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  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 1 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE PATEEL ALEKHYA1 , Mr. S. ARAVINDAN2 1 IVth sem, M-tech, Civil Engineering Department, Bharath University, Chennai-73, India 2 Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Bharath University, Chennai-73, India ABSTRACT Concrete is the most abundant manmade material in the world. One of the main ingredients in a normal concrete mixture is Portland cement. However, the production of cement is responsible for approximately 5% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. In order to create a more sustainable world, engineers and scientists must develop and put into use a greener building material. This paper will discuss the use of geopolymer concrete as well as consider its ethical issues. Additionally, this paper will explore the areas in which geopolymer concrete outperforms ordinary concrete. Geopolymer concrete uses fly ash and ggbs, a byproduct created from the burning of coal and iron. Currently, the majority of fly ash is dumped into landfills, causing environmental problems. The production of geopolymer concrete allows fly ash to be recycled and eliminated from landfills. Geopolymer concrete is also more resistant to damage than standard concrete. Keywords: AAC, Fly Ash, GGBS, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Silicate. 1. INTRODUCTION It is widely known that the production of Portland cement consumes considerable energy and at the same time contributes a large volume of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, Portland cement is still the main binder in concrete construction prompting a search for more environmentally friendly materials. One possible alternative is the use of alkali-activated binder using industrial byproducts containing silicate materials. The most common industrial by-products used as binder materials are fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). GGBS has been widely used as a cement replacement material due to its latent hydraulic properties, while fly ash has been used as a pozzolanic material to enhance the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cements and concretes. GGBS is a INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 2 latent hydraulic material which can react directly with water, but requires an alkali activator. In concrete, this is the Ca(OH)2 released from the hydration of Portland cement. The term “Geopolymeric” is used to characterize this type of reaction from the previous one, and accordingly, the name geopolymer has been adopted for this type of binder. The geopolymeric reaction differentiates geopolymer from other types of alkali activated materials (such as; alkali activated slag) since the product is a polymer rather than C-S-H gel. 2. NEED FOR THE PRESENT STUDY It is evident from the present scenario that ordinary Portland cement is causing much of the environmental hazards such as- Increasing green house gases. Enormous consumption of power for the manufacture of cement There is a need to find some alternative binding material. Any material which contains silicon and aluminum in amorphous state can be a source of binding material in AAC. Fly ash and GGBS which contains this are considered to be a waste product. They are produced abundantly in India and hence can be utilized. 3. AIM AND OBJECTIVES The aim of the research is to evaluate the performance and suitability of fly ash based geopolymer and alkali activated slag (AAS) as an alternative to the use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in the production of concrete. The individual objectives will include; The study contributes to the development of new environmentally friendly binders in concrete. Although there are numerous studies that assess the suitability of AAS and fly ash based geopolymer to replace OPC as a binder in concrete, To develop the concrete that can be cured at ambient temperature by using industrial by products such as FA and GGBS. To obtain optimal values for mix constituents to maximize product performance. Evaluation of the performance of FA and GGBS based AAS concrete with respect to workability, strength and durability for a different molarity of alkali soution. Evaluation of the effect on the microstructure of AAC for change in the molarity. Only limited research conducted on the utilization of slag as a binder in the production of alkali activated concrete. As such this study provides information on the fresh properties and strength development for the different molarity of alkali solution. 4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The experimental work involved development of an alkali activated concrete. As far as possible, the technology and the equipment currently used to manufacture OPC concrete were used in this study to make the alkali activated concrete. Flyash (Grade I) and GGBFS from Bellary Sathavahana Ispat Limited were considered as the source materials. Sodium hydroxide and Sodium
