International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
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  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 68 ANALYSIS OF AN I.C. ENGINE USING WATER COOLING TECHNIQUE 1 WHALEED KHALAF JABBAR, 2 Dr. MOHAMMAD TARIQ 1 Department of Machinery and Equipment, Technical Institute/ Amara, Misan, Iraq 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, Sam Higginbotton Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Deemed University, Allahabad-211007, U.P, India ABSTRACT The current scenario is focused on the cooling of an IC engine when it runs at high speed for a long time. The many parameters are affected dif there would not be proper cooling of the engine. The one of the most important parameter is the efficiency and power of the engine. In the present paper, a non-intrusive thermometry method using full spectral analysis of cooling of an IC engine is developed for the analysis the performance of two and four stroke engine. The investigation is performed as a proof of concept, focusing on reliability and accuracy of the method. The performance is based on the various input parameters like compression ratio, Maximum possible temperature in the cylinder and speed of engine. The results have been drawn for two stroke and four stroke diesel engine by developing software in C++ and followed by the graphs plotted in Origin 6.1. The results have been shown Indicated power, Mechanical Efficiency, Mass of cooling required and thermal efficiency. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Petrol Engines In petrol engines the air-fuel ratio (AFR) is maintained at an approximately constant value of 14-16:1 by the carburetor or fuel injection system. The top temperature (T3) and the torque is determined by the amount of air-fuel mixture admitted by the throttle. Hence petrol engines are described as being quantity governed. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.8273 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volu Figure 1: represents the pressure volume diagram of a petrol engine In normal running - the flame front advances through the mixture at flame propagation speed after a short delay from spark ignition. In petrol engines air and fuel are pre combustion process proceeds as a flame front across the combustion chamber. If the design and mixture is correct then there are no problems but if rc > 9 Also, fuel will not ignite and burn except between air fuel ratio of 14.7 to 1 is the chemically ideal ratio (stoichiometric ratio) and the carburettor or fuel injection system attempts to provide this. 1.2 Diesel Engines In diesel engines varying amounts of fuel, in the form of very fine droplets, are injected into approximately the same amount of air, irrespective of the engine’s speed, to control the top temperature and the torque. The AFR therefore varies described as being quality governed. Fuel burns (after a slight delay) on injection. 'true') diesel cycle is shown below in which the process 2 cycle. Figure 2: represents the pressure volume diagram of a diesel engine The bottom cycle concept is designed on a four three cylinders taken as ignition cylinder, the engine exhaust pipe is coupled with a Rankine steam cycle system which uses the high temperature exhaust gas to generate steam; then, the steam is injected into steam expansion cylinder and expands in the cylinder. In this way, the Otto cycle (or diesel cycle) of traditional IC engine and the steam expansion cycle (open Rankine cycle) are coupled on IC engine. On this basis, the energy recovery potential of this bottom cycle is studied by cycle processes ca research results show that the recovery efficiency of exhaust gas energy is mainly limited by exhaust gas temperature. The maximum bottom cycle power can reach 19.2 kW and IC engine thermal efficiency can be improved by 6.3% at 6000 r/min. All those can prove this novel bottom cycle International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 69 represents the pressure volume diagram of a petrol engine the flame front advances through the mixture at flame propagation speed spark ignition. In petrol engines air and fuel are pre-mixed and ignited by an electric spark and the combustion process proceeds as a flame front across the combustion chamber. If the design and mixture is correct then there are no problems but if rc > 9 the mixture tends to explode prematurely. Also, fuel will not ignite and burn except between air-fuel ratios of between 10 and 20 to 1. An air fuel ratio of 14.7 to 1 is the chemically ideal ratio (stoichiometric ratio) and the carburettor or fuel on system attempts to provide this. amounts of fuel, in the form of very fine droplets, are injected into amount of air, irrespective of the engine’s speed, to control the top AFR therefore varies (typically 20-100:1), hence Diesel engines are described as being quality governed. Fuel burns (after a slight delay) on injection. 'true') diesel cycle is shown below in which the process 2-3 is constant pressure heat transfer to the represents the pressure volume diagram of a diesel engine The bottom cycle concept is designed on a four-cylinder naturally aspirated IC engine: with three cylinders taken as ignition cylinder, the last one is used for steam expansion cylinder; IC engine exhaust pipe is coupled with a Rankine steam cycle system which uses the high temperature exhaust gas to generate steam; then, the steam is injected into steam expansion cylinder and expands cylinder. In this way, the Otto cycle (or diesel cycle) of traditional IC engine and the steam expansion cycle (open Rankine cycle) are coupled on IC engine. On this basis, the energy recovery potential of this bottom cycle is studied by cycle processes calculation and parameters analysis. The research results show that the recovery efficiency of exhaust gas energy is mainly limited by exhaust gas temperature. The maximum