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20320140501006 2


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20320140501006 2

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 61-65 © IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) IJCIET ©IAEME AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON STABILIZATION OF MEDIUM PLASTIC CLAY SOIL WITH BITUMINOUS EMULSION S. Ramesh Kumar1, 1 Dr. K.V.Krishna Reddy2 Associate Professor, Civil Engg. Department, MVSR Engineering College, Hyderabad, A.P 2 Professor, Civil Engineering Department, MVSR Engineering College, Hyderabad, A.P. ABSTRACT In developing countries, the main problem is to provide a complete network of road system with limited resources available. In this context construction cost can be considerably lowered by using the locally available materials with suitable stabilization techniques. In this study an attempt is made to use cationic bituminous emulsion for stabilization of medium plastic clays (CI). The results indicated that the soil requires pre-treatment with lime at 1% and an emulsion content of 3% yielded satisfactory results. Key Words: Soil Stabilization, Cationic Bitumen Emulsion, Medium Plastic Clay Soils. 1. INTRODUCTION Developing countries with predominantly rural population and an agrarian economy, need constructing a large network of village roads, market link loads and other minor link roads. With severe constraints in fund allocation, evolution of economical techniques for stage construction by stabilizing the various available materials at site assumed importance. Bituminous stabilization is one of the methods available for soil stabilization, where use of emulsion not only excludes heating and mixing but at the same time gives stable, crack free layers with less dust under wheel loads. In this investigation an attempt is made to first decrease the plasticity index of the medium plastic clay using lime as additive and evaluates the unconfined strength of the modified soil with cationic bituminous emulsion at various percentages. Attempt has also been made to check the effect of type of curing. 61
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Sharma and Sharma have reported that in treated clayey soils, the clay lumps may be individually coated and stuck together by a film of bituminous material, imparting strength due to increased material plugging the voids between the small clay lumps thus acting as water proofing agent for the compacted soil bitumen mix. Kezdi mentioned that the main function of asphalt is to cement the soil particles. Ramanujam and Jones stated that to avoid problems of fatigue cracking as a result of stiff payment layers in case of cement stabilization, use of lime/ flyash, emulsion/ cement and foamed bitumen are found satisfactory. Pual Guyer.J indicated that lime added to clay soils make them friable, thereby permitting asphalt to be adequately mixed. Ramanujam and Fernando have concluded that cracking problems have been observed in pavements stabilized using combinations of cement, lime and flyash, This is believed to be due to sensitivity of cementitiously bound pavements to vehicle overloading over soils with inadequate subgrade strength. Bituminous emulsions were found effective to be used to make the pavements flexible and hence relatively fatigue resistant. Such pavements can tolerate heavy rainfall with only minor surface damage under traffic and hence is less susceptible to the effects of weather than other methods of stabilization. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Material Selection Clay of medium plasticity has been procured from Vanaparthy, a place near to Hyderabad. Cationic bitumen emulsion as supplied by Hindustan petroleum with a viscosity of 450 at 250C is procured for experimentation. Hydraulic lime with 95% purity is procured locally. The properties of the soil and lime are tabulated in Table 1. Table 1 Properties of clay and lime used for experimentation S. No. 1 2 Property S. No. Value Grain Size Distribution 1.18mm 75 micron % 99 83 Atterberg Limits Liquid Limit (%) Plastic Limit (%) Plasticity Index 48 25 23 Property Clay Compaction properties Optimum moisture content (%) Maximum Dry Density (g/cc) 4 UCC (Kg/ 2 Sulphate 0.2% Aluminium Iron and insoluble matter 1.0% Arsenic 0.0004% 6 62 0.01% 4 2.9 Chloride 3 17 1.63 Calcium hydroxide 5 3 1 Lead 0.001% 95%