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 3 silicate were procured commercially from a local vendor. The some property of Alkali activated concrete are discoursed for the different molarity of alkali solution (NaOH). 5. ALKALI ACTIVATION OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS According to Jiang, alkali activation is the term used to imply that alkalis, alkali earth ions are used to stimulate the pozzolanic reaction or release the latent cementitious properties of finely divided inorganic materials. The materials could be minerals as well as industrial by-products consisting primarily of silicates, aluminosilicate and calcium. A classification of alkali activated cementitious material based on the composition of hydration products was proposed by Krivenko: 1. The alkaline aluminosilicate systems (R-A-S-H, where R= Na or K were called “geocements”, emphasizing the similarity of the formation process of these materials to the geological process of the natural zeolites. A special case of these systems where the formation process is a polycondensation rather than hydration was named “geopolymer”. . 2. The alkaline –alkaline earth systems (R-C-A-S-H) where the hydration products are low basic calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H gel with low Ca/Si ratio). These include the alkali activated slag and alkaline Portland cements. 6. HISTORY OF ALKALI ACTIVATION OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS The works conducted by Feret and Purdon were considered as the earliest studies on activated slag. Although not until 1959 when Glukhovsky, published “soil silicates” was a theoretical basis of alkaline cement established. However there was a substantial difference between the “soil silicates” and previous works, as the alkali in soil silicates acts as a structure forming element compared to the use of alkali as an accelerator for the reactivity of slag either in the blended slag-Portland cement system or in 100% slag cement system Krivenko, further categorized the alkaline cements into two groups, depending on the starting materials. The first group is the alkaline binding system Me2O-Me2O3-SiO2-H2O and the second group is the alkaline-alkali earth system Me2O-MeO-Me2O3-SiO2-H2O. In 1979, Davidovits developed a new type of binder similar to the alkaline binding system, using sintering products of kaolinite and limestone or dolomite as the aluminosilicate constituents. Davidovits adopted the term “Geopolymer” to emphasize the association of this binder with the earth mineral found in natural stone and to differentiate it from other alkali activated binding systems. 7. MIX PROPORTIONING OF GPC Palomo et al studied the Geopolymerisation of low-calcium ASTM Class F Flyash (molar Si/Al=1.81) using four different solutions with the solution-to-fly ash ratio by mass of 0.25 to 0.30. The molar SiO2/K2O or SiO2/Na2O of the solutions was in the range of 0.63 to 1.23.The best compressive strength obtained was more than 60MPa for mixtures that used a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution, after curing the specimens for 24 hours at 65o C. Hardjito et al, conducted extensive studies on Low calcium Flyash based Geopolymer concrete at the Curtin University Australia. The research work included the studies on the effect of Concentration of NaOH solution, ratio of Sodium silicate (NaOH) to Sodium Hydroxide (Na2SiO3) solution, Curing temperature and duration of elevated temperature curing on compressive strength of concrete of Geopolymer Concrete. They have reported that the optimal ratio of Silicate to sodium Hydroxide solution is 2.5. Depending on the concentration of the Hydroxide solution, the compressive strength varied between 8MPa to 77MPa.