bottom cycle power can reach 19.2 kW and IC engine thermal by 6.3% at 6000 r/min. All those can prove this novel bottom cycle International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – © IAEME represents the pressure volume diagram of a petrol engine the flame front advances through the mixture at flame propagation speed mixed and ignited by an electric spark and the combustion process proceeds as a flame front across the combustion chamber. If the design and the mixture tends to explode prematurely. fuel ratios of between 10 and 20 to 1. An air- fuel ratio of 14.7 to 1 is the chemically ideal ratio (stoichiometric ratio) and the carburettor or fuel amounts of fuel, in the form of very fine droplets, are injected into amount of air, irrespective of the engine’s speed, to control the top 100:1), hence Diesel engines are described as being quality governed. Fuel burns (after a slight delay) on injection. The ideal (or constant pressure heat transfer to the represents the pressure volume diagram of a diesel engine cylinder naturally aspirated IC engine: with last one is used for steam expansion cylinder; IC engine exhaust pipe is coupled with a Rankine steam cycle system which uses the high temperature exhaust gas to generate steam; then, the steam is injected into steam expansion cylinder and expands cylinder. In this way, the Otto cycle (or diesel cycle) of traditional IC engine and the steam expansion cycle (open Rankine cycle) are coupled on IC engine. On this basis, the energy recovery lculation and parameters analysis. The research results show that the recovery efficiency of exhaust gas energy is mainly limited by exhaust gas temperature. The maximum bottom cycle power can reach 19.2 kW and IC engine thermal by 6.3% at 6000 r/min. All those can prove this novel bottom cycle
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 70 concept has larger potential for energy saving and emission reduction on IC engine. Jianqin Fu, et al. [20] have proposed an open steam power cycle used for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery in order to improve IC engine energy utilization efficiency. P. Raman and N.K. Ram [31], have studied the performance of an internal combustion engine fueled with 100% producer gas was studied at variable load conditions. The engine was coupled with a 75 kWe power generator. Producer gas generated from a downdraft gasifier system was supplied to the engine. V. Pandiyarajan, et al. [21] have evaluated and reported the performance parameters pertaining to the heat exchanger and the storage tank such as amount of heat recovered, heat lost, charging rate, charging efficiency and percentage energy saved. The exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine carries away about 30% of the heat of combustion. The energy available in the exit stream of many energy conversion devices goes as waste, if not utilized properly. Zbyszko Kazimierski and Jerzy Wojewoda [23] have presented an old idea of how to increase the internal combustion (IC) piston engine. Such an engine has a 2-side action piston, which divides a single cylinder into two working parts. In these parts there are two usual 4-stroke engines which constitute one double IC engine, equipped with a slider-crank mechanism. The new engine may use bio-fuels as well. D. Descieux and M. Feidt [24] have proposed a generic methodology to simulate the static response of an IC engine and show the influence of several engine parameters on the power and efficiency. Moreover it puts in evidence the existence of two optimal engine speeds one relative to maximum power and the second to maximum efficiency. The thermodynamic performance of an air standard diesel engine with heat transfer and friction term losses is analyzed. Z.G. Sun et al. [25] have presented Energetic efficiency evaluation of the combined system of cold and heat, where primary energy rate (PER) and comparative primary energy saving are used. A combined system intended to be an alternative to provide cold and heat for buildings was set up. Comparison of energetic efficiency of the combined prototype system with contemporary conventional separate systems of cold and heat shows that energy utilization efficient is improved greatly, and there is a large potential for energy saving by the combined system of cold and heat. G. De Nicolao et al. [27] have examined the benefits and limitations of black-box approaches and compared. The problem considered here can be viewed as a realistic benchmark for different estimation techniques. The volumetric efficiency (ηv) represents a measure of the effectiveness of an air pumping system, and is one of the most commonly used parameters in the characterization and control of four-stroke internal combustion engines. 2. ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM 2.1 Necessity for cooling In an internal combustion engine, the fuel is burned within the engine cylinder. During combustion, high temperatures are reached within the cylinder, for example in a compression ignition engine as high as 2000-25000C is reached. About one third of the heat energy liberated b the burning fuel is converted into power. Another one third goes out through the exhaust pipe unused. The remaining one third flows into the various components of the engine, namely, cylinder, cylinder head, valves, spark plug (in SI engines), fuel injector (in CI engines) and pistons. This heat flow takes place during combustion and expansion processes. 2.2 Optimum cooling To avoid overheating, and the consequent ill effects mentioned above, the heat transferred to an engine component (after a certain level) must be removed as quickly as possible and be conveyed to the atmosphere. It will be proper to say the cooling system as a temperature regulation system. It should be remembered that abstraction of heat from the working medium by way of cooling the engine components is a direct thermodynamic loss.
