International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
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20320130405004

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 22 FEASIBILITY OF BLENDING DRAINAGE WATER WITH RIVER WATER FOR IRRIGATION IN SAMAWA (IRAQ) KADHIM NAIEF KADHIM Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon-Iraq ABSTRACT This study is concerned with assessing suitability of drainage water of Alforat Alsharqi drainage for irrigation with or without treatment. The chemical and physical properties of drainage water and the nearest rivers water was studied, Included study the water of Euphrates river in Samawa. The strategy adopted for treatment drainage water it’s the blending strategy with fresh water of nearest river with different ratios start with B1 which represent (90% drainage water and 10% river water), B2 ( 80% drainage water and 20% river water ) and B3 ...... to B9( 10% drainage water and 80% river water ). Water samples were monthly taken from four locations, one from drainages water and one from rivers over the period from February 2012, to January 2013. These 24 samples were physically and chemically analyzed for EC, SAR, and PH. It is concluded that the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) for drainage water its less than 12 and this value its acceptable for irrigation. and We can use Drainage water for irrigation without any chemical materials by using Blending with river water. In case of salinity the drainage water of Alforat alshrqi it’s acceptable for irrigate the halophytes were the electrical conductivity (EC) its less than 8000 Micro Siemens/cm. KEY WORDS: Blending, Drainage, Euphrates, River, Water INTRODUCTION The Irrigation sector in different part of world including Iraq is a major water consumer to produce adequate food for increasing high population growth and meeting the MGD food goal. The challenges for the Iraq agriculture sector are to increase food production through effective management of the available and potential water sources including drainage and treated waste water and at the same time conserve and protect its environmental.( Ayers, R. S., and D. W. Westcot. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, pp. 22-32 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 23 1985). In Iraq, the water users in different districts and policy makers are showing increasing interest in increasing the reuse drainage water as means of augmenting dwindling useable water supplies. Water however its quality must meet crop tolerance to achieve optimal production and reduce environmental impact. The world’s irrigated area is currently estimated to be 260–270 million hectares. The past averaged annual growth was estimated 2% and has fallen to less than 1%. While only about 17 percent of the world’s cultivated land is irrigated, it produces one-third of the world’s fresh food harvest and about half of its wheat and rice production. It is predicted that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world’s irrigated land. In view of the role of irrigated agriculture as the “world’s food machine”, competition for water cannot be allowed to result in even lower food production growth rates, or an absolute reduction, of the world’s irrigated area. The challenge is therefore clearly to produce more food by enhance management measures and none conventional sources such as drainage and adequately treated wastewater source. ( FAO. (1992)). The most feasible options to meet the challenge to enhance the fresh water management are to reduce the amount of irrigation water applied and to reuse the non-consumed fraction of the irrigation water already diverted. It is well documented (Hill 1994; Frederiksen 1992) that, at the field level, a large part (typically half) of the applied irrigation water is not actually consumed by a given crop and therefore ends up as drainage water. Since much of the drainage water commonly becomes the source of the water for downstream irrigation schemes and for other uses, the water use efficiency computed at the basin level is usually much higher than it is at the field or irrigation scheme level. In many irrigated areas, however, there is ample scope for planned reuse of drainage water supported by increasing interest of decision makers and water users and both water users as means of augmenting dwindling useable water supplies.( Gupta, I.C.1979.) Both irrigation water quality and proper irrigation management are critical to successful crop production. The quality of the irrigation water may affect both crop yields and soil physical conditions, even if all other conditions and cultural practices are favorable/optimal. In addition, different crops require different irrigation water qualities. Therefore, testing the irrigation water prior to selecting the site and the crops to be grown is critical. The quality of some water sources may change significantly with time or during certain periods (such as in dry/rainy seasons), so it is recommended to have more than one sample taken, in different time periods. The parameters which determine the irrigation water quality are divided to three categories: chemical, physical and biological. In this review, the chemical properties of the irrigation water are discussed. The chemical characteristics of irrigation water refer to the content of salts in the water as well as to parameters derived from the composition of salts in the water; parameters such as EC/TDS (Electrical Conductivity/ Total Dissolved