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 4 Zhang Yunshen and Sun Wei. have conducted studies on Fly ash based Geopolymer concrete. Studies were carried out to obtain the optimum Fly ash content in Geopolymer concrete that gives high mechanical and compressive strength. The results reported show that Geopolymer concrete with 30% fly ash prepared at 800 C for 8 hours exhibited high mechanical strength. The compressive strength was 32.2MPa and the flexural strength was 7.15MPa. 8. MATERIALS USED IN THE PREPARATION OF AAC 8.1 Fly Ash According to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 116R, FA is defined as the finely divided residue that results from the combination of ground or powdered coal and that is transported by the flue gases from the combustion zone to the particle removal system (ACI Committee 232 2004). FA is removed from the combustion gases by the dust collection system, either mechanically or by using electrostatic precipitators, before they are discharged to the atmosphere. FA particles are typically spherical, finer than Portland cement and lime, ranging from less than 1µm to not more than 150µm. FA plays the role of an artificial pozzolona, where its silicon dioxide content reacts with the calcium hydroxide from the cement hydration process to form the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. The spherical shape of FA often helps to improve the workability of the fresh concrete, while its small particle size also plays as filler of voids in the concrete, hence to produce dense and durable concrete. In the present experimental study, low calcium, grade 1 as per IS 3812:2003, obtained from Bellary, Karnataka, Sathavahana Ispat Limited was used as the base material. The physical and chemical compositions of FA are given in the Table 4.1 and 4.2 Table: 4.1 Physical properties of flyash SL.NO. PARTICULARS PROPERTIES 1. Residue on 45µ sieve 24.4% 2. Specific gravity 2.15 3. Fineness 521.72m2 /kg Table: 4.2 chemical composition of flyash SL.NO. PARTICULALARS PROPERTIES REQUIRMENT AS PER IS3812 - 2003 1. Volatile matter 2.32% 2. Ash 89.23% 3. Fixed carbon 8.45% 4. SiO2 48.87% 81.27% 35% (min) 70% (min)5. Al2O3 27.61% 6. Fe2O3 4.79% 7. CaO 4.08% 8. MgO 1.04% 3.0% (max) 9. S 0.41% 5.0% (max)
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 5 8.2 Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) is a byproduct of the steel industry. Blast furnace slag is defined as “the non-metallic product consisting essentially of calcium silicates and other bases that is developed in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace. In the production of iron, blast furnaces are loaded with iron ore, fluxing agents, and coke. When the iron ore, which is made up of iron oxides, silica, and alumina, comes together with the fluxing agents, molten slag and iron are produced. The molten slag then goes through a particular process depending on what type of slag it will become. Air-cooled slag has a rough finish and larger surface area when compared to aggregates of that volume which allows it to bind well with Portland cements as well as asphalt mixtures. GGBS is produced when molten slag is quenched rapidly using water jets, which produces a granular glassy aggregate. In the present experimental study, The GGBS obtained from Bellary, Karnataka, Sathavahana Ispat Limited, used as the binder material. The physical and chemical compositions of GGBS are given in the Table 4.4 and 4.5 Table: 4.3 Physical properties of GGBS SL.NO. PARTICULARS PROPERTIES 1. Wet sieve analysis % retained 45µ sieve 2.9 % 2. Specific gravity 2.62 3. Fineness 252.83 m2 /kg Table: 4.4 chemical composition of GGBS SL.NO. CHEMICAL COMPONENTS RESULTS REQUIREMENT AS PER SP 23-1982 1. CaO 34.95 30 - 40 2. SiO2 37.26 27 - 32 3. Basicity 0.89 - 4. MgO 5.68 0 - 17 5. Al2O3 19.4 17 - 31 6. S 0.85 - 7. FeO 0.48 0 - 1 8. MnO 0.57 - 8.3 Aggregates In the present experimental study river sand and crushed granite aggregated 12.5 mm down size were used as fine aggregate and coarse aggregates respectively. Aggregate were in the saturated surface dry condition. The characteristics of aggregates are presented in the Table 4.5 to Table 4.6. 8.4 Alkaline Liquid A combination of sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution can be used as the alkaline liquid. It is recommended that the alkaline liquid is prepared by mixing both the solutions together at least 24 hours prior to use. 8.4.1 Sodium Silicate The sodium silicate solution is commercially available in different grades. The sodium silicate solution A53 with SiO2-to-Na2O ratio by mass of approximately 2, i.e., SiO2 = 29.4%, Na2O = 14.7%, and water = 34.44% by mass, is recommended.
