International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 0976 – MANAGEMENT (IJM)
OF 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 2, February ...
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10120140502011

  1. 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 0976 – MANAGEMENT (IJM) OF 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 3.2150 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM ©IAEME ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES WITH PTSD AND ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEE TURNOVER Prof. Pooja Mohanty Assistant Professor, English & Business Communication, School of Management KIIT University Prof. Debiprasad Das Assistant Professor, OB & HR, School of Management KIIT University ABSTRACT In the present era, the role of women in organizational growth is tremendous. But violence against women has also had a considerable growth. An attempt is made to bridge the research gap between the psychologically or emotionally tortured women and their organisational behaviour and performance and to gauge its effects on the turnover of the organization. A person experiencing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) often faces a number of chronic psychological ailments. The purpose of this study, hence, is to bring about a prolific understanding of the work-productivity of women employees with PTSD and the impact of such employees’ condition (performance) on the company turnover. An attempt is also made to find the desired solution to this problem as a step towards the psychological well-being of working women and thereby to negate its ill effects, if any, on employee turnover. Keywords: Organizational Behaviour, PTSD, Women Employees, Performance, Employee Turnover. INTRODUCTION Torture inflicted upon a person, leaves behind a perennial impression on the mind of the victim. This impression becomes, in the course of time, a part of the sustained system of belief of the concerned individual and later becomes a compulsive part of the personality of the individual, which can be cured through certain treatments (Basoglu, Paker, Ozmen, Tasdemir, Sahin, 1994). 75
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME Psychological treatments available for torture survivors include psychodynamic approaches, insight therapy, testimony method, cognitive therapy, and cognitive –behavioural treatment, etc. (Basoglu and Aker, 1996). Women, since the early ages, have been continuously subjected to one or the other type of torture. It is sometimes physical and at other times, emotional or psychological. According to various studies made, the trauma resulting from the torture takes its toll in multiple aspects of the life and personality of the concerned. A series of changes take place in the person’s approach to life and in the perception of the incidents. This rigorous metamorphosis results in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Basoglu et al, 1994; Basoglu and Paker, 1995; Basoglu et al, 1996).This affects the approach of the victim towards his/her work and life in general. Hence, a proper treatment is necessary to enable the victim lead a near-normal life (Vesti, Kastrup, 1992; Skylv, 1992; Cooper and Clum, 1989). India has the world’s largest number of professionally qualified women in the world. It has more working women than any other country in the world. This includes female workers at all levels of skill- from the surgeon and the airline pilot to bus conductors and menial labourers (according to an E-Review in JBMA, by the Team from Larsen & Tourbo Limited, 2009). Irrespective of the number of working women, the number of cases relating to torture, whether physical, emotional or psychological is ample. A number of studies have been made on this since 1980’s. These are carried out to study the psychological consequences of different types of torture. These studies (Allodi & Cowgill, 1982; Rasmussen & Lunde, 1980; Kjaersgaard & Genefke, 1977; Cathcart et al., 1979; Lund et al., 1980; Abildgaard et al., 1984; Domovitch et al., 1984; Peterson et al., 1985; Peterson & Jacobsen, 1985; Allodi et al., 1985; Hougen et al., 1988; Jensen et al., 1982; Mollica et al., 1987; Paker et al., 1992; Beebe, 1975; Tennant et al., 1986; Kluznik et al., 1986; Miller et al., 1989) have brought about a significant exposure to the understanding of the condition of the victims. Numerous similar studies have been made in this area. Yet, there are still a few questions unresolved. Is a person under this state of mind, capable of leading a near-normal life and how does this affect her work-life? Is she capable of carrying out her work properly? If not, what reformatory step/steps could be taken towards the improvement of the condition she is in? A research conducted recently found that the Performance of an organization is negatively and insignificantly associated with employee turnover, workload, work stress (which could be the result of various factors