Robert Reason Josh Mitchell Kathleen GillonIowa State UniversityUpper Midwest Civic Engagement SummitDubuque, IAMay 29, 2013
• Introductions:• Who we are• Our interest in civic learning research and assessment• What we hope to gain from this works...
• General Workshop Structure:• Assessing Civic Learning: Challenges and Opportunities• Defining Civic Learning: What Works...
• Group Discussion - Major Issues in Assessing Civic Engagement on Campus• What are some of the biggest obstacles in asses...
• Commissioned by The Department of Education, initiated by MarthaKanter, Under Secretary of Education• Partnership betwee...
KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGHEREDUCATION1. Foster a CIVIC ETHOS across all parts of the campus andeducational culture.2. Ma...
WHY STUDY CIVIC LEARNING??
EVIDENCE SUPPORTING NEED FORCOMPREHENSIVE CIVIC LEARNING• U.S. ranked 139th in voter participation of 172world democracies...
STUDENTS VIEWS ON CIVIC LEARNING ANDHIGHER EDUCATION
FINDINGS RELATED TO CIVIC LEARNINGAND HIGHER EDUCATION• A group of 14,000 college seniors surveyed in 2006-07averaged just...
A FOUNDATION PARTIALLY LAIDCurricular civic pathways• Making civic literacy a core expectation for all studentsin general ...
THE CHALLENGE OF THE NEXT DECADES OFCIVIC LEARNING• From elective to expected• From one time to progressive learning over ...
PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Disseminate existing assessment tools for measuring civic learning. Amass and publicize e...
FIVE AREAS IN WHICH MORE EVIDENCE ONCIVIC LEARNING IS NEEDED:• Existing data on civic outcomes is almost entirely based on...
WHAT IS CIVIC LEARNING?
ASSESSING CIVIC LEARNING: TERMS• Direct measures• Indirect measures• Constructs• Self-reports
ASSESSING CIVIC LEARNING: MEASURABLEOUTCOMES• Knowledge, skills, and values (Saltmarsh, 2005)• Knowledge, skills, and beha...
KNOWLEDGE• Understanding of topics related to democratic society;systems and processes of democratic decision-makingand go...
SKILLS• Necessary abilities to understand and advocate for acomplex position- includes intercultural communication, decisi...
DISPOSITIONS• Values and attitudes related to actions—theinclination to engage in civic actions
CIVIC IDENTITY• “Commitment to civic responsibility through efficacy inaction” (Stokamer, 2012, p. 51).- Requires the inco...
HOW DO WE ASSESS CIVIC LEARNING?
INDIRECT MEASURES• Assume:• that engagement in educationally-purposeful activitiesresult in learning outcomes• that engage...
INDIRECT CLIMATE MEASURES• National Survey of Student Engagement (http://nsse.iub.edu/)• Benchmarks• Active and Collaborat...
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE INVENTORYInterpersonal -- Social Responsibility• I think of my life in terms of giving back to society....
PERSONAL & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYINVENTORY (PSRI)STRIVING FOR EXCELLENCE: developinga strong work ethic and consciously doi...
PERSONAL & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYINVENTORY (PSRI)Striving for Excellence• Overall Climate for Excellence**• Motivation to D...
DIRECT MEASURESAttempt to measure (directly) the outcomesbelieved to be associated/comprise the construct of“civic compete...
CIVIC ATTITUDES & SKILLS QUESTIONNAIRE(MOELY ET AL., 2002)Factor 1: Civic ActionI plan to do some volunteer workI am commi...
ACTIVISM ORIENTATION SCALE(CORNING & MYERS, 2002)Conventional Activism• Display a poster or bumper sticker with apolitical...
EXPECTED POLITICAL VOICE MEASURE(SEIDER, GILLMOR, & RABINOWIC, 2012) Contact or visit a public official to express your o...
COMMUNITY SERVICE SELF-EFFICACY SCALE(REEB ET AL., 2010) If I choose to participate in community service in the future, I...
OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS/NARRATIVE DATA• Open ended question:What experiences at this campus have helped you to further develo...