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 71 Figure 3: Cylinder with fins 2.3 Thermosyphon cooling system When a vessel of cold water is heated, the hot water will tend to rise (by virtue of its lower density) and its place will be taken over by cold water. This causes a definite circulation within the water mass from top to bottom and vice versa. This is called natural convection. Figure 4: Water Cooling System of a 4-cylinder Engine The thermosyphon circulation cooling system is shown in fig. 4 works on this principle. In the thermo-syphon circulation cooling system, when the engine is cold the whole water is at the same temperature and is at rest. When the engine is operating, the water around the cylinder heads and cylinder walls gets heated and flow up to the top header tank of the radiator. Now the cold water from the lower part of the radiator flows and fills the coolant spaces in the cylinder head and the cylinder block. The hot water flows downward through the radiator tubes. This water is cooled by the stream that flows past the tubes. Air is sucked by the fan which is driven by the engine crankshaft. In this system, the water circulation through the cylinder, cylinder head and the radiator is by natural means. For success in operation, the passages through the jackets and radiator should be free and the connecting pipes large. Further the jackets should be placed as low as possible relatively to the radiator, in order that the hot leg shall have as great a height as possible. During operation the water level must on no account be allowed to fall below the level of the delivery pipe to the radiator top. If this happens, water circulation will cease. In general the thermo- syphon system requires a larger radiator and carries a greater body of water than the pump circulation system. Further, a somewhat excessive temperature difference is necessary to produce the requisite circulation. On the other hand, to some extent it automatically prevents the engine being run too cold. The thermo-syphon circulation cooling system is simpler in construction and operation. This system is used in some motor cars.
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 72 2.4 Heat Transfer The methods adopted for the calculation of quantity of water or air required for the cooling of the rated engine will be calculated on the basis of the basic equations used ion heat transfer. Conduction, Convection and Radiation are three modes of heat transfer in this case also. Q = hୟ A ሺTଵ െ Tଶሻ (1) Q = Quantity of convective heat transfer ha = Coefficient of convective heat transfer A = Area of surface ሺTଵ െ Tଶሻ = temperature difference between the fluid and the surface Coefficient of heat transfer hୟ ൌ ୕ ୘భି୘మ (2) The coefficient of convective heat transfer also known as film heat transfer coefficient and defined as the amount of heat transmitted for a unit temperature difference between the fluid and the unit area of the surface in unit time. The value of ha depends on the types of fluid, their velocities and temperatures, dimension of the pipe and the types of problem. Since ha depends upon several factors, it is difficult to frame a single equation to satisfy all the variation, however a dimensional analysis gives an equation for the purpose which is given under: ୦౗ୈ ୩ ൌ C ቀ ρ୚ୈ µ ቁ ୟ ቀ ୡ౦µ ୩ ቁ ୠ ቀ ୈ ୐ ቁ ୡ (3) N୳ ൌ ZሺRୣሻୟ ሺP୰ሻୠ ቀ ୈ ୐ ቁ ୡ (4) N୳ ൌNusselt number ୦౗ୈ ୩ Rୣ ൌ Reynolds number ቀ ρ୚ୈ µ ቁ P୰ ൌ Prandtle number ቀ ୡ౦µ ୩ ቁ ୈ ୐ ൌ Diameter to lenght ratio C = a constant determined experimentally c୮ ൌ Speciϐic heat at constant pressure K=thermal conductivity ρ ൌ Density µ ൌ Dynamic viscosity V=velocity