including PTSD), salary, and family to work conflict. The result of the research study provided evidences of a negative relationship between the dependent variables of organizational performance with the Independent variables like, employee turnover, workload, work stress, salary, family to work conflict, etc., (Tariq, Ramzan and Riaz, 2013). DEFINITION Psychological torture This is the creation of extreme fear in a position of uncontrollability. Physical torture is almost invariably accompanied by psychological torture, or the experience of extreme fear. Not infrequently, psychological torture occurs in the absence of physical torture. Examples are threats to oneself or one’s family, mock executions, sexual verbal assaults, abuse with excrement, forced nudity. Psychological torture was extremely wide spread in the 1980s. It can be extremely effective in causing both short term and long term damage and should not be considered a lesser form of torture (According to the report, ‘Breaking the Silence, Building True Peace, A report on the disturbances in Matabeland and the Midlands, 1980-1989, Summary Report). In 1975, the World Medical Association defined torture as “the deliberate, systematic, or wanton infliction of physical and mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone or on the 76
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME orders of any authority to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason” (Basoglu, Marks, 1988). In the Article 1of the Declaration on the elimination of violence against women in UN General Assembly resolution 48/104 of December, 1993, the meaning of the term, "violence against women" means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life (United Nations, General assembly, Distr. Generasl, A/RES/48/104, 23 February 1994). The meaning of torture is anguish of body or mind; the infliction of intense pain or to punish; coerce, or afford sadistic pleasure. With time, the definition of torture has also undergone refinement. • The physical and mental suffering deliberately inflicted upon a human being by any other human being. • The infliction of suffering, upon anyone for any purpose- or for no purpose (Kanchan, Mohan Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, and Yoganarasimha, 2007). The Tokyo Declaration of the World Medical Association in 1975, defined torture in relation to detention and prison as “the deliberate or intentional systematic wanton infliction of physical of mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone, or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any reason”. (Kanchan, Mohan Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, and Yoganarasimha, 2007). TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TORTURE Psychological torture could be of many types. For example, the war-victims are forced to undergo several activities which account for a serious mental turbulence. The following are some such methods adopted by the tormentors for the purpose. 1. Deprivation techniques comprises of Sensory Deprivation- victim is hooded or blindfolded and kept in dark room for long time. Perceptual Deprivation- Victim is blindfolded and frequently transferred from one place to another Social Deprivation- Solitary confinement in a dark environment. Deprivation of basic needs- Withholding food, water, toilet facilities, sleep, clothing etc. 2. Coercion techniques The victim is compelled or coerced to perform or to witness actions that cause mental anguish. 3. Threats and humiliation Direct threat, or threat directed towards family members, relatives, friends etc. along with humiliation. 4. Communication techniques The victim is mentally tortured by giving a variety of confusing, contradicting and false information regarding tragedy involving close relatives. (Kanchan, Mohan Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, and Yoganarasimha, 2007). From another study we can perceive psychological ill-treatment, as "death or mutilation threats", "false accusations", blackmail or light threat", "forcing to humiliating behaviour", etc., 77
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME watching others being tortured, "death or mutilation threats against the family, friends or colleagues", "being detained in prison with tortured persons", "forcing to watch or listen to torture or killing of others"), deprivation of basic life resources like, "food and water deprivation", "normal sleep deprivation", "deprivation of medical care or drugs", (Jovic and Opacic, 2003) DOMESTIC TORTURE Women are often in great danger in the place where they should be safest, that is, within their families. For many, ‘home’ is where they face a regime of terror and violence at the hands of somebody close to them – somebody they should be able to trust. Those victimized suffer physically and psychologically. They are unable to make their own decisions, voice their own opinions or protect themselves and their children for fear of further