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20320140504007

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 71 INFLUENCE OF THE PARAMETERS OF FORMULATION ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHS OF MORTARS WITH ADMIXTURES AND SUPER-PLASTICIZERS A. Boudchicha1 and J-L Gallias2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Larbi Ben Mehidi University, 04000 Oum Bouaghi, Algeria, (LEMPAU Batna) 2 Laboratories of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Materials, 95 031 Cergy Pontoise France ABSTRACT The use of mineral admixtures in cementing materials can generate significant modifications in the properties of mixes at the fresh and hardened states. These modifications depend generally on the parameters of formulation. To study the influence of the nature and the properties of the constituents of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers on the mechanical strengths, we used seven admixtures different by their mineralogical natures, fineness, and morphological characteristics, two types of cements and two types of super-plasticizers. The experimental methodology used is based on the volume substitution of the cement by admixtures in mixtures with an absolute volume of the solid phases and consistency preserved constant. The main results achieved showed that the mechanical strengths of mortars with admixtures are very influenced by the amount and the properties of admixtures, the nature of cement, but depended rather on the nature of the super-plasticizer used. Keywords: Mortars, Concretes, Admixtures, Super-Plasticizers, Compressive Strengths. 1. INTRODUCTION The use of mineral admixtures and super plasticizers in cementing materials can generate significant modifications on the mechanicals strengths. These modifications depend generally on the nature and the properties of the used admixtures [1-5] or super-plasticizers [6 and 7] and their possible interactions with the used cements [8-11]. To study the influence of the parameters of formulation on the mechanical strengths, we used seven admixtures different by their mineralogical natures, fineness, and morphological characteristics, two types of cements and two types of super- plasticizers. This work follows a previous study which considered the influence of these parameters INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 72 on the fresh properties of mortars [12] and results from a large investigation on the actions of mineral admixtures and super-plasticizers on mortars and concretes [13]. The experimental methodology used was based on the progressive volume substitution of cement by admixtures in mortars of which the absolute volume of the whole constituents are preserved constant and the workability fixed by using super-plasticizers. Then, the adopted approach has permitted to keep constant, the granular effect of admixtures, the absolute volume of the solid constituents of the cement matrix and the compactness of the solid skeleton of mixtures [14 and 15]. To ensure these conditions, the experimental methodology was based on three essential conditions: - The introduction of admixtures into the mixture in a volume substitution of cement, to ensure the maintenance of the absolute volume of the solid constituents of the cement matrix in different mixtures. - The Maintaining constant the consistency of the fresh mix, allowing the introduction and tightening of mortars into the molds in a similar manner. - The Maintaining constant the quantity of water for all the studied mixes, to ensure the maintenance of the compactness of the fresh granular skeleton. This was possible by using super-plasticizers according to NF 934-2 European standard. Under these conditions, the initial porosity and the volume of the cement matrix of mortars remain constant in spite of the nature and the intensity of the granular effect of admixtures in the different mixtures. 2. METHODOLOGIES The procedures followed for the preparation of mortars, test-cubes, vibrating, storage, and measurement of the compressive strengths were accomplished in conformity with NF EN 196-1 standardisation. The preparation of mortars was carried out by using a mixer of a capacity of 5000 cm3 . Water and cement with or without admixtures were introduced into the container in the stop position. The mixer is started at slow speed during sixty seconds, then at fast speed during thirty seconds; the sand is introduced at the first thirty seconds. After stopping the mixer during ninety seconds, it is restarted at fast speed for sixty seconds. The reference workability was evaluated by measuring the spreading of the fresh mortars on a vibrating table. The fresh mortar was placed in two layers and compacted by using a metal stem, in a cone with lower diameter of 100 mm, an upper diameter of 70 mm and a height of 60 mm. After the removal of the cone, the table undergoes 30 jolts in 30 seconds and the value of the considered spreading, constitutes the average of the measurement of spreading of the mixture on two perpendicular directions. For each formulation having acquired the reference workability, we prepared three specimens 40 mm x 40 mm x 40 mm. The introduction of the mortars in the moulds was performed in two layers undergoing a shock table with 60 jolts in 60 seconds per layer. The moulds are then kept in a humid chamber for 24 hours at a temperature of 20°C and a relative humidity of 95 %. After demounting, the mortars specimens are kept immersed in water at a temperature of 20±2°C, until the day of test. The compressive strengths were evaluated at 07 and 28 days, using a machine applying hydraulic compressive loads, up to 150 KN and equipped with a compression device for mortars specimens. The compressive strength of mortar is considered the average value of the breaking stresses of three specimens.
