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  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online)TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) pp. 32-36, © IAEME AND Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 32-36 © IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2014): 4.1710 (Calculated by GISI) IJARET ©IAEME EVALUATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND DENSITY OF COIR CONCRETE D.M. Parbhane1, S.B. Shinde2 1 2 Post Graduate Student, JNEC, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India Associate Prof. in Civil Engineering Dept, JNEC, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT Continuous extraction of aggregates from natural resources will lead to its depletion. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of adding coir on the compressive strength and density of concrete. Forty five cubes were casted of M 20 grade of concrete.The compressive strength of cured concrete was evaluated at 7, 14 and 28 days. Concrete produced by 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% replacement attained 28 days compressive strength of 22.23, 22.78, 22.97, 23.27, 19.63 respectively. The results showed that coconut coir concrete can be used in construction. Its usage in the construction is ecofriendly and leads to sustainable development. Keywords: Coconut fiber, Compressive Strength, Density, waste utilization, sustainable development INTRODUCTION Concrete is the premier civil engineering construction material. Concrete manufacturing involves the mixing of ingredients like cement, sand, aggregates and water. Among all these ingredients, aggregates form the big share [1]. Inert materials such as sand, granite forms the major part of aggregates. Traditionally, aggregates have been readily available at economic prices and in different forms to suit all purposes [2]. However, the continuous extraction of aggregates from the natural resources has been questioned because of the depletion of quality aggregates and greater awareness of environmental protection. In light of this, non availability of natural resources to the future generation has been realized [3]. The challenge in making light weight concrete is in decreasing the density, while maintaining the strength and durability. Introducing different types of light aggregates (Pumice, Taclite, Coconut shell, sawdust, coal slag, straw) into the mix design is a common way to lower the density of concrete [4]. The crushed stone and sand are the components that are usually replaced with light weight aggregates to produce light weight concrete.Coconut coir 32
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 32-36, © IAEME has good durability, high toughness, abrasion resistance; hence it is suitable for long standing use [5]. Utilization of Coconut fiber as addition to concrete aggregate will be an important step towards sustainable development. The study on replacing waste material in concrete is not new. In India, 90% coconut production is in South India. Tamil Nadu leads in coconut production in India because of high productivity of soil [6]. METHODOLOGY • • • • Selection of grade of concrete, method of mix design, trial mix and final mix proportions. Estimating total quantity of concrete required. Estimating quantities of cement, water, sand and coarse aggregates. Evaluating the physical properties of ingredients of concrete. MATERIALS AND METHOD Cement: Ordinary Portland cement, conforming to I.S 12269-1987[10] is the most commonly used binder for the concrete production. The standard consistency was 29%.The initial and final setting time was 55 mins and 270 mins respectively. The specific gravity of cement was 3.14.The basic field tests on cement were conducted. Fine Aggregate: River sand, conforming to Grading Zone- II as per I.S 383-1970[11] was used in the study. The bulk density, specific gravity and fineness modulus of sand were determined. The sand was air dried and sieved to remove any foreign material, prior to mixing. Coarse Aggregate: Crushed granite stone and coconut shell were used as coarse aggregate. Various physical and mechanical properties of coarse aggregates were checked and they included bulk density, specific gravity, water absorption, aggregate impact test, crushing test, abrasion test,particle size distribution. Coconut Fiber: Coconut fibers were collected from the local temples, cleaned, sun dried, removed dust to analyze its properties. Coconut fibers require no pretreatment, except for water treatment. Coconut fiber has high water absorption. Due to this property, coconut fibers were pre soaked in potable water for 24 hours. Water: Potable water was used for mixing and curing. The permissible limits were checked as per the I.S 456-2000[12].Water should be free from oil, salt, sugar, acid, alkali. The quality of water is important because contaminants can adversely affect the strength of concrete and cause corrosion of steel reinforcement. Physical Property Max.size Moisture Content (%) Water Absorption (%) Specific Gravity Impact Value (%) Crushing Value (%) Abrasion Value (%) Bulk Density(kg/m3) Fineness Modulus Coconut Coir 2 10 0.87 1825 - Coarse Aggregate 12.5 0.25 2.8 11.2 6.5 1.9 1650 2.73 33 Fine Aggregate 2.6 1600 2.80