repercussions. Their human rights are denied and their lives are stolen from them by the ever-present threat of violence (Mehr Khan, in a report of UNICEF, Innocenti Digest, 2000). Further, it defines domestic violence as, “violence by an intimate partner and by other family members, wherever this violence takes place and in whatever form.” Domestic Violence against Women Industrialized Countries Canada _ 29% of women (a nationally representative sample of 12,300 women) reported being physically assaulted by a current or former partner since the age of 16. Japan _ 59% of 796 women surveyed in 1993 reported being physically abused by their partner. New Zealand _ 20% of 314 women surveyed reported being hit or physically abused by a male partner. Switzerland _ 20% of 1,500 women reported being physically assaulted according to a 1997 survey. United Kingdom _ 25% of women (a random sample of women from one district) had been punched or slapped by a partner or ex-partner in their lifetime. United States _ 28% of women (a nationally representative sample of women) reported at least one episode of physical violence from their partner. Asia and the Pacific Cambodia _ 16% of women (a nationally representative sample of women) reported being physically abused by a spouse; 8% report being injured. India _ Up to 45% of married men acknowledged physically abusing their wives, according to a 1996 survey of 6,902 men in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Korea _ 38% of wives reported being physically abused by their spouse, based on a survey of a random sample of women. Thailand _ 20% of husbands (a representative sample of 619 husbands) acknowledged physically abusing their wives at least once in their marriage. 78
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME Middle East Egypt _ 35% of women (a nationally representative sample of women) reported being beaten by their husband at some point in their marriage. Israel _ 32% of women reported at least one episode of physical abuse by their partner and 30% report sexual coercion by their husbands in the previous year, according to a 1997 survey of 1,826 Arab women. Africa Kenya _ 42% of 612 women surveyed in one district reported having been beaten by a partner; of those 58% reported that they were beaten often or sometimes. Uganda _ 41% of women reported being beaten or physically harmed by a partner; 41% of men reported beating their partner (representative sample of women and their partners in two districts). Zimbabwe _ 32% of 966 women in one province reported physical abuse by a family or household member since the age of 16, according to a 1996 survey. Latin America and the Caribbean Chile _ 26% of women (representative sample of women from Santiago) reported at least one episode of violence by a partner, 11% reported at least one episode of severe violence and 15% of women reported at least one episode of less severe violence. Colombia _ 19% of 6,097 women surveyed have been physically assaulted by their partner in their lifetime. Mexico _ 30% of 650 women surveyed in Guadalajara reported at least one episode of physical violence by a partner; 13% reported physical violence within the previous year, according to a 1997 report. Nicaragua _ 52% of women (representative sample of women in León) reported being physically abused by a partner at least once; 27% reported physical abuse in the previous year, according to a 1996 report. Central and Eastern Europe/CIS/Baltic States Estonia _ 29% of women aged 18-24 fear domestic violence, and the share rises with age, affecting 52% of women 65 or older, according to a 1994 survey of 2,315 women. Poland _ 60% of divorced women surveyed in 1993 by the Centre for the Examination of Public Opinion reported having been hit at least once by their ex-husbands; an additional 25% reported repeated violence. Russia (St. Petersburg) _ 25% of girls (and 11% of boys) reported unwanted sexual contact, according to a survey of 174 boys and 172 girls in grade 10 (aged 14-17). Tajikistan _ 23% of 550 women aged 18-40 reported physical abuse, according to a survey. 79
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME (Adapted from “Violence Against Women,” WHO, FRH/WHD/97.8, “Women in Transition,” Regional Monitoring Report, UNICEF 1999, and a study by Domestic Violence Research Centre, Japan.) EFFECTS OF TORTURE ON WOMEN 1. Symptoms and Consequences of torture: There are 121 different types of post-traumatic disorders: 72 types of physical, 41 types of psychological and 8 types of social economical after-effects of torture. All the interviewees experienced both physical and psychological post-traumatic effects (100%), and socioeconomic effects (70%) (This is derived from a checklist, Torture: the Grave of Human Rights, written by KRCT, Hangyeorae Publishing: Seoul, 2004, p.143, 149. This checklist was originally derived from the Istanbul Protocol and the books published by the IRCT in 1992, 1995, 1997, International Rehabilitation Council of Torture Victims. (Report prepared by KRTC by Byun, Kim and Jo, 2005). According to various other studies, the psychological symptoms of the torture-victims have multi-dimensional existence. (Agger and Jensen, 1990). These have been amply documented. These include psychosomatic symptoms like, pain, nervousness, insomnia, nightmare, tremor, weakness, fainting, sweating, diarrhoea, etc., behavioural changes like, withdrawal, suspiciousness, irritability, aggressiveness, impulsiveness, suicidal tendencies, depression, phobia, etc., and cognitive impairment like confusion, disorientation, memory defects, loss of concentration, etc.