PURPOSES OF NARRATIVE DATANarrative data can…1. Provide a Comprehensive Understanding of Civic Engagement• Insight into Qu...
I am heavily involved in non-academic activities(service organizations, academic organizations,greek life, etc) and have t...
I feel they are trying to put a gag on facultywith unpopular opinions! When thepresident received a vote of no confidencef...
USING NARRATIVE DATA• Read• Don’t let the data sit on the shelf• Analyze• Thematic• Cross-case• Present• How can we presen...
INFORMING FUTURE ASSESSMENT &PRACTICE• Using narrative data to guide additional assessment & practice• Focus Groups• Inter...
CIVIC LEARNING: TOOLS AND RESOURCESLiterature• A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future:http://www.aacu....
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THE PERSONAL AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYINVENTORY (PSRI), CONTACTRobert ReasonPSRI Director / Ass...
Measuring Civic Learning: Meaningful Strategies for Educating 21st Century Citizens
Measuring Civic Learning: Meaningful Strategies for Educating 21st Century Citizens
Measuring Civic Learning: Meaningful Strategies for Educating 21st Century Citizens
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Measuring Civic Learning: Meaningful Strategies for Educating 21st Century Citizens

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Using the recent AAC&U report A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s
Future and research arising from the Personal and Social Responsibility Inventory,
participants will discuss current areas of research related to civic learning and identify
areas for additional research. Discussion of best practices will focus on both indirect
and direct measures of civic learning and campus engagement, including existing and
available measures that can be adapted for use on participants’ campuses.
Robert D. Reason, Associate Professor of Student Affairs and Higher Education, and
Joshua J. Mitchell, doctoral student and Graduate Research Assistant in the Research
Institute for Studies in Education, both at Iowa State University

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  • Despite broad use of surveys and survey experiments in education, the vast majorityof survey analysis deals with responses to options along a scale or from pre-establishedcategories.
  • 2. A major concern about open ended questions has been that these questionsrequire participants to articulate a response and thus nonresponses to open ended questions may stem from ineloquencerather than indifference. In other words, subjects may not respond to open ended questions because theylack the necessary rhetorical device (Geer, 1988). This argument would actually be a reason for why we would include open ended questions on a survey that is measuring civic learning. If one of the key recommendations for higher education is to make civic literacy a core expectation for all students, then we need to know whether or not students can articulate their experiences related to civic learning. Open ended questions is a place to begin to understand our students’ competency in regard to civic literacy.
  • Measuring Civic Learning: Meaningful Strategies for Educating 21st Century Citizens

    1. 1. Robert Reason Josh Mitchell Kathleen GillonIowa State UniversityUpper Midwest Civic Engagement SummitDubuque, IAMay 29, 2013
    2. 2. • Introductions:• Who we are• Our interest in civic learning research and assessment• What we hope to gain from this workshop• Workshop Goals and Interests:• Why Measure Civic Learning?• What is Civic Learning?• How do we Measure Civic Learning?
    3. 3. • General Workshop Structure:• Assessing Civic Learning: Challenges and Opportunities• Defining Civic Learning: What Works?• A Crucible Moment• History and Call to Action• Key Findings and Recommendations• Key recommendations for Researchers• Campus-Based Assessment:• Assessing Engagement• Indirect vs. Direct Methods of Evaluation• Connecting Assessment Models with Measurable Learning Outcomes• Tools and Techniques
    4. 4. • Group Discussion - Major Issues in Assessing Civic Engagement on Campus• What are some of the biggest obstacles in assessing civic learning andengagement on your campus?•••• What are some of the solutions found to address these challenges?•••
    5. 5. • Commissioned by The Department of Education, initiated by MarthaKanter, Under Secretary of Education• Partnership between Global Perspective Inventory, Inc. (GPI) and theAssociation of American Colleges and Universities• National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement• A series of five national roundtables representing leaders from awide range of constituent groups inside and outside of highereducation• Several open sessions at a number of national and regionalconferences• A commissioned paper on what we know from research on theimpact of civic learning and democratic engagement on studentlearning and development6
    6. 6. KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGHEREDUCATION1. Foster a CIVIC ETHOS across all parts of the campus andeducational culture.2. Make CIVIC LITERACY a core expectation for all students.3. Practice CIVIC INQUIRY across all fields of study.4. Advance CIVIC ACTION through transformativepartnerships, at home and abroad.
