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  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), pp. 55-63 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET ©IAEME DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PARABOLIC DISH COLLECTOR’S EFFICIENCY UNDER DIFFERENT SEASONS IN BHOPAL (M.P) 1 Ajay Vardhan, 1 A.C. Tiwari, 2 Sunil Hotchandani, 3 Arvind Kaushal 1 2 University Institute of Technology-RGPV, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001 Department of Civil Engineering (Environment Engineering), Bhagwant University, Ajmer (Raj)-305009 3 Samrat Ashok Institute of Technology, Vidisha (M.P.)-464001 ABSTRACT Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) harnesses the sun’s solar energy to produce electricity. This report provides a technical analysis of the potential for CSP to provide low cost renewable electricity in Bhopal (M.P.) and outlines the impact of different seasons on Collector’s efficiency. Yields of CSP Plants depend strongly on site-specific meteorological conditions. Meteorological parameters that can influence the performance of CSP plant are Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), wind, ambient air temperature and humidity. The concentrated solar thermal power system constructed for this system follows that of conventional design of a parabolic concentrator with the receiver place along the line between the center of the concentrator and the sun. For the current system, with a C.R. of 77, the concentrator is theoretically capable of producing temperature upwards to 658 degrees centigrade. This study investigates the potential for our intervention to accelerate the deployment of small-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) in various parts of Bhopal (M.P.) Keywords: Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), DNI-Direct Normal Irradiance, Insolation, Concentration Ratio (CR) INTRODUCTION The basic principle of solar thermal collection is that when solar radiation is incident on a surface (such as black body) a part of this radiation is absorbed and causes to increase the temperature of the surface. The typical solar flux concentration ratio typically obtained is at the level of 30–100, 100–1000, and 1000–10000 for trough, tower and dish systems, respectively. The solar radiation incident on the Earth’s surface is comprised of two types of radiation- beam and diffuse, ranging in the wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared (300 to 200 nm), which is characterized by an average solar surface temperature of approximately 6000 degree Kelvin. The 55
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME amount of this solar energy that is intercepted is 5000 times greater than the sum of all other inputs – terrestrial, nuclear, geothermal and gravitational energies and lunar gravitational energy. When dealing with solar energy, there are two basic choices. The first is photovoltaics, which is direct energy conversion that converts solar radiation to electricity. The second is solar thermal, in which the solar radiation is used to provide heat to a thermodynamic system, thus creating mechanical energy that can be converted to electricity. In commercially available photovoltaic system, efficiencies are on the order of 10 to 15 percent, where in a solar thermal system, efficiencies as high as 30 percent are achievable. This work focuses on the electric power generation of a parabolic concentrating solar thermal system PARABOLIC GEOMETRY A parabola is the locus of points that moves equal distance from a fixed line and a fixed point. As shown in Fig.1, the fixed line is called the directory and the fixed point is the focus F. The line perpendicular to the directory and passing through the focus F is called the axis of the parabola. The parabola intersects its axis at a point V which called the vertex, which is exactly midway between the focus and the directory. Fig.1 Parabolic Geometry EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURES 1. Introduction This work was focused on the development of a system for converting incoming solar radiation to electrical energy. The system concentrated the incoming solar radiation to power a thermal cycle in which the energy was converted to mechanical power, and subsequently to electrical power. This chapter contains a description of this system and a detailed explanation of how the individual components of the system work. The design, implementation, and testing of the system were conducted at the University Institute of Technology, RGPV, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. 