( Allodi & Cowgill, 1982). Similar studies were made by Rasmussen & Launde, 1980; Launde, 1982; Domovitch et al., 1984, etc. Another study (Basoglu, 1984) also depicts symptoms like, feelings of defeat, helplessness, hopelessness and ultimately depression. According to this study, there could be irritability, generalized anxiety, and sleep disturbance, outbursts of hostility and aggressive behaviour, and aggravated condition of the depressed mood (Falcon, Ryan and Chamberlain, 1985). According to another study, depending on type method and duration of torture, outcome can vary from mild to severe physical, psychological and social trauma. Physical consequences can be early or delayed in form of severe pain, haemorrhage, infection, scars, mutilation, disfiguration etc. (Basoglu, M. Paker, O. Paker, Ozmen, Marks, Incesu, Sahin, Sarimurat, 1994). Psychological consequences include anxiety, depression, phobia, sleep disturbances, alcohol/ drug abuse, post traumatic stress disorders, suicidal tendencies etc. ( Basoglu et al., 1994) Social consequences are related to social stigma, unemployment, negativity in social activities etc. (Kanchan, M. Kumar, P. Kumar, and Yoganarasimha, 2007). Irrespective of who the victim is, the consequences have to be similar. Rather those could be more intense when the victim is a woman with dual responsibilities of family, as well as, job. Similar types of torture, especially domestic, when inflicted upon women, the effects or the trauma caused by it play havocs on the organizational behaviour and performance of working women. This is more because, if the victim is exposed to the external environment before adequate treatment (Basoglu, 1992; Falcon, Ryan and Chamberlain, 1985), and carrying with her, her own changed perception of the events, the consequences are aggravated (Lindy et al., 1983; Horowitz et al., 1984). This can be treated through several psychological therapies (Marks, 1987; Gelder, Marks and Wolff, 1967; Marks, 1985; Marks, 1988). Irrespective of the organization the victim is working with and the kind of job she is into, she encounters a chain of undesirable consequences. Performance suffers at the cost of psychic imprisonment. Mobility and flexibility of thought and understanding are paralysed and everything seems ambiguous to the victim. Decision-making ability is also tainted. And hence, these repercussions could be many-folded. Psychological torture on women could be of several forms. It could be domestic abuse or spousal abuse (occurs when one of the partners tries to subjugate the other partner in the relationship by using tactics like fear, intimidation, humiliation, blames or threats. The abuser may use any of 80
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME these tricks, in order to gain absolute command over the relationship, and manipulate it to suit his needs) (Porcerelli, Patricia,West, Binienda, and Cogan, 2006); it could be external, that is, eveteasing, negative criticisms, persisting fear of personal security of women, etc. (Allodi F., Randall, G.R., Lutz, E.L., 1985).This happens most often in the work place. All this affects the performance of an individual to a large extent. When women are forced to live in this atmosphere for long, a considerable change takes place in their perception and there by, in their personality resulting in increased ratio of absenteeism and poor performance in the organization. 2. Effects of domestic torture on women The table below shows the different types of violence against women throughout the life cycle (Table 1). Phase Table 1 - Examples of Violence against Women throughout the Life Cycle Type of violence Pre birth Sex-selective abortion; effects of battering during pregnancy on birth outcomes Infancy Sex-selective abortion; effects of battering during pregnancy on birth outcomes Girlhood Child marriage; female genital mutilation; physical, sexual and psychological abuse; incest; child prostitution and pornography Adolescence and Adulthood Dating and courtship violence (e.g. acid throwing and date rape) economically coerced sex (e.g. school girls having sex with “sugar daddies” in return for school fees); incest; sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution and pornography; trafficking in women; partner violence; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse; abuse of women with disabilities; forced pregnancy. Elderly Forced “suicide” or homicide of widows for economic reasons; sexual, physical and psychological abuse. (Source: “Violence Against Women”, WHO., FRH/WHD/97.8) 81