    7. 7. WHY STUDY CIVIC LEARNING??
    8. 8. EVIDENCE SUPPORTING NEED FORCOMPREHENSIVE CIVIC LEARNING• U.S. ranked 139th in voter participation of 172world democracies in 2007.• Only 24% of graduating high school seniorsscored at the proficient or advanced level in civicsin 2010. (NCES, 2011)• Less than ½ of 12th graders reported studyinginternational topics as part of a civics education.(NCES, 2011)
    9. 9. STUDENTS VIEWS ON CIVIC LEARNING ANDHIGHER EDUCATION
    10. 10. FINDINGS RELATED TO CIVIC LEARNINGAND HIGHER EDUCATION• A group of 14,000 college seniors surveyed in 2006-07averaged just over 50% in a civic literacy exam.(Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 2007)• Just over 1/3 of college faculty surveyed strongly agreedtheir campus actively promotes awareness of US or globalsocial, political, and economic issues.• Only slightly more than one-third of students surveyedfelt strongly that faculty publicly advocated the need forstudents to become active and involved citizens. (Dey et al.2009)
    11. 11. A FOUNDATION PARTIALLY LAIDCurricular civic pathways• Making civic literacy a core expectation for all studentsin general education programs• Integrating civic inquiry into a central field of studyPowerful civic pedagogies• Intergroup and deliberative dialogue• Service Learning and Volunteer Service• Collective civic problem solving
    12. 12. THE CHALLENGE OF THE NEXT DECADES OFCIVIC LEARNING• From elective to expected• From one time to progressive learning over time• From individually oriented civic action tocollaboratively oriented action• From some departments, divisions, and people toeveryone all over campus• From parallel practices and programs tointegrated ones
    13. 13. PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Disseminate existing assessment tools for measuring civic learning. Amass and publicize evidence that shows how civic learning, civic agency, anddemocratic engagement result in increased retention and college success. Use the Civic Investment Plan matrix to identify specific action research projectsthat could be initiated at one’s own institution. Establish standards in civic learning to serve as guidelines for measuring andreporting progress. Sponsor and support further research on the impact of programs andpartnerships that foster civic learning and democratic engagement on learningoutcomes and student development. Include additional research questions in routinely administered higher educationsurveys to explore how learning environments can enhance key civiccompetencies Develop national civic indicators and report on levels of civic and democraticknowledge, skills, values, and action achieved by high school and collegegraduates.
    14. 14. FIVE AREAS IN WHICH MORE EVIDENCE ONCIVIC LEARNING IS NEEDED:• Existing data on civic outcomes is almost entirely based on student self-reports oftheir behaviors, attitudes, and growth over time. Multiple measures are needed tocapture students’ ability to demonstrate civic competencies.• Data on civic outcomes connected with the experiences of underserved students(underrepresented minorities, first-generation, transfer, and low income).• Greater evidence is needed on outcomes more closely associated with civiccompetencies or capacity building, particularly for success in an increasingly globaland diversifying nation (e.g. collaborative problem-solving, deliberative dialogue,teamwork).• Research on outcomes or evidence related to global knowledge and skills isparticularly thin• Though there is strong evidence linking civic learning experiences with improvedrates of retention and completion, greater evidence is needed on the ways in whichvariations in civic learning (i.e. forms of practice and levels of intensity) impactmeasures of student success.- Excerpted from “A Brief Review of the Evidence on Civic Learning inHigher Education, Finley, 2011
    15. 15. WHAT IS CIVIC LEARNING?