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 73 The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is given by; U ൌ ଵ భ ౞౗ ା ౮ ౡ ା భ ౞ౘ (5) Cooling water requirement: The heat rejected to the coolant greatly depends upon the type of the engine. It can be seen for a small high speed engine the heat rejected of the coolant can be as high as 1.3 times the B.P. developed, while for an open chamber engine it is only about 60% of the B.P. developed. The quantity of water required for cooling is given by Q୵ ൌ ୞ൈ୆.୔. ∆୲౭ (6) ∆t୵= permissible increase of temperature of cooling water Z is the constant which depends upon the fuel consumption and the compression ratio Area ሺAሻ ൌ π ସ Dଶ (7) k=0.5 for 4 stroke engine k=1 for 2 stroke engine Cp=(1.0189⨉103 )-0.13784⨉Ta+(1.9843⨉10-4 )⨉Ta2 +4.2399⨉10-7 ⨉Ta3 )-(3.7632⨉10-10 ⨉Ta4 ) (8) T୶ ൌ ୘య ୈൈ୘మ Tସ ൌ Tଷ⨉ሺT୶ሻγିଵ For Diesel cycle: η ൌ 1 െ ଵ γ ቂ ሺ୘రି୘భሻ ୘యି୘మ ቃ (9) Q୐ ൌ c୴ ൈ ሺTସ െ Tଵሻ (kJ) (10) Qୌ ൌ c୮ ൈ ሺTଷ െ Tଶሻ (11) Efficiency also calculated by η ൌ 1 െ ቂ ୕ై ୕ౄ ቃ W୬ୣ୲ ൌ Q୐ െ Qୌ (12) V୫ୟ୶ ൌ ୖ୘భ ୔భൈଵ଴଴ (13)
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 74 V୫୧୬ ൌ ୚ౣ౗౮ ቂ ౌమ ౌభ ቃ భ γ (14) P୫ୣ୮ ൌ ୛౤౛౪ ଵ଴଴⨉ሺ୚ౣ౗౮ି୚ౣ౟౤ሻ (15) IP ൌ ୬ൈ୔ౣ౛౦ൈ୐ൈ୅ൈ୒ൈ୩ൈଵ଴ ଺ (kW) (16) BP ൌ ଶൈπൈ୒ൈ୘౧ ଺଴଴଴଴ (kW) (17) FP = IP - BP (kW) (18) η୫ୣୡ୦ ൌ ୆୔ ୍୔ (19) η୮ ൌ 1 െ ଵ ቂ ౌమ ౌభ ቃ γషభ (20) Specific output (SO) is given by Brake output per unit of piston displacement SO ൌ ୆୔ ୅⨉୐ (21) Mass of fuel in cylinder for combustion MFB ൌ ୗ୊େ⨉୆୔ ଺଴ (kg/min) (22) Air consumption (AC) in cylinder for a given fuel AC=MFB⨉AFR (kg/min) Vୱ ൌ η౬⨉ୖ⨉ଵ଴଴଴⨉୘భ⨉୒ ଶ⨉୔భ⨉ଵ଴଴଴଴଴⨉୅େ (23) SFC ൌ ୑୊୆ ୆୔ (Kg/kWh) (24) η୍ ൌ ୍୔ ୑୊୆⨉େ୚ (25) η୆ ൌ ୆୔ ୑୊୆⨉େ୚ (26) For petrol engine, heat supplied is given by HS=MFB⨉CV Heat absorbed in indicated power IPE=IP⨉60 (kJ/min) Heat taken away by cooling water
  8. 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 75 Q୛ ൌ Qୌ ൈ ୔୉ ଵ଴଴ Mass of water circulated for cooling of engine is given by M୛ ൌ ୬ൈ୕౓ େ౓ൈሺ୘యି୘భሻ kg/s (27) Q୛ ൌ ୑౓ൈେ౓ሺ୘యି୘భሻ ଺଴ kJ/s (28) Heat taken away by exhaust gases is given by HG=MG⨉CPG⨉(Te-Tr) kJ/min (29) Dual Cycle Thermal Efficiency η୲୦ ൌ ୛౤౛౪ ୕౟౤ ൌ ୕౟౤ି୕౥౫౪ ୕౟౤ η୲୦ ൌ ൣୡ౬ሺ୘యି୘మሻାୡ౦ሺ୘రି୘యሻ൧ିୡ౬ሺ୘ఱି୘భሻ ൣୡ౬ሺ୘యି୘మሻାୡ౦ሺ୘రି୘యሻ൧ η୲୦ ൌ 1 െ ୘ఱି୘భ ሺ୘యି୘మሻାγሺ୘రି୘యሻ ୡ౦ ୡ౬ ൌ γ , hence η୲୦ ൌ 1 െ ౐ఱ ౐భ ିଵ ౐య ౐భ ି ౐మ ౐భ ାγቀ ౐ర ౐భ ି ౐య ౐భ ቁ η୲୦ ൌ 1 െ ଵ ୰ౙ γషభ ቂ αሺβሻγିଵ ሺαିଵሻାγαሺβିଵሻ ቃ (30) The dual cycle approximates to the processes within a modern high speed diesel engine. In petrol engines, and large slow speed (< 500 RPM) diesels, the pressure rise because of combustion is comparatively rapid (relative to piston speed) and the cycle can be reasonably approximated by the constant volume or OTTO cycle. 3.13 Engine Performance The basic performance parameters of internal combustion engine (I.C.E) may be summarized as follows: Indicated power (IP): IP power could be estimated by performing a Morse test on the engine. IP = PmLAN where N is the number of machine cycles per unit times, which is 1/2 the rotational speed for a four- stroke engine, and the rotational speed for a two- stroke engine.
