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20320140503006

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 60 INFLUENCE OF CRUDE OIL FOULING ON GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAYEY AND SANDY SOILS Ahmed Neamah Naji1 , Dr. V. C. Agarwal2 , Prabhat Kumar Sinha3 , Mohammed Fadhil Obaid4 1,4 Civil Engineering department, College of Engineering, Babylon University, Republic of Iraq + Department of Civil Engineering, SHIATS -DU, Allahabad, India 2 Department of Civil Engineering, SHIATS -DU, Allahabad, India 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, SHIATS -DU, Allahabad, India ABSTRACT The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons, due to blow out, leakage from tank, or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because the infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time .In this project, we have investigated the influence of the contamination on the prepared sand soil samples. The leak of oil products due to the enormous demand would result in contaminating the sand that might be used in the concrete industry. It has been experimentally investigated that the effect of contaminated sand with kerosene and diesel on the compressive strength of conventional normal weight concrete. It is clear from Figures that the behavior varies according to the contamination percentage and age of the specimens. In general, the control specimens achieve higher ductility compared to the contaminated specimens. Contaminated samples had contamination levels measured as a percentage by the dry weight of the sand used in the concrete mixture. The average compressive strength value was based on three identical specimens tested on the same day. The study shows that the concrete compressive strength increases with the increase in curing time for all specimens. Key words: Kerosene, Diesel, Compressive Strength. 1. INTRODUCTION The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons, due to blow out, leakage from tank, or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because the infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time. The light hydrocarbons light non aqueous phase liquids leach into the soil, eventually releasing volatile gaseous components that can reach the atmosphere by spreading INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 61 through the porosity of the soil. Once they have reached the saturated zone, form lenses of pollutants that float on the water surface, moving upwards and downwards with the seasonal variations of the water level. In order to estimate the groundwater contamination by petroleum products, it is necessary to know where the contaminant interfaces with the biosphere, when it arrives, and what the associated exposure concentrations are. The current practice in characterizing and monitoring the contaminated sites typically relies on the extensive use of invasive drilling-based methods, mostly using traditional soil and/or groundwater sampling. Although they give a direct measurement of the contamination state, they often do not provide the spatial resolution required to finely characterize the extension and the geometry of the contaminant source areas and of the dissolved contaminants plume. With the growing interest in environmental remediation, various approaches have been proposed for treating petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Among these treatment methods, soil washing has been proposed as a promising innovative remediation technology due to its potential for treating not only oils contaminated soils but also those contaminated by heavy metals. Soil washing is less time consuming compared with bioremediation and phytoremediation, which are largely affected by climatic factors. The traditional soil washing process has been studied extensively in recent years showing that it can be applied as an ex situ or in situ process, involving water or aqueous surfactant solutions to desorb and concentrate the contaminants into bulk liquid phase without chemically modifying them. The behavior of surfactant solutions in different systems has been investigated. Although there has been concern about land pollution since the advent of industrialization, it is only in recent times that land has been considered as a component of the environment deserving attention/protection to the same extent as air or water . This recognition may have arisen because of increased incidents of land pollution, scarcity of usable land and increase awareness and concern about the effect of industrialization on the environment. Crude Oil Contamination Crude oil is a natural product and as such is susceptible to degradation by naturally occurring micro flora. However, crude oil contamination is accompanied by depletion in the nutrient status (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the soil; and this retards the ability of the natural micro flora to degrade the oil. Thus, it has become the practice to use inorganic fertilizers as nutrient supplements in remediation techniques aimed at the rehabilitation of soil polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. In a previous report we examined the effect of cow dung and poultry dropping application on petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in soil. In the present report we examined the effect of natural-rubber processing sludge on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil in a slurry-phase reactor. Oil pollution accidents are nowadays become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social catastrophes. Apart from accidental contamination of ecosystem, the vast amounts of oil sludge generated in refineries from water oil separation systems and accumulation of waste oily materials in crude oil storage tank bottoms pose severe problem because many of the standard treatment processes used to decontaminate soil and groundwater have been limited in their application, are prohibitively expensive, or may be only partially effective. Therefore, despite decades of research, successful bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil remains a challenge. Clayey and Sandy Soils Few studies were found in the literature that investigates the effect of crude oil products on the geotechnical properties of different types of soils, specifically sand. Workers have concluded in his research that the angle of internal friction of the sand decreases with the increase in the percentage level of the oil. The effect of crude oil on the geotechnical properties of Kuwaiti sand was studied.
