H.F,1997, “Corrosion Protection of Aluminium Metal-Matrix Composites”, Corrosion-December, pp 920-927. [3] Srinivasan and Sreeram L.H. Hihara and R.M. Latanision,1994, “Corrosion of metal matrix composites” International Materials Reviews, vol.39, No.6, pp 245-263. [4] Lim S.C, Liu.Y & Tong.M.F.,7-10 Sept,1992, “The effects of sliding condition and particle volume fraction on the unlubricated wear of aluminium alloy-SiC particle composites”, Proc. Conf. On Processing Properties and Applications of Metallic and Ceramic Materials, Birmingham, pp.485-491. [5] Kato Hiroshi and Cahoon L.H.Hihara and R.M.Latansion,July 1992, “Galvanic corrosion of Aluminium-Matrix Composites”, Corrosion, pp 546-552. [6] Shyong J.H et al, Materials Science & Engineering,Jun 30 1995, A Structural Materials; properties, Microstructure and processing, Vol.A197, N 1, pp 11-18. [7] Cui Y Geng,May 15 1997, journal of Materials Science Letters Vol. 16, N10, pp.788-790. [8] Choon weng wong, Manoj Guptha, Lilu,Feb 2004, J of Matl. Sc. & Tech vol. 20, pp.34-42. [9] S.P. Divecha , S.G.Fishman & S.D.Karmakar , J.1981, Molecular view of the interfacial adhesion in aluminum‐silicon carbide metal‐matrix composites Metals.. [10] M. Nayeem Ahmed, Dr. P. Vijaya Kumar, Dr. H.K. Shivanand and Syed Basith Muzammil, “A Study on Flexural Strength of Hybrid Polymer Composite Materials (E Glass FibreCarbon Fibre-Graphite) on Different Matrix Material by Varying its Thickness”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 274 - 286, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [11] R.Maguteeswarana, Dr. R.Sivasubramanian and V.Suresh, “Methodology Study and Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Metal Matrix Composites”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 217 - 224, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [12] S.Shankar, Dr.H.K.Shivanand and Santhosh Kumar.S, “Experimental Evaluation of Flexural Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 504 - 510, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 83