Solids), SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) alkalinity and hardness. The primary natural source of salts in irrigation water is mineral weathering of rocks and minerals. Other secondary sources include atmospheric deposition of oceanic salts (salts in rain water), saline water from rising groundwater and the intrusion of sea water into groundwater aquifers. Fertilizer chemicals, which leach to water sources, may also affect the irrigation water quality. Mohsen Seilsepour et.al (2009 and Yaohu Kang et.al (2010) CHARACTERIZING SALINITY There are two common water quality assessments that characterize the salinity of irrigation water. The salinity of irrigation water is sometimes reported as the total salt concentration or total dissolved solids (TDS). The units of TDS are usually expressed in milligrams of salt per liter (mg/L) of water. This term is still used by commercial analytical laboratories and represents the total number of milligrams of salt that would remain after 1liter of water is evaporated to dryness. TDS is also
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 24 often reported as parts per million (ppm) and is the same numerically as mg/L. The higher the TDS, the higher the salinity of the water The other measurement that is documented in water quality reports from com mercial labs is specific conductance, also called electrical conductivity (EC). EC is a much more useful measurement than TDS because it can be made instantaneously and easily by irrigators or farm managers in the field. Salts that are dissolved in water conduct electricity, and, therefore, the salt content in the water is directly related tothe EC. The EC can be reported based on the irrigation water source (ECw) or on the saturated soil extract (ECe). Units of EC reported by labs are usually in millimhos per centimeter (mmhos/cm) or decisiemens per meter (dS/m). One mmho/cm = 1 dS/m. EC is also reported in micrommhos per centimeter (µmhos/cm)(1µmho=1/1000). Often conversions between ECw and TDS are made, but caution is advised because conversion factors depend both on the salinity level and composition of the water (Stephen R. Grattan2002) . For example TDS (mg/L) = 640 x ECw (dS/m) when ECw < 5 dS/m TDS (mg/L) = 800 x ECw (dS/m) when ECw > 5 dS/m Sulfate salts do not conduct electricity in the same way as other types of salts Therefore, if water contains large quantities of sulfate salts, the conversion factors are invalid and must be adjusted upward. SALINITY EFFECTS ON CROPS The primary objective of irrigation is to provide a crop with adequate and timely amounts of water, thus avoiding yield loss caused by extended periods of water stress during stages of crop growth that are sensitive to water shortages. However, during repeated irrigations, the salts in the irrigation water can accumulate in the soil, reducing water available to the crop and hastening the onset of a water shortage. Understanding how this occurs will help suggest ways to counter the effect and reduce the probability of a loss in yield. The plant extracts water from the soil by exerting an absorptive force greater than that which holds the water to the soil. If the plant cannot make sufficient internal adjustment and exert enough force, it is not able to extract sufficient water and will suffer water stress. This happens when the soil becomes too dry. Salt in the soil-water increases the force the plant must exert to extract water and this additional force is referred to as the osmotic effect or osmotic potential. For example, if two otherwise identical soils are at the same water content but one is salt-free and the other is salty, the plant can extract and use more water from the salt-free soil than from the salty soil. The reasons are not easily explained. Salts have an affinity for water. If the water contains salt, more energy per unit of water must be expended by the plant to absorb relatively salt-free water from a relatively salty soil-water solution (Ayers and Westcot 1994). IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY CRITERIA Soil scientists use the following categories to describe irrigation water effects on crop production and soil quality: • Salinity hazard - total soluble salt content • Sodium hazard - relative proportion of sodium to calcium and magnesium ions • pH - acid or basic • Alkalinity - carbonate and bicarbonate • Specific ions: chloride, sulfate, boron, and nitrate
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 25 pH AND ALKALINITY The acidity or basicity of irrigation water is expressed as pH (< 7.0 acidic; > 7.0 basic). The normal pH range for irrigation water is from 6.5 to 8.4.. High pH’s above 8.5 are often caused by high bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) and carbonate (CO3 2- ) concentrations, known as alkalinity. High carbonates cause calcium and magnesium ions to form insoluble minerals leaving sodium as the dominant ion in solution. As described in the sodium hazard section, this alkaline water could intensify the impact of high SAR water on sodic soil conditions. Excessive bicarbonate concentrates can also be problematic for drip or micro-spray irrigation systems when calcite or scale build up causes reduced flow rates through orifices or emitters. In these situations, correction by injecting sulfuric or other acidic materials into the system may be required. (Bauder.et.al 2012) SODIUM HAZARD Although plant growth is primarily limited by the salinity (ECw) level of the irrigation water, the application of water with a sodium imbalance can further reduce