20120140502014 2

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20120140502014 2

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127, © IAEME 121 PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SSBR STYRENE 40%, VINYL CONTENT 46% BASED TRUCK TYRE TREAD CAP COMPOUNDS WITH LPCA AND HPCA OILS N. Kumar1 , P. L. Meena1 , A. S. Meena1 and K. S. Meena2 1 Department of Chemistry, M. L. S. University, Udaipur, Rajasthan-313001, India 2 Department of Chemistry, M. L. V. Govt. College, Bhilwara, Rajasthan-311001, India ABSTRACT Oils are organic substances added to polymers to improve their flexibility and process ability. They increase the softness, elongation and low temperature flexibility and decrease the concentration of intermolecular forces and the glass transition temperature, Tg of polymers. The aim of this research was to investigate the physical-mechanical properties of sSBR regular and sSBR LPCA (styrene 40%, Vinyl content 46%) Type-I based Truck Tyre Tread cap compound with LPCA oils and a regular HPCA oil (TCR). Four different oils base formulation were investigated (unaged) three with LPCA oils, one with regular HPCA oil. The influence of LPCA oil on physical- mechanical properties was evaluated. Keywords: Carcinogenic, HPCA, LPCA, Physical-Mechanical Properties. 1. INTRODUCTION Due to the rapid growth in population, the numbers of vehicles are increasing every day. The chemical content of tyre was investigated in detail by the European tyre producers association. High content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widely used as aromatic process oils for the manufacturing of oil-extended natural or synthetic rubber also in finished tyres. However, various studies report a potential carcinogenicity of these oils after tumours have been observed in mice skin painting tests. The European legislation (EU Substance Directive 67/548/EEC) classifies these distillate aromatic extracts as ‘Carcinogenic’ and allocates the risk phrase ‘R45’ (may cause cancer) and the label ‘T’ (skull and cross-bones) to these mineral oil products The Kemi study, published in 1994 in Sweden, highlighted the environmental problems arising from the use of these potentially carcinogenic products in tyre treads .Non-carcinogenic alternatives have been developed to replace INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 4.1710 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127, © IAEME 122 distillate aromatic extracts in rubber and tyre formulations. These new products also known as MES and TDAE process oil can be made via the solvent extraction or hydro-treating process in various oil refineries. In this research work, study has been carried out with low PCA oils, which have shown some development in compound properties. Therefore it is essential to reduced HPCA contain in tyres by any other means to save health and to prevent environmental pollution. 2. EXPERIMENTAL 2.1. Materials To examine the influence of LPCA contain on physical mechanical properties of truck tyre tread cap compound .In this research sSBR based (Regular sSBR and LPCA sSBR) rubber was used and four different oils were used (Three LPCA, one Regular HPCA). TABLE 1 S.N. Material Required 1 sSBR having regular aromatic oil 2 sSBR having low PCA oil Type-I 3 Regular oil 4 Low PCA oil i. Oil No. -A ii. Oil No.-B iii. Oil No.-C 4 Filler N339 black 5 ZnO 6 Stearic Acid 7 6PPD 8 MC Wax 9 MS 40 10 S 11 TBBS 12 DCBS 13 PVI 2.2. Test methods In order to investigate the physical mechanical properties of tire tread cap compound. The green rubber compounds were cured in according ASTM D3182 in an electrically heated hydraulic curing press using compression moulding. The moulding conditions followed to cure the compounds were: 141° C for 45 minutes for the stress-strain, and 141°C for 1 h for the determination of abrasion loss and rebound resilience. The tensile properties were measured using a Zwick UTM 1445 in accordance with SS-ISO 37 and SS-ISO 34. The hardness was measured with a Shore A Durometer, M/s Prolific Engineers, New Delhi, India (SS-ISO 7619) and with a dead load IRHD tester, M/s H. W. Wallance and Company Ltd., UK (SS-ISO 48). The abrasion loss at 10 N loads was measured in a Zwick DIN Abrader (SS-ISO 4649).
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127, © IAEME 123 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The detailed of Physical-Mechanical Properties of Regular sSBR and LPCA sSBR (styrene 40%, Vinyl content 46%) Based Truck Tyre Tread Cap Compound unaged with LPCA and HPCA Oils are reported as. TABLE 2- 100% Modulus Unaged S.N. Oils Grade 100% Modulus 1 TCR 1.9 2 Low PCA Oil-A 5.6 3 Low PCA Oil-B 5.7 4 Low PCA Oil-C 5.7 TABLE 4- Tensile Strenth (M.Pa) Unaged S.N. Oils Grade Tensile Strenth(M.Pa) 1 TCR 17.6 2 Low PCA Oil-A 16.9 3 Low PCA Oil-B 18.3 4 Low PCA Oil-C 17.8 TABLE 3- 300% Modulus Unaged S.N. Oils Grade 300% Modulus 1 TCR 9.4 2 Low PCA Oil-A 10.2 3 Low PCA Oil-B 10.6 4 Low PCA Oil-C 10.5 TABLE 5- Hardness (S) Unaged S.N. Oils Grade Hardness (S) 1 TCR 58 2 Low PCA Oil-A 60 3 Low PCA Oil-B 61 4 Low PCA Oil-C 60 TABLE- 6- Tear Strenth (N/mm) Unaged S.N. Oils Grade Tear Strenth (N/mm) 1 TCR 43.4 2 Low PCA Oil-A 39.1 3 Low PCA Oil-B 40.0 4 Low PCA Oil-C 43.6