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 62 They showed in their study that the compressibility of the sand has increased due to the addition of crude oil. Researchers have concluded that contaminated soil with oil possess a lower angle of internal friction than clean sand. Researchers have studied the stress strain behavior of loose and dense sand when saturated with oil and water and found that contaminated sand with oil will reduce the angle of internal friction and increased the volumetric strain. OBJECTIVE OF THE PRESENT WORK Based on the above introduction, we now focus on the aim of the present work. • The study the both the effect of compressive strength of the contaminated specimen with diesel and with the same percentage of kerosene. • To study the reduction of compressive strength of concrete by the presence of COIS in the function of the concentration of the crude oil in sand. • To study the effect of use of COIS as fine aggregate of concrete cured in crude oil media. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Hao Xu et al. (1994) have analyzed Petroporphyrins as chemical indicators of soil contamination by crude oil. The assessment of the presence of petroleum products is usually based on a series of chemical indicators. The indicators currently used are total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS). None of these are specific to crude oil and many are lost during the weathering process. Petroporphyrins are proposed as stable chemical indicators, which are specific to crude oils and easily measured in soils. Petroporphyrin analysis in various soil samples is shown to be simple, specific to crudes and free of interference from co-extractives. Nicolotti and Egli (1998) - have studied the effect of soil contamination by crude oil [38]. In vitro and greenhouse biotests were carried out to study the effects of various concentrations of crude oil on the mycorrhizosphere and the ability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to colonize Norway spruce and poplar seedlings grown on contaminated soil. Ectomycorrhizal fungi grown in pure cultures showed a variety of reactions to crude oil, ranging from growth stimulation to total inhibition of growth, depending on the species of fungi. Germination of poplar and spruce seeds was not significantly affected. The growth of spruce seedlings was not affected by crude oil, whereas that of poplar seedlings was significantly reduced at high concentrations. None of the concentrations had any effect on the degree of ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal colonization of poplar. With spruce, however, the ectomycorrhizal fungi showed species-specific reactions to increasing concentrations, in accordance with the results of the pure culture test. The length of time between soil contamination and seeding affects both seedling growth and the mycorrhizal infection potential of the soil. The results confirm the importance of mycorrhizal fungi in the bioremediation of soils contaminated by crude oil. Okieimen and Okieimen (2002) have studied the effect of natural rubber processing sludge on the degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in soil [48]. Crude oil-polluted soil (five parts of weathered crude oil per 100 parts of soil; equivalent to 50,000 soil) samples were slurried in deionised water (300% of the water retention capacity of the soil) and treated with various amounts of natural-rubber processing sludge (nitrogen content and phosphorus contents ) in a well-stirred, continuously-aerated tank at 29°C. Changes in the total
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 63 hydrocarbon content of the soil sample were determined, using a spectrophotometric technique, as a function of time. The extent of crude oil degradation was markedly higher (by up to 100%) in the sludge-treated soil than in the untreated soil sample. The efficiency of biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons using the slurry-phase technique was compared with that of solid-phase technique. Das and Mukherjee (2007) have investigated Crude petroleum-oil biodegradation efficiency of Bacillus subtilisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from a petroleum-oil contaminated soil from North-East India [50]. The efficiency of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa M and NM strains isolated from a petroleum contaminated soil sample from North-East India was compared for the biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons in soil and shake flask study. These bacterial strains could utilize crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon and energy. Bio augmentation of TPH contaminated microcosm with P. aeruginosa M and NM consortia and B. subtilis strain showed a significant reduction of TPH levels in treated soil as compared to control soil at the end of experiment (120 d). P. aeruginosa strains were more efficient than B. subtilis strain in reducing the TPH content from the medium. The plate count technique indicated expressive growth and bio surfactant production by exogenously seeded bacteria in crude petroleum-oil rich soil. The results showed that B. subtilis DM-04 and P. aeruginosa M and NM strains could be effective for in situ bioremediation. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY The different soil fractions were studied because of their varying characteristics such as pH, cation exchange capacity and crude oil content. Various methods were used to determine the soil pH and cation exchange capacities (CEC), respectively. Cation exchange capacity shows the net negative charges in soil. This is one of the most important soil chemical characteristics relates to the amount of organic matter and clay present in the soil. CEC may be influenced by and soil pH. Two sources of soils were used in this study. Analysis of soil particle size was conducted in a standard laboratory. The soil characteristics were range of particle size 0.00001 to 0.3 mm and bulk density 2.00 g/cm3 . About 60% of the total soil mass was less than 0.050 mm. This soil was classified as Soil 1. The second soil is of horticultural grade, lime free, washed and graded quartzite grit sand with maximum nominal size of 5 mm. This soil was sieved using an Endecott test sieve shaker. The tested soil was divided into six treatment sample-cells, each extending horizontally 40 cm × 40 cm and of depth 30 cm. The cells were such that the depth and exposed surface-area of the soil, and in turn its temperature, nutrient concentration, moisture content and oxygen availability, could be controlled. Furthermore, the cells inhibited excess run-offs of the crude-oil contaminant: such run-offs were inevitable in the open air and so exposed to the rain. Cell O was the control volume, i.e. did not receive any treatment, whereas cells A, B, C, D and E were earmarked to receive 50 g, 75 g, 100 g, 150 g and 200 g of 20–10–10 NPK fertilizer, respectively, twice during the remediation period, i.e. at two-week intervals. Chemical analyses Soil dry weight was determined after heat treatment (24 h at 105°C). The pH of soil and aqueous soil leach ate in the reactors were determined with a glass electrode (Standard Test Methods for pH of Water and Soil. The inorganic nutrient contents were determined with a HACH DR2000 direct reading spectrophotometer using HACH proprietary reagents Duplicate samples (5 g) were taken from all reactors after 6 days. For solid liquid extraction, 5 g wet sediment was weighed and mixed with 2 times its weight of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) to bind water. This mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) by sonication according.
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. Extracts were concentrated to small volumes with a gentle stream of dry nitrogen gas (99.99 per cent)). When reduced to a few ml, the extracts were filtered through a column chromatograph (30 cm L, 2 cm ID) containing glass wool at the bottom, 10 cm silica gel and Na2SO4 on top of glass vials and using n-hexane as a solvent. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were measu Gravimetric Method. A GC 2000 Series equipped with a flame ionization detector was employed. A DB-5 capillary column (60 m × 0.25 mm ID, film thickness 0.25 conditions were as follows: injector temperature 300°C; de helium 99.999 per cent; make-up gas nitrogen at 30 ml per s; oven temperature program was 1 min at 60°C, then increasing by 10°C per min up to 160°C then 10 min in this temperature followed by 4°C per min up to 300°C, and finally 10 min at 300°C. Split less mode injections were carried out with the split less time at 0.8 min. The chromatographic data were analyzed using Chrome system version 2.1 software. Experimental design and data analysis The central composite face centered design employed had four independent variables viz., concentration of weathered oil (A), biomass (B), concentration of nitrogen (C), concentration of phosphorus (D). Each of the independent variables was studied at three levels ( experiments and three controls with three different WCO concentrations. The soil organic carbon content was chosen as the control variable. Three control reactors were prepared with sediment and seawater that had been sterilized three times at after 6 days. Coded and actual values of variables used in the study are presented in and experimental matrix for central composite design for general optimization is presented Sample preparation Figure 1: Influence of crude oil on the samples with varying time in day Figure 2: Control specimen at with 0.5% Figure 4: Control specimen contaminated with 1.0% diesel at 2 days International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 64 Extracts were concentrated to small volumes with a gentle stream of dry nitrogen gas (99.99 per to a few ml, the extracts were filtered through a column chromatograph (30 cm L, 2 cm ID) containing glass wool at the bottom, 10 cm silica gel and Na2SO4 on top of glass vials hexane as a solvent. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were measu Gravimetric Method. A GC 2000 Series equipped with a flame ionization detector was employed. A 5 capillary column (60 m × 0.25 mm ID, film thickness 0.25 µm) was used. The operating conditions were as follows: injector temperature 300°C; detector temperature 300°C; carrier gas up gas nitrogen at 30 ml per s; oven temperature program was 1 min at 60°C, then increasing by 10°C per min up to 160°C then 10 min in this temperature followed by 4°C and finally 10 min at 300°C. Split less mode injections were carried out with the split less time at 0.8 min. The chromatographic data were analyzed using Chrome Experimental design and data analysis osite face centered design employed had four independent variables viz., concentration of weathered oil (A), biomass (B), concentration of nitrogen (C), concentration of phosphorus (D). Each of the independent variables was studied at three levels (−1, 0, experiments and three controls with three different WCO concentrations. The soil organic carbon content was chosen as the control variable. Three control reactors were prepared with sediment and seawater