20120140502020

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20120140502020

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 168-172, © IAEME 168 A NOVEL U-SLOT CIRCULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR TRIPLE BAND OPERATION Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Government College, Gulbarga-585105, Karkataka, India ABSTRACT In this communication a novel design and development U slot loaded circular microstrip antenna is presented for triple band operation. The antenna has a volume of 8 X 5 X 0.16 cm3 and operates between the frequency range of 5.57 to 8.34 GHz giving a maximum impedance bandwidth of 10.34 % with a peak gain of 1.85 dB. The simple commercially available glass epoxy substrate material is used to fabricate the antenna. The microstripline feed arrangement is incorporated to excite the antenna. The antenna shows linearly polarized broadside radiation characteristic. The design detail of the antenna is described. The experimental results are presented and discussed. This antenna may find applications for systems operating in C and X-band frequencies. Keywords: Circular Microstrip Antenna, Slits, Triple Band. 1. INTRODUCTION The modern communication systems are requiring the compact and multi featured antennas. The microstrip antennas have become attractive candidates to suit the need of the hour in handling the transmit/receive action in emerging communication applications like WLAN, WiMax and HIPERLAN/2, 3G-4G mobile systems, because of their numerous inherent features like low profile, low fabrication cost, ruggedness, planar configuration, light weight, integrability with MMICs and ease of installation [1]. The triple and multiple band antennas are realized by many methods such as, slot on the patch, arrays, use of stubs and shorts, various shapes of meander slots [2-5] etc. But in this study a simple circular microstrip antenna with U shaped slot placed at the center of the patch is used to achieve triple band operation. This kind of antenna structure is found to be rare in the literature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 168-172 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.8273 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 168-172, © IAEME 169 2. ANTENNA DESIGN The low cost commercially available glass epoxy substrate material of thickness h = 0.16 cm and εr = 4.2 is used to fabricate the conventional circular microstrip antenna (CCMSA) and U slotloaded circular microstrip antenna (UCMSA). The art work of proposed antennas is sketched using auto-CAD software to achieve better accuracy. The antennas are etched using the photolithography process. Figure 1: Top view geometry of CCMSA Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of CCMSA. The radiating patch radius R is designed for the resonant frequency of 3.5 GHz, using the basic equations available in the literature [6]. A quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt is used between lower semicircle of the patch and microstripline feed of length Lfeed and width Wfeed for matching their impedances. A semi miniature-A (SMA) connector of 50 impedance is used at the tip of the microstripline to supply the microwave power. Figure 2: Top and bottom view geometry of UCMSA
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 168-172, © IAEME 170 Figure 2 shows the top and bottom view geometry of UCMSA. The U shaped slot of horizontal and vertical arm lengths h and v is placed at the center of the radiating patch. The H shaped slot of width 1 mm having horizontal and vertical arm lengths Hh and Hv is placed on the ground plane such that the middle point of this slot coincides with the center of the radiating patch. The dimensions R, h, v, Hh and Hv are taken in terms of λ0 , where λ0 is a free space wave length in cm corresponding to the designed frequency of 3.5 GHz. Table 1 gives the design parameters of the CCMSA and UCMSA. Table 1: Design parameters of the CCMSA and UCMSA Antenna R Lfeed Wfeed Lt Wt A B H v Hh Hv CCMSA 1.227 2.18 0.32 1.097 0.07 5 8 - - - - UCMSA 1.227 2.18 0.32 1.097 0.07 5 8 λ0/10 λ0/2 λ0/5 λ0/2 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Vector Network Analyzer (The Agilent N5230A: A.06.04.32) is used to measure the experimental return loss of CCMSA and UCMSA. Figure 3 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of CCMSA. From this figure it is seen that, the CCMSA resonates at 3.31 GHz of frequency which is close to the designed frequency of 3.5 GHz. The experimental bandwidth is calculated using the formula, 2 1 c f f Bandwidth (%) = f − × 100 where, f2 and f1 are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonated band when its return loss reaches -10dB and fc is a centre frequency between f1 and f2. The bandwidth of CCMSA is found to be 3.0 %. Figure 3: Variation of return loss versus frequency of CCMSA