2. Solar Collector To obtain the high temperatures necessary, a concentrating solar collector is needed due to solar radiation being a low entropy heat source. The type chosen was that of the parabolic „dish type. The parabolic dish is a 3.99 meter diameter Channel Master Satellite dish.The dish consists of six fiberglass, pie- shaped, sections which are assembled together to form the parabolic structure of the dish ‟ 56
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME 3. The Receiver The receiver of the solar concentrator system serves as the boiler in the Rankine cycle, thus it needed to be able to handle high temperatures. This first generation receiver was designed with simplicity in mind for characterization of the system. An external type receiver was decided upon for use with the concentrator. The basis behind the design of the receiver was a standard D-type boiler, with a mud (water) drum, steam drum, and down-corners. Because of the extreme temperatures expected at the focal region, in excess of 900 K, the outer housing of the receiver was constructed of stainless steel. The receiver consists of a stainless steel cylindrical water drum and two sets of stainless steel coils housed within a stainless steel welded tube. The outer shell of the boiler is 250m long and 195m in diameter, with an internal volume of 3.245 liters. The water drum is 38.1 mm (1.5 in) tall and 133.5 mm (5.25in) in diameter, with a volume of 0.0402 liters. The inner coils consists of 25.4mm (1/4 inch) stainless steel tubing, one set coiled within the other, with the outer and inner coils consisting of fourteen windings with a diameter of 133.35 mm (5.25in) and six windings with a diameter of 63.5 mm (2.5in), respectively. The outer shell is filled with a molten salt into which the water drum and coils are submerged. The molten salt is known as Draw Salt, which consists of a 1:1 molar ratio of Potassium Nitrate (KNO3 – 101.11 grams per mol) and Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3 – 84.99 grams per mol). There is a total of 19.39 Moles of Draw Salt in the thermal bath; The Draw Salt serves as latent heat storage to allow for continuous heat transfer in the case of intermittent cloud cover and for equal thermal distribution over the water drum and the coils. The receiver is set up to record the inlet, outlet, and thermal bath temperatures, along with the outlet steam pressure. Three stainless steel sleeved K-type thermocouples, with ceramic connectors, are used for temperature measurements. The thermocouples are located at the inlet and exit of the receiver to measure the incoming water and exiting steam temperature. The third thermocouple is submerged halfway into the thermal Draw Salt bath. Figure shows the location of the thermocouples on the receiver. With the receiver assembled, it was then placed at the focal region of the concentrator. The supporting structure for the receiver and the area of the receiver not subject to concentrated solar intensity was then covered with Kaowool Superwool insulation; 4. Steam Turbine It was decided that a single stage impulse turbine would best meet the system requirements of simplicity and use in developing areas. Design plans were purchased from Reliable Industries, Inc. for the T-500 turbine. 5. Working Fluid of Solar Thermal System Since the design of this system was to be kept as simple as possible, water was chosen as the working fluid. If the system were set up off-grid in a field, then a well could be used to supply water for the solar thermal system. In the event that a water-well is unavailable, as was the case here, a reservoir for the water is needed. A steel constructed tank, with a capacity of 13 litres (approx. 