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME Table 2 - Health Consequences of Violence against Women NON-FATAL OUTCOMES Physical health outcomes: • Injury (from lacerations to fractures and internal organs injury) • Unwanted pregnancy • Gynaecological problems • STDs including HIV/AIDS • Miscarriage • Pelvic inflammatory disease • Chronic pelvic pain • Headaches • Permanent disabilities • Asthma • Irritable bowel syndrome • Self-injurious behaviours (smoking, unprotected sex) Mental health outcomes: • Depression • Fear • Anxiety • Low self-esteem • Sexual dysfunction • Eating problems • Obsessive-compulsive disorder • Post-traumatic stress disorder FATAL OUTCOMES • Suicide • Homicide • Maternal mortality • HIV/AIDS (Source: “Violence against Women”, WHO Consultation, 1996) The above tables clearly exhibit the consequences of torture on women. The effect of the violence, whether physical or psychological, gives rise to a series of imbalanced circumstances in the victim’s everyday life. It is evident that such a person would not be able to perform the way she could have performed in the normal conditions. Hence, this study has been made as an attempt to trace the different consequences a person could face as a result of torture and abuse. In yet another study, to investigate the impact of purely psychological torture, Metin Basoglu of King's College London, UK, and colleagues surveyed 279 survivors of torture from the former Yugoslavia. Between 2000 and 2002 the survivors answered questions about the nature of the torture they endured. The majority of them had endured beating and other forms of physical torture, including electric shocks, tooth extractions and suffocation. But about 20 of the survivors 82
  9. 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME experienced purely psychological manipulations, such as sham executions or the torturing of family members and threats of rape. The researchers collected medical assessments of whether the torture survivors showed signs of PTSD - a form of lasting anxiety. They found no difference in the prevalence of this disorder between the two groups. Basoglu says the findings challenge the common perception that psychological torture is less distressing than physical torture. "Implicit in this distinction is a difference in the distressing nature of the events. The evidence takes issue with that," he says. "And since psychological torture is as bad as physical torture, we shouldn't use it." (Khasmi, 2007). The findings chime with previous work, say others. "The conclusions are completely consistent with what those subjected to these draconian practices have reported," Rubenstein says. He points out that US Senator John McCain, who experienced torture as a prisoner of war in Vietnam, has said that if he were forced to make a decision between enduring psychological or physical torture, he would not hesitate to pick the latter (Khamsi, 2007). "Torture generates extremely bad intelligence data" and is "enormously counterproductive", according to bioethicist Steven Miles at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, US (Khamsi, 2007). Hence, it holds clarity that the torturer does not necessarily gain out of the act of torturing the victim. 3. Organisational behaviour and performance of psychologically tortured women Women have shown a similar vigour and enthusiasm in their work-life as men. Their performance has also been akin to that of men. Several researches have already been carried out in the arena of similarities and differences between men and women employees in an organization. The question, now in context, is not a comparison between men and women employees. Rather, it is a study made to bring into the forefront the behaviour and performance of those working women who are the victims of torture. It is evident that a woman with PTSD finds it extremely difficult to manage the episodes of both her personal, as well as, organizational behaviour. Her behaviour, hence performance, would not tally with that of the non-PTSD women. Hence, treatment of the same becomes inevitable (Marks, 1987; Basoglu and Aker, 1990). A study made by Mckinsey & Company shows that women are better organizational and financial managers than men. After an extensive work on relationship between organization and financial performance and on the number of women who are managers at different companies, Mckinsey has found, first, that the companies around the world with the highest scores on nine important dimensions of organization—from leadership and direction to accountability and motivation—are likely to have higher operating margins than their lower-ranked counterparts do (Table 3). Table 3 (Source: A Business Case for Women; The Mckinsey Quarterly, 2008) 83