    16. 16. ASSESSING CIVIC LEARNING: TERMS• Direct measures• Indirect measures• Constructs• Self-reports
    17. 17. ASSESSING CIVIC LEARNING: MEASURABLEOUTCOMES• Knowledge, skills, and values (Saltmarsh, 2005)• Knowledge, skills, and behaviors (Cogan, 1999)• Knowledge, skills, dispositions, identity (Stokamer, 2011)• Knowledge, skills, practice, and disposition (The Centerfor Engaged Democracy, 2012)
    18. 18. KNOWLEDGE• Understanding of topics related to democratic society;systems and processes of democratic decision-makingand governance- Civic knowledge is understanding of how democracyoperates
    19. 19. SKILLS• Necessary abilities to understand and advocate for acomplex position- includes intercultural communication, decision-making,critical thinking
    20. 20. DISPOSITIONS• Values and attitudes related to actions—theinclination to engage in civic actions
    21. 21. CIVIC IDENTITY• “Commitment to civic responsibility through efficacy inaction” (Stokamer, 2012, p. 51).- Requires the incorporation of civic responsibility intoone’s self-concept
    22. 22. HOW DO WE ASSESS CIVIC LEARNING?
    23. 23. INDIRECT MEASURES• Assume:• that engagement in educationally-purposeful activitiesresult in learning outcomes• that engagement with educationally-purposefulcampus climate supports learning outcomes
    24. 24. INDIRECT CLIMATE MEASURES• National Survey of Student Engagement (http://nsse.iub.edu/)• Benchmarks• Active and Collaborative Learning• Enriching Educational Experiences• Supportive Campus Environment• Global Perspectives Inventory (https://gpi.central.edu/index.cfm)• The GPI reflects a global and holistic view of student learning and developmentand the importance of the campus environment in fostering holistic studentdevelopment. The GPI measures how• a student thinks,• views herself as a person with a cultural heritage, and• relates to others from other cultures, backgrounds and values.
    25. 25. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE INVENTORYInterpersonal -- Social Responsibility• I think of my life in terms of giving back to society.• I work for the rights of others.• I put the needs of others above my own personalwants.• I consciously behave in terms of making a difference.• Volunteering is not an important priority in my life.
    26. 26. PERSONAL & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYINVENTORY (PSRI)STRIVING FOR EXCELLENCE: developinga strong work ethic and consciously doing one’svery best in all aspects of collegeCULTIVATING PERSONALAND ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: recognizingand acting on a sense of honor, ranging fromhonesty in relationships to principled engagementwith a formal academic honors codeCONTRIBUTING TO A LARGERCOMMUNITY: recognizing and acting onone’s responsibility to the educationalcommunity and the wider society, locally,nationally, and globallyTAKING SERIOUSLY THEPERSPECTIVES OF OTHERS: recognizingand acting on the obligation to inform one’sown judgment; engaging diverse andcompeting perspectives as a resource forlearning, citizenship, and workDEVELOPING COMPETENCE INETHICAL AND MORAL REASONINGAND ACTION: developing ethical and moralreasoning in ways that incorporate the otherfour responsibilities; using such reasoning inlearning and in lifehttp://www.psri.hs.iastate.edu/
    27. 27. PERSONAL & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYINVENTORY (PSRI)Striving for Excellence• Overall Climate for Excellence**• Motivation to Develop a Strong WorkEthic• Communicating Expectations aboutExcellence**• Developing a Strong Work EthicCultivating Academic Integrity• General Climate for AcademicIntegrity**• Faculty Roles in AcademicIntegrity**• Developing Academic IntegrityContributing to a Larger Community• General Climate for Contributing to aLarger Community**• Advocating for Contributing to aLarger Community**• Developing a Commitment toContributing to a Larger CommunityTaking Seriously the Perspectives of Others• General Climate for PerspectiveTaking**• Advocating for Perspective Taking**• Developing Perspective TakingRefining Ethical and Moral Reasoning• General Climate for Ethical andMoral Reasoning**• Sources of Support for Ethical andMoral Reasoning****Indicates a factor score that is comparable to professionals’factor score. The factor is comprised of exact (oranalogous) items as the students’factor.
    28. 28. DIRECT MEASURESAttempt to measure (directly) the outcomesbelieved to be associated/comprise the construct of“civic competency” or “civic learning.”