yield under certain soil texture conditions. Reductions in water infiltration can occur when irrigation water contains high sodium relative to the calcium and magnesium contents. This condition, termed “sodicity,” results from excessive soil accumulation of sodium. Sodic water is not the same as saline water. Sodicity causes swelling and dispersion of soil clays, surface crusting and pore plugging. This degraded soil structure condition in turn obstructs infiltration and may increase runoff. Sodicity causes a decrease in the downward movement of water into and through the soil, and actively growing plants roots may not get adequate water, despite pooling of water on the soil surface after irrigation.The most common measure to assess sodicity in water and soil is called the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR): is a measure of the suitability of water for use in agricultural irrigation, as determined by the concentrations of solids dissolved in the water. It is also a measure of the sodicity of soil, The SAR defines sodicity in terms of the relative concentration of sodium (Na) compared to the sum of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) ions in a sample (Bauder.et.al 2012) . The SAR assesses the potential for infiltration problems due to a sodium imbalance in irrigation water. The SAR is mathematically written below by equation 1, where Na, Ca and Mg are the concentrations of these ions in mille equivalents per liter (meq/L). Concentrations of these ions in water samples are typically provided in milligrams per liter (mg/L). STUDY AREA The study area is shown in figure (1). The samples brings from Euphrates river and Al-Forat al-sharqi drainage in Samawa Governorate (IRAQ). The Project area is influenced by the prevailing climatic regime and soil characteristics in relation to crops productions. The climatic condition crop impact influence the yield, the surrounding the process of agricultural production such as soil and water resources, and includes the activity of workers in agriculture and vitality.
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 26 Fig (1): Study area The most dominate climatic factor is the rainfall region as influence soil moisture availability and water renewability in relation to the irrigation water requirement. The rainfall regime at the Samawa Governorate located within the dry region has average rainfall depth of 127.48 mm estimated for the period 1970-2010(Ministry of Science and Technology, General Authority, Climate Division). The rainfall regime is influence by the Mediterranean circulation system due to air depressions and erosion from travelling long distances and the high atmospheric air above the Arabian Peninsula during the cold season of the year. The other influencing factor is the soil characteristics. The soil is of gypsum type in parts of the western areas, and desert sand and gravel in the south western parts are generally loose soils where erosion is active because of the scarcity of natural vegetation and drought. Analysis results showed that the physical and chemical content of the soils were clay, silt and sand (9.2%) (5.7%) (85.1%), respectively. According to triangle tissues soil are sandy soils this mix of rough tissue. Either density virtual reached (1.67 g / cm3).(Al-Zubaidy A. 1990 & Al-Doory etc 1989). Area of work Al-forat Al-sharqi Drainage Euphrates river
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 27 The average soil properties were estimated for; the porosity (36%), while ,moisture content at field capacity (11%),organic matter (0.2%) gypsum (4.18%) and lime (11.9%) while for the (PH) at (7.7). he soil types are suitable for growing of variety of crops specially vegetables. The soil types variability in the governorate of Samawa has provided option of diverse of crops production and favorable environmental conditions has enhanced its potential development for various farming practices. (Fahad K. 2006). EXPERIMENTAL WORK In this study, bring samples of water drainage and river water taken from Euphrates river and Al-Forat al-sharqi drainage in Samawa Governorate (IRAQ). The analysis was implemented through determining the physical and chemical content of the collected water samples from two points along the study areas. Water samples were collected from the surface layer of the river (30) cm from the top, and bottles made of Water was collected in 5 liters capacity polyethylene bottles with the Nozzles closed tightly to prevent the entry of air after it has been homogenized. Drainage samples were collected from one collection point. The collection points sampling to estimate the Electrical conductivity (EC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). The monthly sampling was three samples per station and used the average value of three samples covering the period February 2012 to January 2013.The physical analyses focused on estimating Total Dissolved Solids, Temperature, Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity while the chemical analysis covered pH, Nitrate, Phosphate , Total Hardness, Potassium, Sulfate, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, and Sodium. The water sample of drainage water blending with water of nearest river with different ratios is shown in table (2). Table (2): Blending ratio (B) of the drainage and river water Blending ratio Drainage water % River water % B1 90 10 B2 80 20 B3 70 30 B4 60 40 B5 50 50 B6 40 60 B7 30 70 B8 20 80 B9 10 90 The laboratory test of the samples using the devise shown in figure (2).