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 73 The experimental procedure required the preparation of 120 formulations. The parameters characterizing the rheological and mechanical properties of the tested mortars were performed in laboratory at temperatures of 20 ± 2°C. To study the influence of the nature and the properties of admixtures on the strengths of mortars with super-plasticizers, we analyzed the variations of compressive strengths at 07 and 28 days for mortars C1 with super-plasticizer SP1 according to the rate of the cement substitution by the different admixtures. To study the influence of the nature of cement on the compressive strengths, we studied these variations at 07 and 28 days of mortars with cement C2 and the two used super-plasticizers, according to the rate of the cement substitution by the used admixtures, and we presented in figures 02 and 03, the correlation between the strengths of mortars with the two used cements. To study the influence of the nature of super-plasticizers on the compressive strengths in mortars C1 and C2 with admixtures, we studied the variation of compressive strengths at 07 and 28 days for the mortars with super-plasticizer SP2, according to the rate of the cement substitution by the used admixtures, and we presented in figures 04 and 05, the correlation between the strengths of mortars with the two used super-plasticizers. The influence of the fineness of admixtures on the compressive strengths of mortars was studied for three admixtures of limestone and two admixtures of Pozzolan of different fineness. We presented in figures 06 and 07 the variation of the compressive strengths at 07 days and 28 days for mortars with super-plasticizer SP1, according to the Blaine fineness (cm²/g) for various rates of cement substitution, and for the two cements used. 3. MATERIALS This study was achieved by using two types of cements used for the manufacturing of concretes in the east of Algeria. These cements have comparable fineness and C3S content, but are different in the C3A content. The used sand is a current sand of river. Four admixtures different by their mineralogical nature and their chemical composition were considered: Limestone (L), Pozzolan (Pz), blast furnace slag (BFS) and silica fume (SF). To analyse the influence of the fineness of admixtures on the compressive strengths, we considered three kinds of limestone admixtures and two kinds of Pozzolan admixtures different by their granularity. Two types of super-plasticizers high water reducer were used in aqueous form, manufactured and marketed in Algeria. The principal characteristics of the used materials are given in tables 01 to 04. Table 1: Physical characteristics of materials used Material Designation Specific gravity [Kg/m3 ] Specific Surface Blaine [cm2 /g] CPJ-CEM II/A 42.5 CPA-CEM I ES 42.5 Limestone 1 Limestone 2 Limestone 3 Pozzolan 1 Pozzolan 2 Blast-furnace slag Silica fume C1 C2 L1 L2 L3 Pz1 Pz2 BFS SF 3100 3150 2700 2700 2700 2650 2650 2800 2240 3200 3020 3300±150 5100±270 8500±180 3500±200 5600±180 2900±120 15* (*): The smoothness of the silica fume was provided by the BET test and was given in m²/g.