    29. 29. CIVIC ATTITUDES & SKILLS QUESTIONNAIRE(MOELY ET AL., 2002)Factor 1: Civic ActionI plan to do some volunteer workI am committed to making a positivedifference.Factor 2: Interpersonal and problem-solving skillsI can listen to other people’s opinions.I can successfully resolve conflicts with others.I try to place myself in the place of others intrying to assess their current situation.I tend to solve problems by talking them out.Factor 3: Political AwarenessI am aware of current events.I plan to be involved in the political process.Factor 4: Leadership SkillsI am a good leader.I have the ability to lead a group of people.I feel I can make a difference in the world.Factor 5: Social Justice AttitudesPeople are poor because they choose to be poor.(Reverse scored)In order for problems to be solved, we need tochange public policy.We need to change people’s attitudes in order tosolve social problems.Factor 6: Diversity AttitudesI find it difficult to relate to people from a differentrace or culture. (Reverse scored)I enjoy meeting people who come frombackgrounds very different from my own.Cultural diversity within a group makes the groupmore interesting and effective.
    30. 30. ACTIVISM ORIENTATION SCALE(CORNING & MYERS, 2002)Conventional Activism• Display a poster or bumper sticker with apolitical message?• Invite a friend to attend a meeting of apolitical organization or event?• Purchase a poster, t-shirt, etc. that endorses apolitical point of view?• Serve as an officer in a politicalorganization?• Attend an informational meeting of apolitical group?• Organize a political event (e.g., talk, supportgroup, march)?• Give a lecture or talk about a social orpolitical issue?• Go out of your way to collect information ona social or political issue?• Campaign door-to-door for a politicalcandidate?High-Risk Activism• Engage in a political activity in whichyou knew you would be arrested?• Engage in a physical confrontation at apolitical rally• Engage in a political activity in whichyou feared that some of yourpossessions would be damaged?• Engage in an illegal act as part of apolitical protest?• Engage in a political activity in whichyou suspect there would be aconfrontation with the police orpossible arrest?• Block access to a building or publicarea with your body?
    31. 31. EXPECTED POLITICAL VOICE MEASURE(SEIDER, GILLMOR, & RABINOWIC, 2012) Contact or visit a public official to express your opinion Contact a newspaper or magazine to express your opinion on an issue Call in to a radio or television talk show to express your opinion Write a comment on a political blog Take part in a protest, march, or demonstration Sign a written or email petition about a political or social issue NOT buy something because you dislike the conditions under which it was made Go door to door to campaign for a political cause Work together with others to solve a problem in the community where you live Run for a political position at the local, state, or national level
    32. 32. COMMUNITY SERVICE SELF-EFFICACY SCALE(REEB ET AL., 2010) If I choose to participate in community service in the future, I will be able to make a meaningfulcontribution. In the future, I will be able to find community service opportunities which are relevant to myinterests and abilities. I am confident that, through community service, I can help in promoting social justice. I am confident that, through community service, I can make a different in my community. I am confident that I can help individuals in need by participating in community service activities. I am confident that, in future community service activities, I will be able to interact with relevantprofessionals in ways that are meaningful and effective. I am confident that, through community service, I can help in promoting equal opportunity forcitizens. Through community service, I can apply my knowledge in ways that solve “real-life” problems. By participating in community service, I can help people to help themselves. I am confident that I will participate in community service activities in the future.
    33. 33. OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS/NARRATIVE DATA• Open ended question:What experiences at this campus have helped you to further develop yourwork ethic? Please describe 1-2 examples below.• Narrative Data• Just the sheer amount of work that I need to do to stay afloat in a class. Andthe result of high grades, especially at such a rigorous institution, isrewarding• Work-load: sink or swim. Without a strong work ethic, you will truly drown.• Well, the academic standards are such that to "get by" you have to have atleast a DECENT work ethic or be very passionate about your subject matter.While Ive struggled with procrastination, small class sizes and theopportunity to work closely with professors has enabled me to grow as astudent and a person.