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 6 8.4.2 Sodium Hydroxide The sodium hydroxide with 97-98% purity, in flake or pellet form, is commercially available. The solids must be dissolved in water to make a solution with the required concentration. The concentration of sodium hydroxide solution can vary in the range between 8 Molar and 16 Molar. The mass of NaOH solids in a solution varies depending on the concentration of the solution. For instance, NaOH solution with a concentration of 8 Molar consists of 8x40 = 320 grams of NaOH solids per liter of the solution, where 40 is the molecular weight of NaOH. The mass of NaOH solids was measured as 320 grams per kg of NaOH solution with a concentration of 8 Molar. Similarly, the mass of NaOH solids per kg of the solution for other concentrations was measured as 16 Molar: 640 grams, (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005). Note that the mass of water is the major component in both the alkaline solutions. In order to improve the workability, a high range water reducer super plasticizer and extra water may be added to the mixture. 8.5 Water Distilled water was used in experimental study, in order to avoid any mineral interference in polymerization reaction. And water was used only for the preparation of sodium hydroxide solution. 9. PRILIMINARY INVESTIGATION Initially, numbers of trial mixtures of AAC were prepared, and test specimens in the form of 150 mm cubes or 100x200 mm cylinders were made. The 60 liter capacity pan mixer with rotating drum available in the concrete laboratory for making OPC concrete was used to manufacture the AAC. The main objectives of the preliminary laboratory work were: To familiarize with the making of AAC; To understand the effect of the sequence of adding the alkaline liquid to the solids constituents in the mixture; To observe the behavior of the fresh AAC, To develop process of mixing. To understand basic mixture proportion of AAC. Explore the possibility of developing a concrete which cured at ambient temperature without cement, addition of slag or slag alone used. REFERENECES BOOKS 1. Hardjito, D., & Rangan, B. V. (2005), Development and Properties of Low- Calcium Fly Ash- Based Geopolymer Concrete (Research Report GC 1). Perth: Faculty of Engineering Curtin University of Technology. 2. B.V Rangan, (2005). Development and Properties of Low- Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete, (Research Report GC 1). Perth: Faculty of Engineering Curtin University of Technology . 3. Wallah, S. E., & Rangan, B. V. (2006). Low-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete: Long-Term Properties (Research Report GC 2), Perth: Faculty of Engineering Curtin University of Technology
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 7 PAPER PRESENTATIONS 1. Glukhovsky, V. D., Rotovskaya, G. S., & Rumyna, G. V. (1980), High Strength Slag-Alkali Cement, Paper presented at the 7th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cements. 2. Gjorv, O. E. (1989). Alkali Activation of a Norwegian Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Paper presented at the third international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete. 3. Talling, B., & Brandstetr, J. (1989), Present State and Future of Alkali-Activated Slag Concretes, Paper presented at the third international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete, Trondheim, Norway. 4. Krivenko, P. D. (1994, 11-14 October). Alkaline cements, Paper presented at the The first international conference on alkaline cements and concrete, Kiev, Ukraine. THESIS 5. Jiang, W. (1997), Alkali Activated Cementitious Materials: Mechnism, Microstructure and Properties, Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania. 6. Mohammed Saleh. (2007), A Study on Geopolymer Concrete incorporating Flyash, M.Tech Thesis (Department Of Civil Engineering; BMS College of Engineering), Submitted to Visvesvaraya Technological University –Karnataka. 7. Harish K . (2009), ,A study on the properties of Geopolymer Concrete for different curing regimes, M.Tech Thesis (Department Of Civil Engineering; BMS College of Engineering), Submitted to Visvesvaraya Technological University –Karnataka. 8. K.K.Deevasan, (2008) A Study on - Geopolymer concrete using Industrial effluent, M.Tech Thesis (Department of Civil Engineering; BMS College of Engineering), Submitted to Visvesvaraya Technological University –Karnataka. JOURNAL PAPERS 1. Savitha A.L, Krishna Gudi, Gyanen Takhdmayum (volumw 3, issue 3, March 2013) “Experimental studies on soil stabilization using fine and coarse GGBS”, GSS Institute of technology, VTU. 2. Ganapati Naidu .P, A.S.S.N.Prasad, S.Adiseshu, A.V.V.Satayanarayana (volume 2, issue 4, July 2012,pp 19-28), A study on strength properties of geopolymer concrete with addition of GGBS, Andhra University, Visakhapathnam. 3. K. Suvarna Latha, M.V. Seshagiai Rao, Srinivasa Reddy v (volume 2, issue 2, December 2012) Estimation of GGBS and HVFA strength efficiencies in concrete with age. 4. Gunavant K. Kate, Pranesh .B Murnal, Effect of addition of flyash on shrinkage character tics in high strength concrete, Government college of Engineering, Aurangabad, Maharashtra. 5. J. Alam, L.M.N.Akhtar, Flyash utlilization in different sectors in Indian scenario, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. 6. Anand Kumar B .G, Effective Utilization of Fly Ash and Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Construction Industry, R V College of Engineering, Bangalore. 7. Bennet Jose Mathew, Sudhakar M, Dr.C.Nataryan (valume 2, no. 5, June 2013) Development of coal ash – ggbs based geopolymer bricks, National Institute of Technology, Trichy. 8. Attl Swaroop, K. Venkateswar Rao, Prof.P.Kodandarama Rao (volume 3, Issue 4, July- August2012, PP285-289), Durabillity studies on concrete with flyash and ggbs, Gudlavalleru Engineering college, Gudlavalleru.