  10. 10. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME Second, among the companies for which information on the gender of senior managers was available, six, which had three or more women on their senior-management teams scored higher on all nine organizational criteria than did companies with no senior-level women (Table 4) (Desvaux, Devillard-Hoellinger, and Meaney, 2008). Table 4 (Source: A Business Case for Women; The Mckinsey Quarterly, 2008) These findings suggest that companies with higher numbers of women at senior levels are also companies with better organizational and financial performance. Although the analysis does not show a causal link, the research argues for greater gender diversity among corporate leaders (Desvaux, Devillard-Hoellinger, Meaney, 2008). Desvaux, Devillard-Hoellinger & Meaney have drawn the conclusion from the study that companies will be able to draw from a broader pool of talent in an era of talent shortages. This research shows a correlation between high numbers of female senior executives and stronger financial performance. Hence, it is evident that women in business, in the present era, are indispensable. In yet another study, it was found that businesses headed by women were not more likely to go out of business, nor less successful than those owned by men. A company's age was positively related to its survival regardless of the gender of its owner-operator. Size was unrelated to survival. There were no differences in earnings growth between businesses headed by men and those headed by women (Kalleberg, Leicht, 1991). On the other hand, ethical decision making is affected by many individual factors, and in particular, many studies report sex differences in ethicality (Loe et al., 2000; Jawahar, and Hemmasi, 2006). Women’s moral development and ways of reasoning are fundamentally different from those 84
  11. 11. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME of men and are more dependent on ethical understanding (Gilligan, 1982). A subsequent research stream abides by the belief that women are more likely than men to view certain questionable acts as unethical (Konovsky and Jaster, 1989), as well as, less willing to behave unethically (Beu et al., 2003; Thoursie, 2007). Other studies (Cox and Nkomo, 1990) suggest that there are no ethical differences between males and females. These varying findings have generated considerable debate and speculation (Valentine, Godkin, Page and Rittenberg, 2009). However, it is quite evident that women play a very vital role in an organization (Youssef and Luthans, 2007). But when a working woman is under the effects of PTSD, the desired performance cannot be achieved because of the various facets of trauma the victim is compelled to undergo (Basoglu et al., 1996). All those symptoms of torture can be traced in this person as well. And a person carrying these symptoms, obviously, cannot concentrate and be as productive as a non-PTSD person (Basoglu et al., 1996). TREATMENT When treatment is taken into consideration, another factor comes into the scenario, that is, the psychological well-being of women. The survivors of torture often have a combination of social, psychological and medical problems which require a multi-disciplinary approach that would involve social, legal, psychological and medical help. Among these problems, traumatic stress reactions are particularly important because these can cause severe psychological disability that might last decades, or even a lifetime, if left untreated (Basoglu and Aker, 1996). Psychological treatments available for survivors include psychodynamic approaches, insight therapy, testimony method, cognitive therapy, and cognitive-behavioural treatment. Behavioural therapy is based on the principle that prolonged imaginable or live-exposure to an anxiety- evoking situation reduces anxiety (Somnier, Vesti, Kastrup and Genefke, 1992; Basoglu and Aker, 1996). It has been demonstrated in controlled studies that behavioural treatments are of great efficacy in combat-related post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive behavioural treatment can also be of great help for the treatment of torture survivors. From a few studies it has been found that this approach of treatment can be effective in reducing torture-related traumatic stress responses (Skylv, 1992; Bustos, 1992; Basoglu et al., 1996). Various methods of treatment are involved in the process of treatment of PTSD and so, it has become easier to help the victims lead a normal, healthy and fruitful life. Psychotherapy often involves cognitive interventions to help the survivor to leave the ‘victim role’ induced by the traumatic experience. This can be seen as helping the survivor regain a sense of control over the trauma, as well as, current environmental events (Basoglu, 1992; Basoglu et al.,1996; Agger and Jensen, 1990). Treatment is inevitable when the question of organizational and societal growth is in context. Women play a vital role in the