3.43 gallons) is used. Because of the conditions for which the system was designed, such as off-grid and emergency use, the water does not need filtered. However, if the water being used is full of debris, maintenance of the system will need to be performed more frequently, thus the use of a screen over the inlet supply line of the pump is suggested, but not necessary. 6. Pump The water is supplied to the system from the tank by use of a Fluid-O-Tech pump located on the underside of the dish. The pump has a small foot print, with the motor having dimensions of 127mm * 114 mm * 109 mm, and the controller, 93 mm * 115 mm * 83mm. The pump has variable speed and power settings, ranging from speeds of 1000 rpm to 3500 rpm, and power settings from 30 57
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME percent to 85 percent. The pump runs off of 100 volt to 110 volt AC, with a maximum power usage of 250 Watts. The power setting on the pump has no affect on the flow rate; it affects the amount of pressure that the pump can overcome at a particular speed. The speeds of the pump, however, directly correspond to the flow rate; the pump is designed for longevity by having an absence of moving parts within the motor, with only a short single shaft inside the pump. The control unit of the pump utilizes a double protection system on the circuit board, with a thermal „cutout to protect the pump and control unit from overheating and current protection for moments of high current peaks caused by overload or seizure of the pump. The original design of the pump was for espresso coffee machines, reverse osmosis system, cooling systems, circuit washing, and/or solar heating systems, thus it was deemed ideal for use in the solar thermal system discussed in this work. ‟ 7. Tracking Tracking of the parabolic dish is done by a combination of satellite dish linear actuators and photo-sensing control units that are commercially available. Due to the need for two axis tracking, two heavy duty linear actuators were used. The actuator for altitude tracking was a SuperJack Pro Brand HARL3018, and the azimuth actuator is a SuperJack Pro Brand VBRL3024. The HARL3018 is a medium duty model, rated for a dynamic load of 600lbs, with an 18 inch stroke length equipped with limit switches. The VBRL3024, a heavy duty actuator, is rated at a dynamic load of 1500 lbs, with a 24inch stroke length and is also limit switch equipped. The heavy duty model was required for the azimuth tracking because of the East and West directional extremes required of the actuator. Each actuator requires 12 to 36 volts and up to 7.5 amps, depending on loading, for operation. 8. Data Acquisition Temperature and pressure had to be constantly monitored and logged throughout the day for numerous days to be able to characterize the solar thermal system. A data acquisition system was implemented in order to avoid having to manually log these values by hand. The data acquisition system consisted of a Windows XP based personal computer, and a National Instruments Signal Conditioning Board (SCB-68). The PC used a Lab VIEW-based program named Surya after the Hindu Sun god, to acquire the temperatures of interest from the solar thermal system. The program displayed the data for quick reference of system operation throughout the day, and it logged all of the measurements with a stamp of when the data was acquired. 9. Power Supply Although the system is designed to produce power, some power must be consumed in order to do so. Power was needed for the linear actuators for positioning of the dish, as well as for operation of the pump. This power was being provided by two 12-volt, valve regulated, deep cycle batteries. The batteries were wired in series to increase the voltage to 24 volts for control of the tracking. 10. Generator/Alternator In order to produce electrical power from the system, a generator has to be coupled with the output shaft of the steam turbine. The generator used was a 443541-10Amp Permanent Magnet DC Generator from Wind stream Power LLC. The generator is capable of producing power at speeds ranging from 0 to 5000 rpm at voltages between 12 and 48 volts. Maximum power production for this particular generator, for 12, 24 and 48 volts is 120,240 and 480 watts, respectively. 58