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 8 9. Mr. Bennet Jose Mathew, Mr. M Sudhakar, Dr. C Natarajan (volume 3, Issue 11) Strength, Economic and Sustainability Characteristics of Coal Ash –GGBS Based Geopolymer Concrete, National Institute of Technology, Thiruchirappalli, India. 10. Swamy, R. N. (1986), Cement Replacement Materials (Vol. 3), Glasgow: Surrey University Press. 11. Bakharev, T., Sanjayan, J. G., & Cheng, Y.-B. (1999), Alkali activation of Australian slag cements, Cement and Concrete Research, 29(1), 113- 120. 12. Brough, A. R., & Atkinson, A. (2002), Sodium silicate-based, alkali-activated slag mortars, Part I. Strength, hydration and microstructure. Cement and Concrete Research, 32(6), 865-879. 13. Davidovits, J. (1994) Global Warming Impact on the Cement and Aggregates Industries, World Resource Review, 6(2), 263-278. 14. Malhotra, V. M., & Mehta, P. K. (1996), Pozzolanic and Cementitious Materials Taylor & Francis. Malhotra, V. M., & Ramezanianpour, A. A. (1994). Fly Ash in Concrete, Report MSL 94-45(IR). Ottawa: Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET). 15. Popovics, S. (1992), Concrete Materials - Properties, Specifications and Testing (2nd Edition). New Jersey, USA: Noyes Publications; Provis, J. L. (2006). Modelling the formation of geopolymers. The University of Melbourne, Melbourne. 16. Feret, R. (1939), Slags for the manufacture of cement, Revue des matriaux de construction et de travaux publics, 121-126. 17. Collins, F., & Sanjayan, J. G. (1998), Early Age Strength and Workability of Slag Pastes Activated by NaOH and Na2CO3, Cement and Concrete Research, 28(5), 655-664. 18. Douglas, E., Bilodeau, A., Brandstetr, J., & Malhotra, V. M. (1991), Alkali activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag concrete: Preliminary investigation, Cement and Concrete Research, 21(1), 101-108. 19. Fernandez-Jimenez, A., & Palomo, A. (2005), Composition and microstructure of alkali activated fly ash binder: Effect of the activator, Cement and Concrete Research, 35(10), 1984-1992. 20. Puertas, F., Martinez-Ramirez, S., Alonso, S., & Vazquez, T. (2000), Alkali activated fly ash/slag cements: Strength behaviour and hydration products, Cement and Concrete Research, 30(10), 1625-1632. 21. Xu, H. and J. S. J. van Deventer. (2000), The Geopolymerisation of Alumino-Silicate Minerals, International Journal of Mineral Processing 59(3): 247-266. 22. Brough, A. R., & Atkinson, A. (2002), Sodium silicate-based, alkali-activated slag mortars: Part I. Strength, hydration and microstructure, Cement and Concrete Research, 32(6), 865-879. 23. Weng, L., & Sagoe-Crentsil, K. (2007), Dissolution processes, hydrolysis and condensation reactions during geopolymer synthesis: Part I—Low Si/Al ratio systems, Journal of Materials Science, 42(9), 2997-3006. 24. Hardjito, D., Wallah, S. E., Sumajouw, D. M. J., & Rangan, B. V. (2004a), On the development of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete, Aci Materials Journal, 101(6), 467-472. 25. Teychenne, D. C., Franklin, R. E., & Erntroy, H. C. (1988), Design of normal concrete mixes (rev. ed.), Great Britain. Department of the Environment. 26. Swanepoel, J. C. and C. A. Strydom. (2002), Utilisation of fly ash in a geopolymeric material, Applied Geochemistry 17(8): 1143-1148. 27. Van Jaarsveld, J. G. S., J. S. J. van Deventer, L. Lorenzen. (1997), The Potential Use of Geopolymeric Materials to Immobilise Toxic Metals: Part I. Theory and Applications, Minerals Engineering 10(7): 659-669.