  9. 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 76 Brake power (BP) The break power is given by: BP ൌ ଶπ୒୘ ଺଴ kW where T is the torque Friction power (FP) and Mechanical efficiency (િ‫ܕ‬) The difference between the IP and the BP is the friction power FP and is that power required to overcome the frictional resistance of the engine parts, FP = IP – BP The mechanical efficiency of the engine is defined as η୫ ൌ ୆୔ ୍୔ η୫ is usually between 80% and 90% Indicated mean effective pressure (imep) It is a hypothetical pressure which if acting on the engine piston during the working stroke would results in the indicated work of the engine. This means it is the height of a rectangle having the same length and area as the cycle plotted on a p- v diagram. imep (Pi) =(Net area of the indicator diagram/Swept volume) ⨉ Indicator scale Consider one engine cylinder: Work done per cycle = Pi AL where A = area of piston; L = length of stroke Work done per min = work done per cycle X active cycles per min. IP = Pi AL⨉ active cycles/ min To obtain the total power of the engine this should be multiplied by the number of cylinder (n), i.e.: Total IP = Pi AL Nn/2 for four- stroke engine and = PiALNn for Two- stroke engine
  10. 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 77 Brake mean effective pressure (bmep) and brake thermal efficiency The bmep (Pb) may be thought of as that mean effective pressure acting on the pistons which would give the measured BP, i.e. BP = Pb AL ⨉ active cycles/ min The overall efficiency of the engine is given by the brake thermal efficiency, η୆୘ i.e. η୆୘ ൌ ୆୰ୟ୩ୣ ୮୭୵ୣ୰ ୉୬ୣ୰୥୷ ୱ୳୮୮୪୧ୣୢ η୆୘ ൌ ୆୔ ୫౜ൈ୕౤౛౪ where m୤ is the mass of fuel consumed per unit time, and Q୬ୣ୲ is the lower calorific value of the fuel. Specific fuel consumption (sfc) It is the mass of fuel consumed per unit power output per hour, and is a criterion of economic power production. sfc ൌ ୫౜ ୆.୔. Kg/kWh Low values of sfc are obviously desired. Typical best values of bsfc for SI engines are about 270g/kWh, and for C.I. engines are about 200g/kWh. Indicated thermal efficiency (η୍୘ ) It is defined in a similar way to η୆୘ η୍୘ ൌ ୍୔ ୫౜ൈ୕౤౛౪ η୫ ൌ ୆୔ ୍୔ Volumetric efficiency (η୴ ሻ Volumetric efficiency is only used with four- stroke cycle engines. It is defined as the ratio of the volume if air induced, measured at the free air conditions, to the swept volume of the cylinder: η୴ ൌ ୴′ ୴౩ where air volume v′ may be refereed to N.T.P. to give a standard comparison. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the following sections, the results have been calculated by developing software in C++ and the graphs plotted by using menu driven software “origin 50”. The tables shows the input values taken for the different results and by varying one or two parameters and keeping other parameters constants.