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 168-172, © IAEME 171 Figure 4: Variation of return loss versus frequency of UCMSA Figure 4 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of UCMSA. It is clear from this figure that, the antenna operates for three bands BW1 = 10.34 % (5.59-6.20 GHz), BW2 = 4.91% (6.94-7.29 GHz) and BW3 = 6.69 % (7.8-8.34 GHz) for the resonating modes of f1, f2 and f3 respectively. The BW1 is due to the fundamental resonance of the patch. The bands BW2 and BW3 are due to the U shaped slot present on the radiating patch. Further it can be noted that, the insertion of the H shaped slot on the ground plane helps to give the frequency ratio f2/f1 of about 1.206, which indicates the flexibility to design dual and triple bands. Figure 5: Radiation pattern of UCMSA measured at 5.895 GHz The far field co-polar and cross-polar radiation patterns of the proposed antenna is measured in its operating band. The typical radiation pattern of UCMSA measured at 5.895 GHz is shown in Fig. 5. From this figure it is observed that, the pattern is broadsided and linearly polarized. The gain of the proposed antenna is calculated using absolute gain method given by the relation, ( ) 0r t λPG (dB) = 10 log - (Gt) dB - 20 log dB P 4πR       where, Pt and Pr are transmitted and received powers respectively. R is the distance between transmitting antenna and antenna under test. The peak gain of UCMSA measured in BW1 is found to be 3.14 dB.
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, F 4. CONCLUSION From this study it is concluded that, with a maximum bandwidth of about 10.34 % and a frequency ratio of 1.206. broadside radiation characteristics with a peak gain of substrate material with simple design and fabrication. operating in C and X-band frequencies. REFERENCES 1. Constantine A. Balanis,“Antenna theory : analysis and (1997). 2. Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband microstri Antennas”, Artech House, Boston, London, 2003. 3. S. V. Shynu, G. Augastin, C. K. Aanandan, loaded reconfigurable microstrip 4. S. T. Fang and K. L. Wong, “A a pair of narrow slots,” Microwave 5. J. H. Lu and K. L Wong “Slot Compact dual - frequency operation”, 6. Bahl, I. J. and P. Bhartia, “Microstrip 7. M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas for Quad and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET) pp. 165 - 171, ISSN Print: 0976 8. Nagraj Kulkarni and S. N. Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Inverted U Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Wlan Applications” and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET) ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 9. Gangadhar P Maddani, Sameena N Mahagavin Microstrip Array Antennas For Wide Triple Band Operation Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET) 2010, pp. 53 - 61, ISSN Print: 0976 BIO-DATA Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of Electronics Government field of Microwave Electronics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 168-172 172 From this study it is concluded that, UCMSA gives triple bands between 5.57 to 8.34 a maximum bandwidth of about 10.34 % and a frequency ratio of 1.206. The antenna exhibits broadside radiation characteristics with a peak gain of 1.85 dB. The proposed antenna uses low cost material with simple design and fabrication. This antenna may find applications frequencies. Constantine A. Balanis,“Antenna theory : analysis and design”, John Wiley, Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband microstri Antennas”, Artech House, Boston, London, C. K. Aanandan, P. Mohanan and K. Vasudevan, microstrip antenna, Electron Lett. 42(2006), 316-318. Wong, “A dual frequency equilateral – triangular microstrip Microwave Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 23, pp. 82 “Slot Loaded meandered rectangular microstrip operation”, Electronic Letters, Vol. 34, pp. 1048- 1050, “Microstrip Antennas”, Artech house, New Delhi, 1980. M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas for Quad-Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 20 171, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Nagraj Kulkarni and S. N. Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Inverted U - Slot Triple Band Tunable strip Antenna for Wlan Applications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Gangadhar P Maddani, Sameena N Mahagavin and Shivasharanappa N Mulgi Microstrip Array Antennas For Wide Triple Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume , ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni received his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of Electronics Government Degree College Gulbarga. He is an active researcher in the field of Microwave Electronics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 2, © IAEME 5.57 to 8.34 GHz The antenna exhibits dB. The proposed antenna uses low cost This antenna may find applications for systems Wiley, New York, Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband microstri Antennas”, Artech House, Boston, London, Vasudevan, C- shaped slot microstrip antenna with pp. 82-84, 1999. microstrip antenna With 1050, 1998. Artech house, New Delhi, 1980. M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole International Journal of Electronics , Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, Slot Triple Band Tunable International Journal of Electronics , Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1 - 9, Shivasharanappa N Mulgi, “Rectangular International Journal of , Volume 1, Issue 1, his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of e Gulbarga. He is an active researcher in the

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