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 3.2 Decreasing the Plasticity Index of Clay Since stabilization with asphalt emulsions is recommended on soils with a plasticity index less than 10, the clay soil considered for experimentation was required to be made friable by addition of lime. Lime at the rate of 0.5% to 2% was added to study the relative decrease in the plasticity properties of the CI soil. 3.3 Stabilization with Bituminous Emulsion Lime treated clay soil with optimum lime content was considered for stabilization with Bituminous emulsion. Emulsion was added at the rate of 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% to the soil after one hour of addition of lime. Modified compaction tests were done on the Soil – lime – Bituminous mixes. Unconfined compressive strength tests were conducted at corresponding optimum moisture content and maximum dry density to check the improvement in the strength properties of the stabilized soil. 3.4 Curing of soil samples Moist and Air Drying of the soil samples was considered to check the improvement in Unconfined Compressive strength of the final mix. 4. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS The Plasticity properties of the clay treated with hydraulic lime are as tabulated in Table 2. With lime content increasing from 0.5 % to 2 % the Plasticity index has decreased to 7 at 1% and seized to be plastic at 1.5% lime addition. Table 2 Properties with lime addition % Lime addition by weight 0% 0.5% 1% Liquid Limit 48 46 42 Plastic Limit 25 31 35 Plasticity Index 23 15 7 OMC (%) 17 18.8 19 MDD (g/cc) 1.63 1.57 1.54 Property 1.5% Non – Plastic 19.2 1.52 Addition of emulsion was considered on the lime treated soil modified with 1.0% lime content. The properties of the soil-lime mix with emulsion content from 1% to 7% are as depicted in Table 3. The unconfined compressive strength (UCC) increased to 6.8 kg/sqcm at 3% emulsion content and decreased on further addition. Figure 1 shows the plot for UCC of emulsion stabilized lime treated clay soil. Table 3 Properties of lime treated Soil with Emulsion Property % of Bituminous Emulsion to lime treated soil 0% 1% 3% 5% OMC (%) 19 19.1 19.4 20 MDD (g/cc) 1.56 1.556 1.55 1.53 UCC 5.9 6.35 6.8 6.5 (Kg/Sqcm) 63 7% 21.3 1.50 6.4
  4. 4. Unconfined compressive stress (Kg/Sqcm) International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 8 7 6 5 4 0% Emulsion 1% Emulsion 3% Emulsion 5% Emulsion 7% Emulsion 3 2 1 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Strain (%) Figure 1 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Emulsion stabilised Lime treated Clay Soil The optimal Emulsion content was determined to be 3% to the 1% lime treated CI soil. Curing of the soil samples was done by wrapping in polythene and placed in wet sand to simulate wet curing conditions and some of the samples were Air dried. Unconfined Compressive strength tests were conducted on all the samples at the end of 3 days, 7 days,14 days and 28 days and the results are as depicted in Figure 2. Results indicated that air drying is more effective than moist curing. This probably is due to the fact that emulsion requires drying to expel volatiles. Unconfined Compressive Strength 10 8 6 Air Drying 4 Moist Curing 2 0 0 10 20 30 No of days of Curing Figure 2 UCC Vs No. of days of Curing for stabilized CI soil 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At the outset the authors would thank the Head, CED, MVSR Engineering College and Dr. V.R.Rengaraju for their valuable guidance and encouragement during experimentation. 64
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 6. CONCLUSION 1. CI soil with PI of 23 seized to be plastic at 1.5% lime addition and the plasticity index was reported to be 7 at 1% lime content. 2. Optimum Cationic Bituminous Emulsion for stabilization of 1% lime treated CI soil was found to be 3%. 3. Air drying of emulsion stabilized –lime treated CI soils yielded high UCC values in shorter period when compared to moist curing. 7. REFERENCES 1. J. Paul Guyer, P.E, “ Introduction to Soil Stabilization in Pavements” Course No: C03-028PDH 2. Kezdi, A. (1979), "Stabilized Earth Roads" Chapter 6. Elsevier Scientific Publisher Company, Amsterdam. 3. K.V.Krishna Reddy, “Stabilization of Medium Plastic Clays using Industrial Wastes”, 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013,pp. 38 - 44, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 5. K.V.Krishna Reddy, “Benefit Analysis of Subgrade and Surface Improvements in FlexiblePavements”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 385 - 392, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 6. K.V.Krishna Reddy, “Influence of Subgrade Condition on Rutting in Flexible Pavements- an Experimental Investigation”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 30 - 37, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 7. K.V.Krishna Reddy and K.P.Reddy, “Maturity Period and Curing as Important Quality Control Parameters for Lime Stabilized Clay Subgrades”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 393 - 401, ISSN Print:0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 8. Ramanujam, J M & Fernando, D P (1997).”Foamed Bitumen Stabilisation”. Main Roads Transport Technology Forum July 1997. 9. Ramanujam, J M & Joned.J.D.(2000), “Characterization of Foamed Bituminous Stabilization”, Road System and Engineering Technology Forum. 10. Sharma, R.C. and Sharma, S.K., (1985) "Principles, Practice and Design of Highway Engineering" S. Chand and Company LTD. Ram Nager, New Delhi-11055-India 65