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 74 Table 2: Chemical composition of materials used Designation CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO K2O MnO Na2O SO3 LOI C1 C2 L Pz BFS SF 64.36 63.91 55.5 10,10 43.01 20.00 22.00 21.62 - 44,85 40.80 79.00 5.02 4.49 - 17,20 5.20 - 2.94 5.37 0.03 10,50 0.53 - 2.07 1.66 0.80 3,40 6.40 - 0.47 0.25 - 1,60 - - - - - - 3.02 - 0.26 0.08 - 4.05 - - 1.94 1.92 - 1.50 - - 0.64 0.81 43.6 4.10 - 1.00 Table 3: Mineralogical composition of the clinker (Bogue) Minerals (%) C3S C2S C3A C4AF C1 C2 51.28 52.48 24.68 22.69 8.33 2.82 8.94 16.32 Table 4: Characteristics of the used super-plasticizers Characteristics Designation Color Specific gravity [Kg/m3 ] pH Cl- content Dry extract SIKAFLUID MEDAPLAST SP 40 SP1 SP2 Dark Brown Brown 1.20±0.02 1.20±0.01 7.5±1.5 8.2 < 0.1% < 1 g/l 40±2 % 40 % 4. TESTS AND RESULTS 4.1 Compressive strengths of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers Variations of compressive strengths at 07 and 28 days for mortar C1 with super-plasticizers SP1 according to the rate of the cement substitution are represented by figure 1. Figure 1: Variation of the compressive strengths at 07 and 28 days of mortars C1-SP1, according to the rate of the cement substitution by admixtures We can note that the compressive strengths at 07 days and 28 days vary significantly with the mineralogical nature, granular characteristics (fineness) of the built-in admixtures and the rate of the
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 75 cement substitution. We also note that the compressive strengths at 07 days of mortar C1-SP1 with limestone admixtures (L1, L2, and L3), grow at low levels of cement substitution, reach a maximum in the vicinity of 10% of cement substitution and then begin to decline with the rate of the cement substitution by admixtures. For mortars C1-SP1 with (PZ1), (Pz2), (BFS) and (SF) admixtures, the compressive strengths at 07 days decrease directly without any amelioration. This decrease is proportional to the rate of cement substitution by the admixtures and it is more pronounced for mortars with (PZ2) admixtures. Improving of compressive strengths at 07 days reaching levels of 02, 05 and 12% for mortars with (L1), (L2) and (L3) admixtures, respectively, do not occur for compressive strengths at 28 days, which fall directly without any improvement and fall below 90% of the compressive strength of the reference mortar at 10% of the rate of cement substitution by admixtures. For mortars C1- SP1 with (Pz) admixtures, compressive strengths at 28 days are decreasing, with better behavior than at 07 days. For mortars with (BFS) and (SF) admixtures, the compressive strengths increase and reach an evolution of 07% and 16% respectively at 20% of the rate of cement substitution by admixtures, and still greater than the compressive strength of the reference mortar up to 30% of the rate of cement substitution for (SF) admixture. We can therefore conclude that the action of limestone admixtures on cement is limited mainly to accelerate the process of hydration at early ages for low rates of the cement substitution by admixtures [9]. This acceleration is more or less equivalent for all these limestone admixtures, being more pronounced for admixtures of great fineness. Mortars with Pozzolan admixtures present better behavior with cement C2, due probably to the chemical composition of this cement. The compressive strengths are better maintained at 28 days due to the Pozzolanic effects [4 and 5]. The presence of (BFS) admixture in mortars with low rates of the cement substitution (<20%) maintains the compressive strength at 07 days and provides interesting strength evolution at 28 days. Gain strength in mortars with (BFS) admixture is probably due to latent hydraulic properties of slag, classified by the European standard 206-1 as admixture of Type II [2]. The use of combined silica fume with SP1 in mortars C1 has limited the fall in compressive strength at 07 days and procured gains of strengths by 16% for mortars C1-SP1 at 20% of the rate of cement substitution. This behavior is explained by the fact that the ultra-fine grains of silica fume penetrate between the cement hydrates and prevent them from developing at early stages of hydration [12]. The development of Pozzolanic action of silica fume that is classified by the European standard 206-1 as admixture of type II, improves significantly the strengths against of the reference mortar especially after that the adverse granular effect could be controlled by the use of super-plasticizers [1 and 13]. The contribution of mineral admixtures to improve the compressive strengths at 07 and 28 days is confirmed by several authors. The improving behavior of mortars with admixtures and super- plasticizers is mainly due to the capacity of some ultrafine admixtures to fulfill the inter-particles pores of the cementing material [1,4,5,12-14] or to the control of the adverse granular effect for some admixtures by using super-plasticizers [6,12-14] or by the improvement of the hydration process for others [1-3,7,8-10,11,14-16]. 4.2 Influence of the nature of cement on the compressive strengths of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers We can see in figure 02 that the majority of the experimental points of compressive strengths at 07 days is tangent to the bisector axis in the side of the strengths of mortars C1, which confirms that the compressive strengths of mortars with the used admixtures at 07 days are close for both used cements, being generally slightly higher for mortars C1.