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 28 EC meter Device flame photometer PH meter Fig.(2): Device test RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of laboratory test for Electrical conductivity (EC) for Euphrates river and Al-forat Al-sharqi drainage shown in figure (3). From figure (3) the Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from 6200 to 8200 Micro Siemens /cm at station of alforat alshrqi drainage. Maximum values were observed during the month July (8200) Micro Siemens/cm because the temperature at this month is very high (45-54)c and the amount of water is decrease on this month in the drainage, the lower value of EC observed during the month October because increased the recharge to the drainage . This value of EC (6200-8200) Micro Siemens/cm for alforat alsharqi drainage water , it can be use this water for irrigate Eucalyptus , date- palm ,barely , wheat(semi-dwarf) and cotton(Abbas Y. 2012 ).The Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from 3400 to 5300 Micro Siemens/cm at station of Euphrates river water and this water used to irrigate the land on Samawa Governorate. The results testing of blending ratios for Electrical conductivity (EC) shown in figure(4).
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 29 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Months 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 EC(Microsiemens/Cm) Euphrates River Alforat Alsharqi Drainge Fig (3): Electrical Conductivity (EC) Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Months 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 EC(microsiemens/Cm) B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 Fig (4): Electrical Conductivity For all Blending Ratios (EC) Figure (4) shows the monthly results for EC for each blending ratio between Euphrates river water and Al-forat Al-sharqi drainage water. For blending ratio B1 and B2 the EC ranged from 5900 to 7900 Micro Siemens/cm, so it can be used for irrigate Sorghum , the blending B4 would work for wheat irrigation and B7 for irrigate sunflower , thus for each rate.
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 30 The results of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) for Euphrates river and Al-forat Al-sharqi drainage shown in figure (5). The SAR ranged from 6.5 to 11.2 at Euphrates river . and ranged from 9.8 to 13 at Al forat Al sharqi drainage . from the test result and comparison with the US division (1985) . We can deduce that the water of these stations its acceptable for irrigation according to the ASR indicator where the SAR is less than 12. The results testing of Blending ratios (B) for SAR are shown in fig. (6) , we can conclude from this figure the values of SAR is less than 12,that the water of all Blending ratios is acceptable irrigation except September month at B1 Blending ratio the value of SAR greater than (12). from the result of EC and SAR testing we conclude the result of B1 Blending is acceptable for water quality used for irrigation in sandy soil type, and acceptable for irrigate to tolerant like (palm, barely wheat (semi dwarf) and cotton . B2 is like in B1 in addition its acceptable for Sorghum and sugar beet irrigation. B3 is like B1 and B2 .in addition for wheat irrigation. B4, the values acceptable for water quality used for irrigation in sandy soil type and acceptable for irrigation to tolerant like in B1, B2 and B3. In addition its acceptable for olive irrigation. B5 is like B1. B2, B3, and B4. In addition Sun Flower irrigation. B6 is like B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5 . In addition Corn and Oats irrigation. B7 is acceptable for water quality used for irrigation in all soil type. and like B1, B2, B3, B4 , B5 , and B6. In addition it is acceptable for rice and tomato irrigation . B8 and B9 Blending ratio showed that the water is in usual range in irrigation water. Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Months 6 8 10 12 14 SAR Euphrates River (R) Alforat Alsharqi Drainge Fig (5): Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 31 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Months 0 4 8 12 16 SAR B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 Fig (6): Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)For All Blending Ratios APPLICATION OF THE STUDY From the result of the study, we can use the drainage water for irrigation without any chemical material for treatment , the Blending between river water and the drainage water at different ratios by using two pumping stations , one of them is at the drainage and the other at the river . The discharge of the two pumps are flow at one pool (mixing operation). from this pool we can discharged the mixing water to the farm as shown in chart below . The amount of flow for each pump is depended on Blending ratio. Pumping Station Drainage River Pumping Station Chart For Blending (Mixing Pool) Farm
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 32 CONCLUSIONS 1- We can use Drainage water for irrigation without any chemical materials by using Blending with river water. 2- The SAR value for drainage water refer to the water of Al forat Alsarqi drainage is acceptable for irrigation use. 3- Each Blending ratio is acceptable for irrigation soil type and plant type. 4- B8 and B9 showed that the water is in usual range in irrigation water. REFERENCES (1) Abbas Y. (2012) (Feasibility of Blending Drainage water with River water for Irrigation in Nasiriya), Msc thesis, College of Engineering , Babylon University, IRAQ (2) Ayers, R. S., and D. W. Westcot. (1985). Water quality for agriculture. Irrigation and drainage. No. 29. Roma, Italy. FAO. (3) FAO. (1992). the use of saline water for crop production. Irrigation and Drainage Papers. No. 48. Rome, Italy. (4) Gupta, I.C.1979. A new classification and evaluation of quality of irrigation water for arid and semi- arid zones of India.Trans.Isdt and Ueds (5) Essam Khudair Hadithi, Ahmed Qubaisi, and Yas Khudair Hadithi, (2009), "modern irrigation techniques," Anbar University. College of Agriculture. (6) Jamal Abdel Nasser, Nazim, Shamkhi and, Awad Ali Sahar (2007) " Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation With Special Reference to Wasit Governorate. (7) M.R. Cannon, David A. Nimick, Thomas E. Cleasby, Stacy M. Kinsey, and John H. Lambing, (2004)" Measured and Estimated Sodium-Adsorption Ratios for Tongue River and its Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming" (8) Mohsen Seilsepour, Majid Rashidi and Borzoo Ghareei Khabbaz (2009):" Prediction of Soil Exchangeable Sodium Percentage Based on Soil Sodium Adsorption Ratio" American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 01-04, (9) Mohsen Seilsepour and Majid Rashidi(2008)" Modeling of Soil Sodium Adsorption Ratio Based On Soil Electrical Conductivity" ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science VOL. 3, NO. 5&6. (10) Richards,L.A.,Diagnosis and improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils,Agriculture Handbook No. 60, u.s Government Printing Office ,Washington , USA,1954 (11) R.S. Ayers and D.W. Westcot (1994), "Water quality for agriculture", FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29 Rev. 1. (12) Stephen R. Grattan (2002) "Irrigation Water Salinity and Crop Production" Oakland: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8066. (13) T.A. Bauder, R.M. Waskom, P.L. Sutherland and J. G. Davis* (5/11) (2012)- "Irrigation Water Quality Criteria" no. 0.506. (14) Yaohu Kang, , Ming Chen, Shuqin Wan (2010)." Effects of drip irrigation with saline water on waxy maize (Zea mays L. var ceratina Kulesh) in North China Plain ,Agric. Water Manage. 97 1303–1309. (15) Sunil Ajmera and Dr. Rakesh Kumar Shrivastava, “Water use Management Considering Single and Dual Crop Coefficient Concept Under an Irrigation Project: A Case Study”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 236 - 242, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. (15) Mustafa Hamid Abdulwahid and Kadhim Naief Kadhim, “Application of Inverse Routing Methods to Euphrates River (IRAQ)”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 97 - 109, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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