that had been sterilized three times at 120°C for 2 h. Efficiency of oil removal was assessed after 6 days. Coded and actual values of variables used in the study are presented in and experimental matrix for central composite design for general optimization is presented. Figure 1: Sample Preparation Influence of crude oil on the samples with varying time in day ontrol specimen at 2 days Figure3: Control specimen contaminated Diesel at 2 days Control specimen contaminated Figure 5: Control specimen contaminated 1.0% diesel at 2 days with 1.0% Kerosene at 4 days International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), Extracts were concentrated to small volumes with a gentle stream of dry nitrogen gas (99.99 per to a few ml, the extracts were filtered through a column chromatograph (30 cm L, 2 cm ID) containing glass wool at the bottom, 10 cm silica gel and Na2SO4 on top of glass vials hexane as a solvent. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were measured with the Gravimetric Method. A GC 2000 Series equipped with a flame ionization detector was employed. A m) was used. The operating tector temperature 300°C; carrier gas up gas nitrogen at 30 ml per s; oven temperature program was 1 min at 60°C, then increasing by 10°C per min up to 160°C then 10 min in this temperature followed by 4°C and finally 10 min at 300°C. Split less mode injections were carried out with the split less time at 0.8 min. The chromatographic data were analyzed using Chrome-Card data osite face centered design employed had four independent variables viz., concentration of weathered oil (A), biomass (B), concentration of nitrogen (C), concentration of −1, 0, +1), with 30 experiments and three controls with three different WCO concentrations. The soil organic carbon content was chosen as the control variable. Three control reactors were prepared with sediment and 120°C for 2 h. Efficiency of oil removal was assessed after 6 days. Coded and actual values of variables used in the study are presented in and experimental Control specimen contaminated Diesel at 2 days Control specimen contaminated 1.0% Kerosene at 4 days
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. Figure 6: Control specimen contaminated with 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION This work experimentally investigates the effect of contaminated sand with kerosene and diesel on the compressive strength of conventional normal weight concrete. Researchers started to investigate the compressive strength of concrete mixed with contaminated sand and aggregate. Few authors studied the effect of used engine oil on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Their experimental program consisted of 3 concrete mixes that were prepared with different water/cement ratio of 0.58 and 0.55, resp Table 4.1 shows that the concrete compressive strength increases with the increase in curing time for all specimens. Fig. 4.4 (a) and 4.4 (b) shows a graphical representation of the obtained data listed in Table 4.1 for the specimen tested with c Table 1: Average concrete compressive strength of the different specimens Specimen C (MPa) (MPa) 2 days 35 4 days 43 6 days 49 Figure 7 (a) Figure 7 (a), (b): Percent reduction in compressive strength over the control specimen Figures 7 (a) and (b) shows the percent reduction in compressive strength over the control specimen kerosene and diesel. It has been investigated tha reduction in compressive strength increases for all samples in Fig 4.1 (b). But 2 days treated samples, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 65 Control specimen contaminated with 1.5% Kerosene at 6 days This work experimentally investigates the effect of contaminated sand with kerosene and diesel on the compressive strength of conventional normal weight concrete. Researchers started to investigate the compressive strength of concrete mixed with ted sand and aggregate. Few authors studied the effect of used engine oil on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Their experimental program consisted of 3 concrete mixes that were prepared with different water/cement ratio of 0.58 and 0.55, respectively. Table 4.1 shows that the concrete compressive strength increases with the increase in curing time for all specimens. Fig. 4.4 (a) and 4.4 (b) shows a graphical representation of the obtained data listed in Table 4.1 for the specimen tested with contaminated kerosene and diesel, respectively Average concrete compressive strength of the different specimens K1.0 (MPa) K1.5 (MPa) K2.0 (MPa) D1.0 (MPa) D1.5 (MPa) D2.0 (MPa) 34 32 31 33 30 28 35 38 39.5 34 37 38 34 39 42 32 37.5 41 Figure 7 (a) Figure 7 (b) (a), (b): Percent reduction in compressive strength over the control specimen (a) kerosene, (b) diesel Figures 7 (a) and (b) shows the percent reduction in compressive strength over the control specimen kerosene and diesel. It has been investigated that as time increases (upto 6 days) the reduction in compressive strength increases for all samples in Fig 4.1 (b). But 2 days treated samples, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), 1.5% Kerosene at 6 days This work experimentally investigates the effect of contaminated sand with kerosene and Researchers started to investigate the compressive strength of concrete mixed with ted sand and aggregate. Few authors studied the effect of used engine oil on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Their experimental program consisted of 3 concrete mixes that were Table 4.1 shows that the concrete compressive strength increases with the increase in curing time for all specimens. Fig. 4.4 (a) and 4.4 (b) shows a graphical representation of the obtained data ontaminated kerosene and diesel, respectively. Average concrete compressive strength of the different specimens D2.0 (MPa) 28 38 41 (a), (b): Percent reduction in compressive strength over the control specimen Figures 7 (a) and (b) shows the percent reduction in compressive strength over the control t as time increases (upto 6 days) the reduction in compressive strength increases for all samples in Fig 4.1 (b). But 2 days treated samples,