  11. 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 78 Table 1: Input values used for calculation 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 No. of Cylinder=2 No. of Cylinder=3 No. of Cylinder=4 No. of Cylinder=5 No. of Cylinder=6 IndicatedPower(kW) MaximumTemperaureinCylinder (K) Figure 5: Variation of Indicated Power with maximum temperature for different no. of cylinders 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6 MechanicalEfficiency Maximum Temperature of the Cylinder (K) Figure 6: Variation of mechanical efficiency with cylinder temperature for no. of cylinders 2 and 4 STROKE ENGINES S. No. Description Values 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Compression Ratio (CR) Initial Temperature T1 Torque (Tq) Speed (N) Cylinder Diameter (D) Cylinder Length (L) Constant (K) Initial Pressure (bar)Pa Lower Calorific Value (CV) Mass of Cooling (Mw) Maximum Temperature (T3) 10 300 K 100 N-m 1500 rpm 0.11 m 0.14 m 1 1.01325, 42000 kJ/kgK 15 kg/min 1500-2000K
  12. 12. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 79 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 IndicatedPower(kW) Maximum Temperature in Cylinder (K) No of Cylinders=2 2 Stroke Engine 4 Stroke Engine Figure 7: Variation of Indicated Power with maximum temperature 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 MechanicalEfficiency Maximum Temperature inside the Cylinder (K) No. of Cylinders = 2 2 Stroke Engine 4 Stroke Engine Figure 8: Variation of Mechanical Efficiency with maximum temperature 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 50 100 150 200 250 IndicatedPower(kW) Compression Ratio Number of Cylinders=2 Number of Cylinders=3 Number of Cylinders=4 Number of Cylinders=5 Number of Cylinders=6 Figure 9: Variation of Indicated Power with Compression ratio
  13. 13. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 80 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 MechanicalEfficiency Compression Ratio 2 Stroke Engine Number of Cylinders=2 Number of Cylinders=3 Number of Cylinders=4 Number of Cylinders=5 Number of Cylinders=6 Figure 10: Variation of Mechanical Efficiency with Compression Ratio Table 2: Input values taken for results 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 No. of Cylinders=2 2 Stroke Engine 4 Stroke Engine IndicatedPower(kW) Compression Ratio Figure 11: Variation of Indicated Power with Compression Ratio 2 and 4 STROKE ENGINES S. No. Description Values 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Maximum Cylinder Temperature (T3) Initial Temperature (T1) Torque Speed (N) Diameter (D) Crank Length (L) Constant (K) Initial Pressure (Pa) Lower Calorific Value (CV) Mass of Cooling (Mw) Compression Ratio (CR) 2000 K 300 K 100 N-m 1500 rpm 0.11 m 0.14 m 1 1.01325 bar 42000 kJ/kgK 15 kg/min 4-24
  14. 14. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 81 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 No. of Cylinders=2 2 Stroke Engine 4 Stroke Engine MechanicalEfficiency Compression Ratio Figure 12: Variation of Mechanical Efficiency with Compression Ratio Table 3: Input values used for results 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 2 Stroke Diesel Engine No. of Cylinders=2 No. of Cylinders=3 No. of Cylinders=4 No. of Cylinders=5 No. of Cylinders=6 IndicatedPower(kW) Shaft Speed (rpm) Figure 13: Variation of Indicated Power with Engine Speed 2 and 4 STROKE ENGINES S. No. Description Values 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Maximum Cylinder Temperature (T3) Initial Temperature (T1) Torque Speed (N) Diameter (D) Crank Length (L) Constant (K) Initial Pressure (Pa) Lower Calorific Value (CV) Mass of Cooling (Mw) Compression Ratio (CR) 2000 K 300 K 100 N-m 1500-2000 rpm 0.11 m 0.14 m 1 1.01325 bar 42000 kJ/kgK 15 kg/min 10
  15. 15. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 82 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 2 Stroke Diesel Engine Indicated Power Brake Power Friction Power Power(kW) Shaft Speed (rpm) Figure 14: Variation of Power with Engine Speed 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 No. of Cylinders=2 2 Stroke Diesel Engine 4 Stroke Diesel Engine IndicatedPower(kW) Shaft Speed (rpm) Figure 15: Variation of Indicated Power with Shaft Speed In the following paragraphs, the graphs have been plotted for the requirement of water for the cooling of IC engines for various configurations. 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 2 Stroke Engine No. of Cylinders=2 25% of Energy going to coolant 30% of Energy going to coolant 35% of Energy going to coolant 40% of Energy going to coolant MassofCoolingWaterRequired(kg/s) Maximum Temeprature in the Cylinder (K) Figure 16: Variation of Cooling water required with maximum temperature