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME ANALYSIS/RESULTS Formula use for design of collector and analysis 1. Area of collector Surface area of concentrator is calculated by: ‫ܣ‬௖௢௡௖௘௡௧௥௔௧௢௥ ൌ Where ஽మ ܲ ൌ ଼ு ଶగ ଷ௉ Where D is diameter of the collector And d is the depth of the collector 4. Area of receiver 5. Area of base given by ஽మ ‫ܨ‬ൌ ଷ െ ܲଷ ൩ గ ଵ଺ௗ ‫ܣ‬௥௘௖௘௩௘௥ ൌ ‫ܣ‬௕௔௦௘ ൅ ‫ܣ‬௦௜ௗ௘ ‫ܣ‬௕௔௦௘ ൌ గௗ మ ସ ‫ܣ‬௦௜ௗ௘ ൌ ߨ݄݀௥ 6. Area of the side given by For Solar calculation δs ൌ 23.45 sin ቂ360 7. Angle of Declination (δs) 8. Solar Altitude angle ൥ටቀ ସ ൅ ܲଶ ቁ ‫ܣ‬௔ ൌ ସ ൈ ‫ ܦ‬ଶ 2. Aperture area of solar collector/concentrator Aa 3. Focal length of collector F ஽మ ଶ଼ସା୒ౚ ଷ଺ହ ቃ Sin (αs) = sin(L) sin(δs) + cos(L) cos(δs) cos(hs) ି‫ܖܑܛ‬ሺ‫ ܛܐ‬ሻ ‫ܛܗ܋‬ሺ઼‫ ܛ‬ሻ ‫ܛܗ܋‬ሺહ‫ ܛ‬ሻ 9. Azimuthal angle γz γz = 10. Sun rise and Sun set angle Cos(hss) = -tan(L)tan(δs) 11. Time from solar noon Tsn = hss × ௗ௘௚௥௘௘ ସ௠௜௡ 12. Sunrises = 12 - Tsn 13. Sunset 12 + Tsn 14. Length of the day DL = 2 ௛ೞೞ ଵହ ೏೐೒ ೘೔೙ For Radiation calculations 15. Incident angle (i) Cos(i) = cos(ߙ௦ ).cos(ߛ௭ െ ߛ௪ ).sin(ߚ௣ ) + sin(ߙ௦ ). cos(ߚ௣ ) For collector facing the sun The panel tilt angle ߚ௣ is same as the solar altitude angle ߙ௦ i.e ߚ௣ ൌ ߙ௦ and Panel azimuthal angle ߛ௪ is same as solar azimuthal angleߛ௭ i.e ߛ௪ ൌ ߛ௭ 16. Extraterrestrial radiation (Io) ே ೏ ‫ܫ‬௢ ൌ ‫ܫ‬௦௖ ቂ1 ൅ 0.034 cos ቀ360 ଷ଺ହቁቃ షೖ 17. Terrestrial solar radiation at normal incidence (Ibn) ‫ܫ‬௕௡ ൌ ‫ܫ‬௢ ݁‫݌ݔ‬౩౟౤ ഀೞ Value of k taken from the table 1.1 18. Radiation incident on the collector ࡵ࢈ࢉ ‫ܫ‬௕௖ ൌ ‫ܫ‬௕௡ ܿ‫݅ ݏ݋‬ 59
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME 19. Diffuse radiation ࡵࢊࢉ ఈ ‫ܫ‬ௗ௖ ൌ ‫ܥ‬௔௩௘௥௔௚௘ ൈ ‫ܫ‬௕௡ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬ቀ ೞ ቁ Value of C taken from the table 1.1 ଶ ‫ܥ‬௔௩௘௥௔௚௘ = 0.058 ଶ ‫ܫ‬௖௧ ൌ ‫ܫ‬௕௖ ൅ ‫ܫ‬ௗ௖ 20. Total isolation ࡵࢉ࢚ Efficiency Calculations 21. Energy losses from the receiver Qloss ܳ௟௢௦௦ ൌ ‫ܣ‬௥ ܷ௟ ሺܶ௜௡௡௘௥ ௥௘௖௘௩௘௥ ൅ ܶ௔௜௥ ሻ Watt 22. Energy absorber by the receiver ܳ௢௣௧௜௖௔௟ ൌ ‫ܣ‬௔ ߩߙ߬‫ܫݏ‬௕ି௖ watt 23. Total thermal energy produce by the solar collector is calculated by Qout = ܳ௢௣௧௜௖௔௟ െ ܳ௟௢௦௦ watt ߟ௖௢௟௟௘௖௧௢௥ ൌ 24. Efficiency of collector Table 1.1 Average value of optical depth (k) and sky diffuse factor (C) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Sky diffuse factor ‘C’ optical depth ‘k’ 0.05 Nov Dec 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.14 0.25 0.2 0.15 Sky diffuse factor (C) 0.1 Atmospheric optical depth (k) 0.05 Dec Nov Oct Sep Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Jan 0 Feb Month ொ೚ೠ೟ ஺ೌ ூ್೎ Fig.2 variation of sky diffuse factor (C) and Atmospheric optical depth (k) 60
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Calculating efficiency of collector with location: Latitude (L) =23.28oN, Longitude (Llong) =77.35oE MONTH No. of day(Nd) Hour angle (hs) Declination angle (δs) Altitude angle (αs) Azimuthal angle (ࢽz) Sun rise and sun set angle (hss) Time from solar noon (TSN) (HH:MM:SS) Sunrise (HH:MM:SS) Sunset (HH:MM:SS) DL (HH:MM:SS) Incidence angle Cos (i) Optical depth (k) Diffuse factor (C) Extraterrestrial radiation (Io) W/m2 Terrestrial radiation Ibn W/m2 Beam radiation Ibc (W/m2) Diffuse radiation Idc (W/m2) Total insolation Ict (W/m2) Outer temp. Touter (K) Inner temp. Tinner (K) Ambient temp. Tambient (K) Velocity of wind V (m/s) Energy loss Qloss (Watt) Optical energy Qoptical (Watt) Energy out Qout (Watt) ࣁcollector (%) JANUARY 1 0 -23.01 44.06 0 79.47 5:17:52 APRIL 112 0 11.92 78.17 0 95.21 6:20:50 JUNE 173 -30 23.44 62.48 0.97 100.75 6:43:00 AUGUST 229 30 13.12 59.74 -0.96 95.75 6:23:10 OCTOBER 295 60 -12.10 21.53 -0.91 84.70 5:38:49 6:42:50 17:17:00 10:35:42 0.99 0.14 0.05 1398.99 5:43:90 18:20:50 12:41:40 0.40 0.18 0.097 1336.90 5:17:24 18:24:36 13:26:00 0.918 0.20 0.13 1307.61 5:36:58 18:22:48 12:46:00 