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 32-36, © IAEME PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE MIX The production of concrete mix of M-20 grade of concrete is done in the laboratory. For mix design, I.S 10262-1982[9] method was used. Coconut coir concrete is produced by adding coconut fibers in different percentage (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%).The ingredients of concrete were tested as per I.S codes. A total of 45 cubes were tested for compressive strength and density of concrete and results were compared with conventional concrete.Batching is done as per mix proportioning. Mixing is done in a tilting machine mixer. The mixing time is 2-3 minutes after mixing of water. Compaction is done by tamping rod and table vibrator. Concrete cubes are left for 24 hours to set. After 24 hours, cubes are demoulded with spanners and placed in curing tank. It is being cured in potable water at room temperature for a period of 7, 14 and 28 days. After 28 days, these cubes are removed from curing tank and are ready to be tested for compressive strength test. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Compressive Strength: Compressive strength is defined as resistance of concrete to axial loading. Cubes were placed in Universal Testing Machine (U.T.M), and load was applied. The readings on dial gauge were recorded and compressive strength was calculated. The results of Compressive strength are shown in Table 01. Calculations: Compressive Strength = Maximum load/Cross Sectional Area = P/A Table 01. Compressive Strength of Coconut Coir Concrete (N/mm2) Curing Days 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 07 14.41 14.89 15.26 15.38 15.62 13.36 14 19.46 20.12 20.58 20.72 20.98 17.89 28 21.51 22.23 22.78 22.97 23.27 19.63 Density: The results of density determination are shown in table 2.It is observed that as percentage replacement increased, density of concrete increased [9],[10]. Table 02.Density of Coconut Coir Concrete (kg/m3) Curing Days 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 07 2410 2432 2454 2467 2479 2493 14 2447 2471 2489 2509 2512 2530 28 2538 2562 2578 2594 2604 2621 34
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 32-36, © IAEME Bar Charts: The bar charts are drawn for compressive strength results. These are drawn between compressive strength and percentage addition of coconut fiber concrete at 7, 14 and 28 days to observe the variation of results. 28 Days 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 % of Coir 5 6 14 Days 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 % of Coir 7 Days 16 15 14 13 12 1 2 3 4 % of Coir 35 5 6
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 32-36, © IAEME CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS It is concluded that • Increase in percentage addition by coir increased compressive strength. But,if coir added is 5%,then strength decreases. • Coconut Fiber increased the density of Concrete. The following recommendations are made at the end of the study. • Effect of different admixtures can be studied on Coir Fiber Concrete • Evaluating Bond Strength of Coir Fiber Concrete • Coconut Coir- Cement compatibility REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. J.M.Crow, The Concrete Conundrum,2006, available at A. short and W.Kinniburgh, Lightweight Concrete, Applied Science Publishers, London M.Ali,B,Nolot and N. Chouw, April 2009, “ Behaviour of coconut fibre and rope reinforced concrete members with debounding length .Annual Australian Earthquake Engineering Society Conference, “New Castle Earthquake Dec.11-13.Paper 04 Majid Ali. ,11 July 2011, “ Coconut Fibre – A Versatile Material and its application in Engineering - .Journal of Civil Eng.& Const. Tech. Vol.2(9),pp.189-197,2 Sept.2011 NoorMd, SadiqulHasan, Habiburrahman, Mdshiblee and MdSaiful Islam, 2012, “ The use of Coconut Fibre in the production of Structural Lightweight Concrete”- Journal of Applied Sciences 12(9):839,2012. Shetty M.S,” Concrete Technology Theory and Practice”(1991),3rd edition, S.Chand Company Limited, New Delhi. British Standard Institutions, BS 8110 – Part1, The structural use of concrete, BSI, London 1997. ManinderKaur and Manpreet Kaur,2012,”A review of utilization of Coconut coir as coarse aggregate in concrete”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research,7,pp 05-09 Yaw Osei,2013,”Experimental Assessment on coconut coir as aggregate in concrete", International Journal of Engineering Science Research,05,pp 07-11 K.U.Rogo,2010,”Exploratory study of coconut coir as coarse aggregate in concrete", Journal of engineering and applied sciences,02,pp 19-24. I.S 10262-2009:”Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design”, 2009 I.S 12269-1987:”Specifications for 53 grade Ordinary Portland Cement”, 1987 I.S 383-1970:”Specifications for coarse and fine aggregates”, 1970 I.S 456-2000 “Indian Standard: Plain and Reinforced Cement Concrete” Code of practice. Improvement in the Strength of Concrete by using Industrial and Agriculture waste.-Pravin V Domke1 , IOSR Journal of Engineering, April.2012, Vol.2(4) pp”755-759. Structural models for the prediction of compressive strength of coconut fiber reinforced. Sule, Samuel.- International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology Vol.2.April.2013. Riyaz Khan and Prof.S.B.Shinde, “Effect of Unprocessed Steel Slag on the Strength of Concrete When used as Fine Aggregate”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 231 - 239, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Dewanshu Ahlawat and L.G.Kalurkar, “Coconut Shell as Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 12 - 16, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. D.B.Mohite and S.B.Shinde, “Experimental Investigation on Effect of Different Shaped Steel Fibers on Flexural Strength of High Strength Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 332 - 336, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 36