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 76 Figure 2: Correlation (C1/C2), of the compressive strengths at 07 days in mortars with super- plasticizers SP1 and SP2 Figure 3: Correlation (C1/C2), of the compressive strengths at 28 days in mortars with super- plasticizers SP1 and SP2 The majority of the experimental points of the compressive strengths at 28 days (figure 3), are placed at the left of the bisector axis, in the side of the mortar C2, confirming that the compressive strengths of mortars with admixtures at 28 days are generally greater for mortars C2 with the two used super-plasticizers. The deviation from the bisector axis is more important for the low rates of cement substitution by admixtures, but tends to be reduced for the high rates. The experimental points of mortars with Pz2 (50%), La (40% and 50%) are visible at the right of the bisector axis, and deviate from the comments advanced before, in the case of the use of super- plasticizers SP2. We can than deduce that the nature of the cement used influence the compressive strengths of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers. This influence is most visible at 28 days than at 07 days, for the two cements used, but it is also more or less influenced by the nature and amount of admixtures in the mixture. This is because these cements have comparable fineness and C3S contents and then, the nature and the properties of the used admixtures become the most important factor of influence [8, 9, 13, 14].
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 77 4.3. Influence of the nature of super-plasticizers on the compressive strengths We note in figures 04 and 05 that the majority of the experimental points of the compressive strengths at 07 days and 28 days are placed at the right of the bisector axis in the side of the strengths of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers SP1. This shows that the compressive strength at 07 days and 28 days of mortar C1- SP1 and C2-SP1 with admixtures are generally greater than those of mortars C1- SP2 and C2-SP2 with admixtures, confirming a better efficiency of the super- plasticizers SP1 on the compressive strengths. The influence of the nature of super-plasticizers on the compressive strengths has been highlighted by several studies [6-7], and the efficiency of the used super-plasticizers is more visible at 28 days. But this efficiency is more or less important because of the inter-actions between the cements and the super-plasticizers used [10-11]. It is also important to note that some super-plasticizers, beyond their physical effect changing the inter-particle forces, may be involved in the chemical processes of hydration and in particular the nucleation and crystal growth [7]. A more uniform distribution of cement could also contribute to the increase in strength because the hydration process is improved. Figure: 4 Correlation (SP2/SP1), for the compressive strengths at 07 days of mortars C1 and C2 with admixtures Figure 5: Correlation (SP2/SP1), for the compressive strengths at 28 days of mortars C1 and C2 with admixtures
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 78 4.4 Influence of the fineness of admixtures on the compressive strengths We can see in figure 6 that at 07 days the behavior of the compressive strengths of mortars C1 and C2 with limestone admixtures is regular and greater fineness increased the strengths by improving the hydration process. For the Pozzolans admixtures, greater fineness results in a reduction of strengths at youth ages. This behavior of mortars with (Pz) admixtures is probably do because the coarse grains of Pozzolan are better able to fill the pores of the granular skeleton and improve the compactness of the cured material. For closer fineness, the compressive strength at 07 days was greater for mortars with limestone admixtures than for mortars with (Pz) admixtures; whatever the nature of the cement used in the mixture and this is especially true as the fineness of the admixture is great. This confirms the role of the limestone admixture in accelerating the process of cement hydration in youth ages and it is more important than the fineness is great. Figure 6: Variation of the compressive strengths at 07 days according to the Blaine fineness in mortars C1 and C2 with super-plasticizers SP1 Figure: 7 Variation of the compressive strengths at 28 days according to the Blaine fineness in mortars C1 and C2 with super-plasticizers SP1 At 28 days (figure 7), the behavior of the compressive strengths at 28 days according to the Blaine fineness for mortars with limestone and Pozzolan is similar. The variation of the compressive strength at 28 days is strongly influenced by the fineness of the admixture and the rate of the cement substitution by the admixture.