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127, © IAEME 124 TABLE 7 - Abrasion Loss (mm3 ) Unaged S.N. Oils Grade Abrasion Loss (mm3 ) 1 TCR 76 2 Low PCA Oil-A 58 3 Low PCA Oil-B 56 4 Low PCA Oil-C 59 TABLE 8 -Rebound Resiliance at Room Temparature Unaged S.N. Oils Grade Rebound Resiliance R.T. 1 TCR 50 2 Low PCA Oil-A 45 3 Low PCA Oil-B 45 4 Low PCA Oil-C 44 TABLE 9 Rebound Resilience 700 C Unaged S.N. Oils Grade Rebound Resilience 700 C 1 TCR 67 2 Low PCA Oil-A 60 3 Low PCA Oil-B 60 4 Low PCA Oil-C 59 TABLE 10- Eleogation Break % Unaged S.N. Oils Grade E. B. % 1 TCR 468 2 Low PCA Oil-A 449 3 Low PCA Oil-B 446 4 Low PCA Oil-C 441 FIGURE 1- 100% Modulus Unaged FIGURE 2- 300% Modulus Unaged
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127, © IAEME 125 FIGURE 3- Tensile Strenth (M.Pa) Unaged FIGURE 4 - Hardness Unaged FIGURE 5 -Tear Strenth Unaged FIGURE 6 -Abrasion Loss Unaged FIGURE 7-Rebound Resiliance Unaged FIGURE 8- Rebound Resiliance Unaged
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127, © IAEME 126 FIGURE 9- Elongation Break Unaged 4. CONCLUSIONS From this study it is concluded that the effect of Aromatic contain on Physico-Mechanical Properties of sSBR regular and sSBR LPCA ( styrene 40% ,Vinyl content 46%) type-I based Truck Tyre Tread cap compound with LPCA oils , a regular HPCA oil that some properties are pretentious with LPCA oils. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank S. Das Gupta, HASETRI, Kankroli, Rajasthan for Supporting and guiding this work. 6. REFERENCES 1. C. Flanigan, L. Beyer, D. Klekamp, D. Rohweder and D. Haakenson, Rubber & Plastics News, http://www.rubbernews.com, using bio-based plasticizers, alternative rubber, 2013, 15- 19. 2. R. C. Gupta, S. Blessen and G. Prachi, Utilization of copper slag and discarded rubber tyres in construction, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering 3(2), 2012, 271-281. 3. B. Paweł, G. Pawel and M. Jerzy, Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Offroad Vehicle Tire: Coupons Testing and Fe Model Development Acta Mechanica et Automatica, 6 (2), 2012, 17-22. 4. Al. Puşcă, Ş. Bobancu A. Duţă, Mechanical Properties of Rubber - an Overview, Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov 3(52), 2010 , 107-114. 5. R. Ali, M. Dehestani and P. Rahmatabadi, Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire–rubber particles Waste Management 28, 2008, 2472–2482. 6. S. Dasgupta,, S. L. Agrawal, S. Bandyopadhyay, S. Chakraborty,R. Mukhopadhyay, R. K. Malkani, and S. C. Ameta, Characterization of eco-friendly processing aids for rubber compound part-ii, Polymer Testing, 27(3), 2008, 277-283. 7. S. Vytautas, S. Gintautas, G. Audrius and M. Kęstutis, Acoustical Characteristics and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Plaster with Rubber Waste Additives, Materials science (Medžiagotyra). 13(4), 2007, 304-309.
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 121-127, © IAEME 127 8. S. Dasgupta,, S. L. Agrawal, S. Bandyopadhyay, S. Chakraborty,R. Mukhopadhyay, R. K. Malkani, and S. C. Ameta, Characterization of eco-friendly processing aids for rubber compound, Polymer Testing, 26(4), 2007, 489-500. 9. A. Benazzouk, O. Douzane, K. Mezerb, and M. Queneudec, Physico-Mechanical Properties of Aerated Cement Composites Containing Shredded Rubber Waste Cement Concrete Composites 28, 2006, 650 – 657. 10. M. Nehdi and A. Khan, Cementitious Composites Containing Recycled Tire Rubber: an Overview of Engineering Properties and Potential Applications Cement Concrete Aggregate ASTM, 23 (1), 2001, 3 – 10. 11. Internet “Definitions of terms relating to oil”. 12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. 1995. 13. ATSDR, Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Toxicity. Case Studies in Environmental Health Medicine 13. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 19, 1990. 14. Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services, Division of Public Health, Bureau of Environmental Health,Chemical Fact Sheet, PAHs, 2004. 15. (PAH) – Version 4, February 2001. Opinion expressed at the 24th CSTEE plenary meeting. Brussels, 12 June 2001 http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/sct/out108_en.html. 16. H.Ismail, H. Anuar and Y. Tsukahara, Effects of Palm Oil Fatty Acid on Curing Characteristics, Reversion and Fatigue Life of Various Natural Rubber Compounds, Polymer International, 48, 1999, 607-613. 17. A.S. Meena, Rishikesh, Shribai and R.C. Meena, “Photochemical Study of Micelles in Photogalvanic Cell for Solar Energy Conversion and Storage”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 17 - 26, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 18. A.S. Meena, P.L. Meena, M. Chandra, R. Meena, Shribai and R.C. Meena, “Electrochemical Studies of Anionic and Cationic Surfactants in Photogalvanic Cell for Solar Energy Conversion and Storage”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 180 - 187, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976- 6553.

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