present era, in any organization or society in general. And hence, treatment of any psychological problem is of pivotal importance (Loe et al., 2000; O’Fallon and Butterfield, 2005). And although social support is also important, there is quite a lot of evidence that even social support may not be of much use unless the individual is psychologically healthy enough to be able to access and use it properly (Caroll, Rueger, Foy and Donahoe, 1985; Bustos, 1992; Basoglu et al., 1996). This inevitably would result in poor women employee turnover and further resulting in poor overall retaining of women employees and finally contributing weakly towards the overall employee turnover and productivity of the organization. CONCLUSION Torture, whether physical or psychological, results in a great deal of psychological turbulence. It destroys a person’s personality and remains with the person for a reasonably longer period than perceived. Torture in any form is unacceptable in any civilized society. Though 85
  12. 12. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 75-89 © IAEME considerable steps have been taken towards the eradication of this social evil, yet, to make the society completely torture-free is a huge challenge for mankind. It has become a matter of concern, even more, when there has been a considerable growth of working women in the new era. Women contribute equally as men towards the development of the social, economical, and political attributes of any country. And when a working woman is tortured, and subsequently develops PTSD and other forms of torture-symptoms, performance and productivity in the organization she works with, suffers. Whereas business and society might not always treat women fairly, women should take a lead role in the process of elimination of this social evil and in the treatment of psychological disorders of torture victims. The responsibility becomes higher in case of women working in positions of authority. Encouraging people to help abolish this evil, and motivating women to take adequate steps against it becomes inevitable. Reasonable endeavour, if made towards the treatment of PTSD of the working women, there would be a huge change and development in the business and society. In short, women should be treated as valuable and indispensable in the organization and society in general, so that, the nation reaps the reward of great societal and organizational productivity due to better employee turnover at the hands of its women, and business accompanying peace takes a surge. REFERENCES [1] Abildgaard, U., Daugaard, G., Marcussen, H., Jess, P., Petersen, H. D. and Wallach, M. (1984). Chronic organic psycho-syndromein Greek torture victims. Dan. Med. Bull., Vol. 31, pp. 239-241. [2] Agger, I. and Jensen, S. B. (1990). Testimony as ritual and evidence in psychotherapy for political refugees. Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 115-130. [3] Allodi, F. and Cowgill, G. (1982). Ethical and psychiatric aspects of torture: a Canadian study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 27, pp. 98-102. [4] Allodi, F., Randall, G. R., Lutz, E. L., et al. (1985). Physical and psychiatric effects of torture: two medical studies, The Breaking of Bodies and Minds. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. [5] Basoglu, M., Aker, T. (1996). Cognitive-behavioural treatment of torture survivors: a case study. Torture; Vol. 6, pp. 61-65. [6] Basoglu, M. (1993). Prevention of torture and care of survivors: an integrated approach. JAMA; Vol. 270, No. 5, pp. 606-611. [7] Basoglu, M., Paker, M., Paker, O., Ozmen, E., Marks, I., Incesu, C., Sahin, D. and Sarimurat, N. (1994). Psychological effects of torture: A comparison of tortured with non-tortured political activists in Turkey. Am Journal of Psychiatry; Vol. 151, No. 1, pp. 76-81. [8] Basoglu, M., Marks, I. and Senguin, S. (1992). Amitriptyline for PTSD in a torture survivor: a case study. Journal of Traumatic Stress; Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 77-83. [9] Basoglu, M. and Marks, I. (1988). Toture: research needed into how to help those who have been tortured. British Medical Journal, Vol. 297, pp. 1423-1424. [10] Basoglu, M., Paker, M., Ozmen, E., Tasmedir, O., Sahin, D., Ceyhanli, A., Incesu, C. and Sarimurat, N. (1996). Appraisal of self, social environment, and state authority as a possible mediator of posttraumatic stress disorder in tortured political activists. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol. 105, No. 2, pp. 232-236. [11] Basoglu, M., Mineka, S., Paker, M., Aker, T., Livanou, M. and Gok, S. (1997). Psychological preparedness for trauma as a protective factor in survivors of torture. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 27, pp. 1421-1433. [12] Beebe, G. W. (1975). Follow-up studies of World War-II and Korean War prisoner, II: morbidity, disability and maladjustments. Am. J. of Epidemiol. Vol. 101, pp. 400-422. 86
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