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 79 For both the two admixtures, the compressive strengths of mortar at 28 days are even more important than the fineness of the particles is great. The behavior of mortars with limestone admixtures is probably due to the control of the adverse granular effect of the finest admixtures by the use of the super-plasticizers, despite the disappearance of the chemical effect showed at youth ages. The behavior of mortars with (Pz) admixtures is due to the Pozzolanic effect of these admixtures with finer particles, and the control of the adverse granular effects through the use of SP. For closer fineness, the compressive strength at 28 days was greater for mortars with Pozzolan admixtures than for mortars with limestone admixtures; whatever the nature of the cement used in the mixture and this is especially true as the fineness of the admixture and the rate of the cement substitution by the admixtures are important. This confirms the disappearance of the chemical effect of limestone admixtures at 28 days and the declaration of the Pozzolanic effect of pozzolans especially when the fineness is great. We can therefore conclude that the compressive strengths at 07 days and 28 days for mortars with admixtures depend largely on the fineness of admixtures. This influence depends on the nature and the amount of admixture in the mixture as a substitute of cement, but is little influenced by the nature of cement. For the Pozzolan admixtures, greater fineness of the particles causes a decrease in compressive strength at 07 days and an increase at 28 days, for both cements used. These variations are more important than the substitution rate of cements is great. For limestone admixtures, greater fineness of the particles leads to an increase in compressive strength at 07 days and 28 days for both the cement used. These variations are of the same nature for all the rates of the cement substitution by the admixture. 5. CONCLUSIONS The analysis of the variation of the compressive strengths of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers, according to the parameters of formulation of mortars has led to: The action of limestone admixtures on cement is limited mainly to accelerate the process of hydration at early ages at low rates of the cement substitution by admixtures. The action of (Pz) admixtures on cement is limited on the strengths at 28 days and with cement C2 only, due probably to the chemical composition of this cement and to the Pozzolanic effects that declare later. The presence of (BFS) admixture in mortars with low rates of the cement substitution (<20%) maintains the compressive strengths at 07 days and provides interesting strength evolution at 28 days. The use of combined silica fume with super-plasticizers in mortars C1 has limited the fall in compressive strength at 07 days and procured gains of strengths at 28 days, until 20% of the rate of cement substitution. The nature of the cement can influence the compressive strengths of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers. This influence is most visible at 28 days than at 07 days, but it is also more or less influenced by the nature and amount of admixtures in the mixture. The compressive strengths of mortars with admixtures and super-plasticizers SP1 are generally greater than those with SP2, confirming a better efficiency of the super-plasticizers SP1 on the compressive strengths for the used cements. The compressive strengths for mortars with admixtures depend largely on the fineness of the incorporated admixtures. This influence depends on the nature and the amount of admixture in the mixture as a substitute of cement, but is little influenced by the nature of cement.