  16. 16. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 83 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 30%of Power to cooling water 2 Stroke Engine No. of Cylinders=2 No. of Cylinders=3 No. of Cylinders=4 No. of Cylinders=5 No. of Cylinders=6 MassofCoolingWaterRerquired(kg/s) Maximum Temperature in the Cylinder (K) Figure 17: Variation of Cooling water required with maximum temperature 0 5 10 15 20 25 0.085 0.090 0.095 0.100 0.105 0.110 0.115 0.120 0.125 0.130 0.135 0.140 0.145 0.150 0.155 0.160 0.165 0.170 0.175 0.180 2 Stroke Engine No. of Cylinders=2 25% of Energy to Cooling water 30% of Energy to Cooling water 35% of Energy to Cooling water 40% of Energy to Cooling water MassofCoolingWaterRequired(kg/s) Compression Ratio Figure 18: Variation of Cooling water required with Compression Ratio 0 5 10 15 20 25 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 30% Energy Transfer to Cooling Water No. of Cylinders=2 Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Enigne Mechanical Efficiency of Diesel Enigne Thermal Efficiency of Petrol Enigne Efficiency Compression Ratio Figure 19: Variation of Efficiency with Compression Ratio
  17. 17. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 84 2 3 4 5 6 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 2 Stroke Engine 25% Energy Transfer to Cooling Water 30% Energy Transfer to Cooling Water 35% Energy Transfer to Cooling Water 40% Energy Transfer to Cooling Water CoolingWaterRequired(kg/s) No of Cylinders Figure 20: Variation of Cooling water required with No. of Cylinders 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 0 20 40 60 80 Power(kW) Speed (rpm) Indicated Power Brake Power Friction Power Figure 21: Variation of Power with Engine Speed 4 8 12 16 20 24 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2 Stroke and 2 Cylinders Power(kW) Compression Ratio Indicated Power Brake Power Friction Power Figure 22: Variation of Power with Compression Ratio
  18. 18. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 85 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 0 20 40 60 80 2 Stroke and 2 Cylinder Indicated Power Brake Power Friction Power Power(kW) Speed (rpm) 4 Stroke and 2 Cylinder Indicated Power Brake Power Friction Power Figure 23: Variation of Power with Engine Speed for different no. of cylinders CONCLUSION On increasing the maximum temperature of the cylinder, the indicated power increase for a given engine. On increasing the number of cylinders it increases. For 6 cylinder engine it is more compared to 2 or 3 cylinder engine. Mass of cooling water required is decreases with increasing the compression ratio. On increasing the number of cylinders for a given engine, mass of cooling water required also increases. Indicated power increases on increasing the shaft speed for a given engine. Power developed in 2 strokes and 2 cylinders is more than the power developed in 4 stroke and 2 cylinders engine with other parameters same. Mechanical efficiency decreases on increasing the compression ratio. At low compression ratio it decreases more rapidly but on higher values of compression ratio it is almost constant. REFERENCE [1] Desai AD, Bannur PV. Design, fabrication and testing of heat recovery system from diesel engine exhaust. J Inst Engrs 2001;82:111–8. [2] Morcos VH. Performance of shell-and-dimpled-tube heat exchangers for waste heat recovery. Heat Recovery Syst. CHP 1988;8(4):299–308. [3] Lee Dae Hee, Lee Jun Sik, Park Jae Suk. Effects of secondary combustion on efficiencies and emission reduction in the diesel engine exhaust heat recovery system. Appl. Energy 2010;87:1716–21. [4] Medrano M, Yilmaz MO, Nogues M, Martorell I, Roca Joan, Cabeza Luisa F. Experimental evaluation of commercial heat exchangers for use as PCM thermal storage systems. Appl Energy 2010;86:2047–55. [5] Talbi M, Agnew B. Energy recovery from diesel engine exhaust gases for performance enhancement and air conditioning. Appl Therm Eng 2002;22:693–702. [6] Zhang LZ. Design and testing of an automobile waste heat adsorption cooling system. Appl Therm Eng 2000;20:103–14. [7] Anderson LZ, Robert Nation H. Waste heat recovery system for an internal combustion engine. United States patent; 1982 [4351,155]. [8] Dincer Ibrahim. Thermal energy storage as a key technology in energy conservation. Int J Energy Res 2002;26:567–88.