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME 9 28. Gourley, J. T. (2003), Geopolymers; Opportunities for Environmentally Friendly Construction Materials, Materials Conference: Adaptive Materials for a Modern Society, Sydney, Institute of Materials Engineering Australia. 29. P. De Silva, K. Sagoe-Crenstil, V. Sirivivatnanon. (2007), CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, 14 Julius Avenue, Riverside Corporate Park, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia. 30. Zhang Yunshen and Sun Wei,(2006), Fly Ash Based Geoploymer Concrete, The Indian Concrete Journal, Jan, p 20-24. 31. Bakharev, T. (2005), Geopolymeric Materials Prepared Using Class F Fly Ash and Elevated Temperature Curing, Cement and Concrete Research, 35(6), 1224-1232. 32. Chindaprasirt P. et al (2007), Workability and strength of coarse high calcium fly ash geopolymer, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol.29, pp.224-229. 33. Palomo, A., Blanco-Varela, M. T., Granizo, M. L., Puertas, F., Vazquez, T., & Grutzeck, M. W. (1999), Chemical stability of cementitious materials based on metakaolin, Cement and Concrete Research, 29(7), 997-1004. 34. Palomo, A., Grutzeck, M. W., & Blanco, M. T. (1999), Alkali-activated fly ashes: A cement for the future, Cement and Concrete Research, 29(8), 1323- 1329. 35. J. Temuujin, A. van Riessen, K.J.D. MacKenzie 2010, Preparation and characterization of fly ash based geopolymer mortars, a Centre for Materials Research, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia. 36. M. Sofi a, J.S.J. van Deventer, P.A. Mendis a, G.C. Lukey. (2006), Engineering properties of inorganic polymer concretes (IPCs), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. 37. KEDARSWAMY U. (2007), Performance of Geopolymer Concrete at Elevated Temperatures, M.Tech thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, B.M.S.C.E., Bangalore. 38. Cheng, T. W. and J. P. Chiu. (2003) "Fire-resistant Geopolymer Produced by Granulated Blast Furnace Slag." Minerals Engineering 16(3): 205-210. 39. Jae Eun Oh , Paulo J.M. Monteiro , Ssang Sun Jun , Sejin Choi , Simon M. Clark, (2009), The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 40. www.Geopolymer.org. 41. www.sciencdirect.com. 42. CODES OF REFERENCE IS: 456-2000, Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Cement Concrete. SP: 23-1982, Hand Book on Concrete Mixes (Based on Indian Standards). IS: 10262-1982, Indian Standards, Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix-Design. IS: 516-1959, Indian Standards, Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete. IS: 383 – 1970, Tests on Aggregates. IS:5816-1999, Indian Standards, Split Tensile Test. IS:1331(PART-I), Indian Standards, UPV Test. IS:14858-2000, Indian Standards, Compressive Test. IS:1199-1959, Indian Standards, Slump Test.