    34. 34. PURPOSES OF NARRATIVE DATANarrative data can…1. Provide a Comprehensive Understanding of Civic Engagement• Insight into Quantitative Measures• Overall climate• Recent situations2. Allow for Engagement in Civic Literacy• Key Recommendation for Higher Ed: Make CIVIC LITERACY a coreexpectation for all students.• Can students articulate their experiences related to civic learning?3. Inform future assessment and practice
    35. 35. I am heavily involved in non-academic activities(service organizations, academic organizations,greek life, etc) and have taken on a number ofleadership roles during my time here. It is myresponsibility to be on top of my work so that I canperform my leadership responsibilities for eachorganization and also complete my coursework ina timely fashion.I am captain of the Mock Trialteam. My experience withthis organization has honedme into being an even moreresponsible, organized, andmotivated individual.I am standards chair for mysorority. As such, it is my jobto promote good academicand social behavior amongour members.Learning about eventslike the communitygarden and seeing all theopportunities that ourinstitution offers havehelped me deepen mycommitment tocontributing to thecommunity.Being a member of a student organization dedicated to non-partisan discussion of politics has helped me understand theneed for civic engagement.Our school has a culture of takingon many projects, clubs,leadership positions, volunteerexperiences, jobs, etc. but this isdifferent than work ethic. Studentshere collect titles, but dontnecessarily spend the time to beefficient or good at any of these.
    36. 36. I feel they are trying to put a gag on facultywith unpopular opinions! When thepresident received a vote of no confidencefrom the faculty, instead of firing him, theboard of trustees helped the president tocommit a retribution firing of the onlyuntenured faculty member from thedepartment involved in uncovering theadministrations violation of sharedgovernance. WHAT A FIASCO! Complete lackof integrity…This is why the past three boardof trustee meetings have been packed withstudent protestors, but the board refuses torespond to student demands for justice.Unfortunately thepresident of the school isinvolved in manydespicable legal battlesagainst academic freedomof the faculty. This hasdeepened mycommitment to justice,especially when biginstitutions like this schoolabuse their power.I find it extremely disheartening anddisturbing that the President haswaged a campaign AGAINST facultyfree speech and shared governance.The department and faculty do,however, uphold, support andeducate us about academic integrityin spite of the administrations abuse.Students are actively discouraged from speaking anyview that is contrary to the senior administrations’.When faculty try to advocate for students they areretaliated against by the administration by beingdenied chairships, tenure, and other facultyesources. These denials have resulted in costlylitigation by the university, which drains scarcefinancial resources.Seeing the immoralactions of thePresident and theBoard of Trusteeswith regard totenure and theBoards inattentionto the academichealth and needs ofthe University hasdiscouraged manyof us.
    37. 37. USING NARRATIVE DATA• Read• Don’t let the data sit on the shelf• Analyze• Thematic• Cross-case• Present• How can we present narrative data in a way that is concise, meaningful. andeasy to share?
    38. 38. INFORMING FUTURE ASSESSMENT &PRACTICE• Using narrative data to guide additional assessment & practice• Focus Groups• Interviews• Observations• Texts & Websites
    39. 39. CIVIC LEARNING: TOOLS AND RESOURCESLiterature• A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future:http://www.aacu.org/civic_learning/crucible/index.cfm• A Brief Review of the Evidence on Civic Learning in Higher Education:http://www.aacu.org/civic_learning/crucible/documents/CivicOutcomesBrief.pdf• Promising Practices for Personal and Social Responsibility:https://secure.aacu.org/source/Orders/index.cfm• Making Progress: What We Know About the Achievement of Liberal EducationOutcomes: https://secure.aacu.org/source/Orders/index.cfm• Diversity and Democracy, Fall 2012 Issue – Civic Engagement and Student Success: AResonant Relationship: http://www.diversityweb.org/diversitydemocracy/Assessment Tools and Inventories• Personal and Social Responsibility Inventory: http://www.psri.hs.iastate.edu/• Global Perspective Inventory: https://gpi.central.edu/index.cfm• AAC&U VALUE rubrics: http://www.aacu.org/value/index.cfm
    40. 40. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THE PERSONAL AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYINVENTORY (PSRI), CONTACTRobert ReasonPSRI Director / Associate Professor of EducationIowa State Universityrreason@iastate.edu http://www.psri.hs.iastate.edu/

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