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 80 For Pozzolan admixtures, greater fineness of the particles causes a decrease in compressive strengths at 07 days and an increase in compressive strength at 28 days, for both cements used. These variations are more important than the substitution rate of cements is great. For limestone admixtures, greater fineness of the particles leads to an increase in compressive strengths at 07 days and 28 days for both cements used. These variations are of the same nature for all the rates of the cement substitution by the admixture. REFERENCES [1] Cyr M., Lawrence P., Ringot E., Efficiency of mineral admixtures in mortars, Quantification of physical and chemical effects of fine admixtures in relation with compressive strength, Cement and concrete research, (2006),Vol. 36, p. 264-277. [2] Hui-sheng Shi, Bi-wan Xu and Xiao-chen Zhou, Influence of mineral admixtures on compressive strength, gas permeability and carbonation of high performance concrete, Construction and Building Materials, (2009), vol. 23, p. 1980-1985. [3] Gonen T., Yazicioglu S., The influence of mineral admixtures on the short and long-term performance of concrete, Build Environ, 42 (8) (2007), p. 3080–3085. [4] Lawrence P., Cyr M., Ringot E., Mineral admixtures in mortars effect of type, amount and fineness of fine constituents on compressive strength, Cement and concrete research, (2005), Vol. 35, p. 1092-1105. [5] Cyr M., Lawrence P., Ringot E., Mineral admixtures in mortars, Quantification of the physical effects of inert materials in relation on short term hydration, Cement and concrete research, (2005), Vol. 35, p. 719-730. [6] Han, V., Ros, S., Shima, H., Effects of sand content, superplasticizer dosage, and mixing time on compressive strength of mortar, ACI Structural Journal (2013), Volume 110, Issue 1, p. 23-31. [7] Roncero, J., Valls, S., Gettu, R., Study of the influence of superplasticizers on the hydration of cement paste using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction techniques, Cement and Concrete Research (2002), pp. 103-108. [8] Hussain, K., Choktaweekarn, P., Saengsoy, W., Srichan, T., Tangtermsirikul, S. Effect of cement types, mineral admixtures, and bottom ash on the curing sensitivity of concrete, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, (2013), Vol. 20, p. 94-105. [9] Lothenbach, B., Le Saout, G., Gallucci, E., Scrivener, K., Influence of limestone on the hydration of Portland cements, (2008) Cement and Concrete Research, 38 (6), pp. 848-860. [10] Hanehara, S., Yamada, K., Interaction between cement and chemical admixture from the point of cement hydration, absorption behaviour of admixture, and paste rheology, Cement and Concrete Research (1999), vol. 29, p. 1159-1165. [11] Erdogdu S., Compatibility of super-plasticizers with cements different in composition, Cement and Concrete Research (2000), vol. 30, p. 767-773. [12] Boudchicha A., Cheikh Zouaoui M., Gallias J.-L., Influence of the Parameters of Formulation on the Fresh Properties of Cementing Materials with Admixtures, Materials Science Forum (2013), Vols. 730-732 (2013) pp 456-461, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland [13] Boudchicha A., Action of admixtures and super-plasticizers on mortars and concretes; Study of the rheological and mechanical properties, European University Editions, November 2011 ISBN: 978-3-8417-8185-7 (in French) [14] Boudchicha A., Cheikh Zouaoui M., Gallias J.-L., Mezghiche B., Analysis of the effects of mineral admixtures on the strength of mortars, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, (2007), Vol. 8, N° 2, p. 87- 96.
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 71-81 © IAEME 81 [15] Bessa, A., Gallias, J.L., Evaluation of the contribution of the mineral admixtures to the flexible activity of cement in the mortars, 21st Universidad Meetings of Civil Engineering, (2003), René Houpert (In French). [16] Lilkov V., Dimitrova E., Petrov O., Hydration process of cement containing fly ash and silica fume: the first 4 hours, Cement and Concrete Research, (1997), Vol. 27, p. 577-592. [17] N. Krishna Murthy, N. Aruna, A.V.Narasimha Rao, I.V.Ramana Reddy and M.Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, “Self Compacting Mortars of Binary and Ternary Cementitious Blending with Metakaolin and Fly Ash”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 369 - 384, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [18] P.S.Joanna, Jessy Rooby, Angeline Prabhavathy, R.Preetha and C.Sivathanu Pillai, “Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams with 50 Percentage Fly Ash”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 36 - 48, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [19] M. Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, Dr.I.V. Ramana Reddy and N.Krishna Murthy, “Experimental Evaluation of the Durability Properties of High Performance Concrete using Admixtures”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 96 - 104, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [20] Alok Verma, M. Shukla and A. K. Sahu, “Use of Superplasticizers in Concrete and their Compatibility with Cements”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 138 - 158, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [21] P.A. Ganeshwaran, Suji and S. Deepashri, “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Self Compacting Concrete with Manufactured Sand and Fly Ash” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 60 - 69, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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