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 66 the reduction in compressive strength decreases. But in the Fig. 4.1 (a), the reduction in compressive strength increases for K1.0 and K2.0 but decreases in K1.5 for 4&6 days treated samples. The effect of sandy soil contaminated with crude oil on concrete compressive strength was also studied by Ajagbe et al. [91]. A concrete mix of 1:1.8:2.7 with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 was used for all specimens. The crude oil was added by percentage (1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) of sand weight to contaminate the mix. The compressive strength of the materials indicate that the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size. It may be measured by plotting applied force against deformation in a testing machine. Therefore, some material fracture at their compressive strength limit; others deform irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for compressive load. Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures. A total of 10 samples (2 control and 8 contaminated samples) has been prepared and tested. It has been observed that the crude oil reduced the compressive strength of concrete by 18–90% for the samples that were contaminated by 1.0–2.0%, respectively. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of two crude oil products, namely kerosene and diesel on the compressive strength of concrete. A total of 10 samples have been prepared and tested after 2, 4 and 6 days, respectively. The sand will be contaminated with kerosene and diesel at different percentages of 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, respective At 2 (a) At 2 days (b) At 4 days (c) At 6 days Figure 8: Comparison between the different specimens tested at (a) at 2 days, (b) at 4 days, (c) at 6 days
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 67 Experimental procedure The following procedure was adopted to prepare, test, and investigate the effect of the contaminated sand with the two crude oil products on the compressive strength of concrete • A total of four mix batches were prepared. Three of the mix batches were mixed with contaminated sand with kerosene and diesel at three different percentages of 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The fourth concrete mix batch was prepared with clean sand to serve as a control specimen. • Three identical samples from each batch were tested in compression using a universal testing machine (UTM) at 2, 4 and 6 days from the beginning of curing time. • The concrete compressive strength testing procedure followed the ASTM C39 [19] with a loading rate of 7 kN/min. • Stress–strain curves, compressive strength and the associated failure modes of the tested specimens have collected for analysis. The results of the experimental are summarized in Table 1 and Figures. 7 (a), (b) – Figure 9 (a), (b). Table 1 lists the average concrete compressive strength of three identical samples for each batch at 2, 4, and 6 days, respectively. The specimens were designated in Table 1 as C, K and D to present the control, kerosene and diesel specimens, respectively. The number that follows the letter for K and D represents the percentages of kerosene and diesel in the sand. For example, C, K1.0 and D2.0 represent an uncontaminated (control) sample, a sample contaminated with 1.0% of kerosene and a sample contaminated with 2.0% of diesel, respectively. As mentioned earlier, contaminated samples had contamination levels measured as a percentage by the dry weight of the sand used in the concrete mixture. The average compressive strength value was based on three identical specimens tested on three identical specimens tested on the same day. (a) Specimen casted with different (b) Specimen casted with different Kerosene percentages Diesel percentages Figure 9 (a) and (b): Shows compressive strength for the tested specimens at different curing time (a) specimen casted with different kerosene percentages, (b) specimen casted with different diesel percentages
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 68 Fig. 10 (a-c) shows the strain at the attained ultimate load versus the contamination percentage level at different curing times for all the tested specimens. It is clear from Fig. 10 (a-c) that the behavior varies according to the contamination percentage and age of the specimens. In general, the control specimens achieve higher ductility compared to the contaminated specimens. Basically, ductility of the materials is the ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the capability to be stretched into a wire. There is another word like malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the materials aptitude to form a thin sheet by hitting or rolling. (a) 2 days (b) 4days (c) 6 days Figure 10: (a), (b), (c): Shows the comparison of the strain at the achieved ultimate load (a) 2 days, (b) 4 days, (c) 6 days Both of these mechanical properties are aspects of plasticity, the extent to which a solid material can be plastically deformed without fracture.