0.87 0.20 0.12 1320.96 6:43:12 17:16:48 11:17:36 0.682 0.16 0.07 1369.45 1145.39 1133.94 -38.40 1095.53 900 293 293 4.1 999.19 8186.00 7186.81 86.91 1116.67 448.13 4.46 452.59 900 305 302 1.75 615.55 3235.08 2619.53 80 1038.94 850.89 -34.07 816.81 900 370 305 6.52 282.44 6142.64 5860.20 94.44 1049.54 913.10 -126.86 786.24 900 400 297 2.83 1882.88 6591.77 5638.45 86.68 890.83 608.22 -28.39 579.82 900 450 299 2.36 1790.32 4390.78 2591.69 58.43 Declination angle (δs) 40 20 0 -20 -40 Standard meridian (Lsm)=75o Altitude angle (αs) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Declinatio n angle (δs) Fig.3 variation of Declination angle (δs) Altitude angle (αs) Fig.4 variation of Altitude angle (αs) 61
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Azimuthal Angle Sun rise and sun set angle (hss) 1.5 1 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.5 Azimuthal Angle 0 -0.5 Sun rise and sun set angle (hss) -1 -1.5 Fig.5 variation of Declination angle ࢽz Fig.6 variation of Sun rise and Sunset angle Total insolation Ict (W/m2) COLLECTOR'S EFFICIENCY Fig.7 Variation of Total insolation OCTOBER AUGUST JUNE COLLECTO R'S EFFICIENC Y APRIL 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 JANUARY OCTOBER AUGUST JUNE APRIL JANUARY 100 80 60 40 20 0 Total insolation Ict (W/m2) Fig.8 variation of collector efficiency From the above equations 1. 2. 3. 4. Surface area of concentrator A concentrator is 8.05m2 Aperture area of concentrator Aaperture is 7.29m2 Focal length of collector ‘F’ is 1.14m. Area of receiver 0.11m2 CONCLUSION This paper determines the influence of different seasons on collector’s efficiency of CSP. We can conclude that the collector’s efficiency is maximum in month of June at hour angle -30 degree (10 AM) and move from the month June to October efficiency of collector’s subsequently decreases due to decreases in temperature. 62
  9. 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME REFERENCES 1. H. Clifford K and K. Gregory J, “Incorporating Uncertainty into Probabilistic Performance Models of Concentrating Solar Power Plants,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol. 132, Aug. 2010 2. Wagner, M., and C Kutscher. 2010. The Impact of 3. Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling on Concentrating Solar Power Plant Performance. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, ASME. Arizona, USA. 4. Barea, J., Sara, M., and. Silva,M. 2010. Analysis of the influence of the monthly distribution of direct normal radiation in the production of parabolic trough plants using EOS. In Proceedings of SolarPACES 2010. Perpignan, France. 5. Remund, J., Wald, L , Lefèvre, M , Ranchin, T and Page, J 2003. Worldwide Linke turbidity information. In Proceedings of the ISES Solar World Congress 2003. Göteborg, Sweden 6. Hoyer-Klick, C., Hustig,F., Schwandt, M.and Meyer,R., 2009. Characteristic Meteorological Years from Ground and Satellite Data. In Proceedings of SolarPACES 2009. Berlin, Germany. 7. Bella, E., Ramirez, L., Drews, A., Beyer, H.G., Zarzalejo, L.F.., J. Polo, and Martin, “Analysis of different comparison parameters applied to solarline radiation data from satellite and German radiometric stations,” Solar Energy, vol. 83 (2009), Jul. 2008, pp. 118–125. 8. Dharmendra Waiker and Dr. A. C. Tiwari, “An Investigation on Inclination Steam Flowing Tubes on Steam Condensation in a Thermal Power Plant”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 437 - 446, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 9. Prakash Kumar Sahu and Prof.Dr.A.C.Tiwari, “Implement of Solar Energy in Thermal Power Station for Increase Sensible Heat of Makeup Water for Save the Conventional Energy, A Review & Case Study”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 180 - 186, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 10. Ramnarayan Sahu, Dr. A.C.Tiwari and Anupama Yadav, “Implementation of Preventive Maintenance Program in Thermal Power Station: A Review and Case Study”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 685 - 692, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 63