  19. 19. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 86 [9] Zalba Belen, Jose Marin M, Cabeza Luisa F, Mehling Harald. Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications. Appl Therm Eng 2003;23:251–83. [10] Sharma Atul, Tyagi VV, Chen CR, Buddhi D. Review on thermal energy storage with phase change material and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2009;13:318–45. [11] Jagadheeswaran S, Pohekar Sanjay D. Performance enhancement in latent heat thermal storage system: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2009;13: 2225–44. [12] Velraj R, Seeniraj RV, Hafner B, Faber C, Schwarzer K. Heat transfer enhancement in a latent heat storage system. Int J Solar Energy 1999;65(3):171–80. [13] Enibe SO. Performance of a natural circulation solar air heating system with phase change material energy storage. Renew Energy 2002;27:69–86. [14] Cheralathan M, Velraj R, Renganarayanan S. Performance analysis on industrial refrigeration system integrated with encapsulated PCM based cool thermal energy storage system. Int J Energy Res 2007;31:1398–413. [15] Nallusamy N, Sampath S, Velraj R. Study on performance of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage integrated with solar water heating system. J Zhejiang Univ Sci A 2006;7:1422–30. [16] Schatz Oskar. Cold start improvement by use of latent heat stores. Automotive Eng J 1992:1458–70. [17] Vasiliev LL, Burak VS, Kulakov AG, Mishkinis DA, Bohan PV. Latent heat storage modules for preheating internal combustion engines: application to bus petrol engine. Appl Therm Eng 2000;20:913–23. [18] Korin E, Reshef R, Tshernichovsky D, Sher E. Reducing cold start emission from internal combustion engines by means of a catalytic converter embedded in a phase change material. Proc Inst Engrs 1999;213:575–83. [19] Subramanian SP, Pandiyarajan V, Velraj R. Experimental analysis of a PCM based IC engine exhaust waste heat recovery system. Int Energy J 2004;5(2):81–92. [20] Jianqin Fu et al., “An open steam power cycle used for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery”, Energy 44 (2012) 544e554 [21] V. Pandiyarajan et al, “Experimental investigation on heat recovery from diesel engine exhaust using finned shell and tube heat exchanger and thermal storage system”, Applied Energy 88 (2011) 77–87 [22] Youngchul Ra and Rolf D. Reitz, “A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels”, Combustion and Flame 158 (2011) 69–90 [23] Zbyszko Kazimierski and Jerzy Wojewoda, “Double internal combustion piston engine”, Applied Energy 88 (2011) 1983–1985 [24] D. Descieux and M. Feidt , “One zone thermodynamic model simulation of an ignition compression engine”,Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 1457–1466 [25] Z.G. Sun et al., “Energetic efficiency of a gas-engine-driven cooling and heating system”, Applied Thermal Engineering 24 (2004) 941–947 [26] Georges Descombes et al., “Study of the interaction between mechanical energy and heat exchanges applied to IC engines”, Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 2061–2078 [27] G. De Nicolao et al., "Modelling the Volumetric Efficiency of IC Engines: Parametric, Non- Parametric and Neural Techniques", Control Eng. Practice, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 1405-1415, 1996. [28] Angad S. Panesar et al., "Working fluid selection for a subcritical bottoming cycle applied to a high exhaust gas recirculation engine", Energy 60 (2013) 388-400. [29] Jianqin Fu et al., "A New Approach for Exhaust Energy Recovery of Internal Combustion Engine: Steam Turbocharging", Applied Thermal Engineering 52 (2013) 150-159.
  20. 20. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 68-87 © IAEME 87 [30] Charles Sprouse and Christopher Depcik, "Review of Organic Rankine Cycles for Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery", Applied Thermal Engineering 51 (2013) 711-722. [31] P. Raman and N.K. Ram, "Performance analysis of an internal combustion engine operated on producer gas, in comparison with the performance of the natural gas and diesel engines", Energy xxx (2013) 1-17. [32] Y.Y. Hsiao et al., "A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine", Energy 35 (2010) 1447–1454. [33] Y. Huangfu et al., "Development of an experimental prototype of an integrated thermal management controller for internal-combustion-engine-based cogeneration systems", Applied Energy 84 (2007) 1356–1373. [34] M. Mostafavi and B. Agnew, "Technical note: Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Diesel Engine and Absorption Refrigeration Unit-Supercharged Engine with Intercooling", Applied Thermal Engineering. Vol. 16, No. 11, pp. 921-930, 1996. [35] Rogers & Mayhew “Internal Combustion Engines”, Eastop & McConkey Richard Stone. 2007. [36] Ajeet Kumar Rai, Nirish Singh and Vivek Sachan, “Experimental Study of a Single Basin Solar Still With Water Cooling of the Glass Cover”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 1 - 7, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [37] Aed Ibrahim Owaid, Mohammad Tariq, Salah Subhe Abd and Rasim Abbas, “Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Space Heating System using Evacuated Tubes Solar Collector in Baghdad, Iraq Climate”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 5, Issue 3, 2014, pp. 115 - 129, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [38] Bhavik M.Patel, Ashish J. Modi and Prof.(Dr.) Pravin P. Rathod, “Analysis of Engine Cooling Waterpump of Car & Significance of its Geometry”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 100 - 107, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. AUTHOR’S DETAIL Dr. MOHAMMAD TARIQ, Assistant, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shepherd School of Engineering and Technology, SHIATS-DU, Allahabad. Mr. WHALEED KHALAF JABBAR is a student of M. Tech, Department of Mechanical Engineering (T.E), Sam Higginbotton Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007, U.P, India. He did his B.E from Department of Automotive technology, Technical college– Najaf, Iraq. He has a work experience of 6 years in the field of automotive Maintenance technology (Technical Institute/ Amara, Misan, Iraq) and teaching. His areas of interest are Thermal Engineering and Production.

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