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 69 5. CONCLUSIONS The contributions of this project work are summarized below. The effect of kerosene and diesel on concrete compressive strength. The sand was mixed with three levels of kerosene and diesel of 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. Compression tests have been conducted on the concrete cubes at 2, 4 and 6 days of casting. Contaminated sand with kerosene and diesel would adversely affect the compressive strength of the concrete mix. Specimens contaminated with diesel showed lower compressive strength than those contaminated with the same percentages of kerosene. The highest reduction in the concrete compressive strength was 32% and 42% for the specimens contaminated with kerosene and diesel at 1.5%, respectively. Diesel negatively affects the bond interlock between the different concrete components. Overall, the control uncontaminated specimen achieved higher ductility than the contaminated specimens. The reduction of compressive strength of concrete by the presence of COIS is a function of the concentration of the crude oil in the sand. The higher the concentration, the higher the strength reduction. The use of COIS as fine aggregate of concrete has more serious effect on its compressive strength compared with concrete cured in crude oil media. Sands containing more than 5% crude oil contamination reduce compressive strength of the concrete more than 50%. A design mix is required using 5% COIS to achieve the required strength while crude oil contamination between 5% and 10% should be considered for low strength concrete like Sand Crete block. REFERENCES [1] Das, B.M., 1994. Principle of Geotechnical Engineering, 3rd edition. PWS Publishing Company. 436 pp. [2] Giovanni Nicolotti, Simon Egli, Soil contamination by crude oil: impact on the mycorrhizosphere and on the revegetation potential of forest trees, Environmental Pollution, Volume 99, 1998, 37–43. [3] Hao Xu, Suzanne Lesage, Susan Brown, Petroporphyrins as chemical indicators of soil contamination by crude oil, Chemosphere, Volume 28, Issue 9, May 1994, Pages 1599-1609. [4] C.O Okieimen, F.E Okieimen, Effect of natural rubber processing sludge on the degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in soil, Bio resource Technology, Volume 82, Issue 1, March 2002, Pages 95-97. [5] Sivaramulu Naidu.D, Madan Mohan Reddy.K and Vijaya Sekhar Reddy.M, “Studies on Chemical and Geotechnical Properties of Marine Sand”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 75 - 80, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [6] Abusalah Mohamed Alakhdar Abdlaziz, R.K. Pandey, Prabhat Kumar Sinha, Ashok Tripathi and Anshuman, “Time and Schedule Management by using Primavera”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 78 - 87, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 60-70 © IAEME 70 AUTHOR’S DETAIL Dr. V. C. AGARWAL, He complete B.Teach (M.N.N.I.T Allahabad) in 1965, M.Tech (Hydraulic Engineering) I.I.T Rookee in 1975, and Ph.D. frome I.I.T Rookee in 1983, served as Associate lecture up to Professor and Head up to 2001 in (M.N.N.I.T Allahabad), recently serving as professor and Head of Civil Engineering in SSET, Shiats, and Allahabad Mr. AHMED NEAMAH NAJI, Received his bachelor of Civil Engineering department, College of Engineering, Babylon University Iraqi 2010. He is Pursing M.Tech geotechnical engineering, Civil Engineering Department Shepherd School of Engineering and Technology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India. He has experience for two years as site civil engineer. PRABHAT KUMAR SINHA, is a M.Tech in CAD. He is having overall 10 years of teaching experience & 4 years industrial experience .His major interests are in Finite Element Analysis, Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Design, Industrial Engg. Mgt. He has published numerous papers in international journals and conferences. Mr. MOHAMMED FADHIL OBAID, Received his bachelor of Civil Engineering department, College of Engineering, Babylon University Iraqi 2010. He is Pursing M.Tech geotechnical engineering, Civil Engineering Department Shepherd School of Engineering and Technology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India. He has experience for two years as site civil engineer.

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