Eldad KARAMURA, SSA Regional Coordinator,  Bioversity International, Kampala, Uganda  Vincent JOHNSON, Process Manager & S...
Project Area 2006
Our challenge <ul><li>To strengthen BXW management capacity and arrest disease spread </li></ul>How? coordinate regional p...
Objectives <ul><li>equip stakeholders with skills/knowledge/tools to manage  Xanthomonas  wilt at farm level </li></ul><ul...
METHODOLOGY
Trainings in BXW recognition & management   Technical   content regional and country more visual demonstrations of disease...
National training components <ul><li>Overview of  Musa  pests diseases  </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of  BXW   </li></ul><ul...
Training impact assessed for each of 6 countries: <ul><li>2 disease-stricken districts selected in similar zones (12) </li...
Data collection 4-6 months later (on disease incidence on farm)  When sites were established. Baseline data of disease inc...
NARS capacity-gaps addressed: <ul><li>Sharing cross-border information & technologies via exchange visits.  </li></ul><ul>...
Communication means <ul><li>Communities mobilized to arrest BXW spread, delivering information as:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Farmer-workshops: <ul><li>The two workshop locations characterized by: representative banana cultivars & high disease inci...
Outcome <ul><li>training reached 51,400 people (7 times the original target size).  </li></ul><ul><li>some farmers didn’t ...
Farm level  Xanthomonas  wilt diagnosis & management poster
Evaluation showed that :   <ul><ul><li>high farm competencies gained (60-100%) for disease symptoms & control measures,  <...
Conclusion <ul><li>‘ strengthening the capacity of stakeholders, especially at the grass-root level, significantly reduced...
Conclusion <ul><li>Those applying recommendations 4-6 times lower disease incidence than those not (see next slide).  </li...
Effect of C3P awareness-raising on BXW control levels  [ Figures in red italics are not statistically significant ]
Conclusion <ul><li>Stakeholders identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need to develop more farmer-friendly methods for sterili...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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Strengthening the capacity of the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) to sustainably manage the outbreak of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in East and Central Africa

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Presentation by Vincent Johnson (Bioversity International) at the IAALD 2010 World Congress - 26-29 April 2010, Montpellier, France

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  • Since 2001 banana Xanthomonas wilt seriously threatened ECA food and income security, entire crop holdings wiped out in some areas.
  • Bioversity International coordinated regional partners to develop novel communications strategy to raise awareness of banana value chain stakeholders, -&gt; knowledge and skills to manage BXW and arrest its spread. Stakeholders included farmers, farmer organizations, extension-workers, local councils, NGOs, community-based organizations, universities, NARIs and the private sector to develop, test, disseminate and evaluate the tools for disease control in a coordinated communication strategy.
  • regional (CIALCA, BARNESA) and international platforms (Bioversity International, IITA, ARIs).
  • training used innovative onion-peel approach to deliver appropriate messages that addressed stakeholder needs-more technical information given at regional and national levels, and reducing this to demonstrations and field visits at community level. Translations from English to French and to local languages increased community participation and gender sensitivity. trainees developed / presented training program for their respective target areas &amp; published training schedules to enable Bioversity to backstop the country level training. back-stopping support included providing teaching tools, field demonstration of symptoms and control measures. It also provided opportunities for cross-fertilization of ideas and experiences from other countries with similar activities. At the end of the workshop, the back-stopping scientist facilitated a workshop review so that trainees were equipped to address the needs of the next level.
  • Each country team had different frameworks for training, developed according to disease pressure and existing levels of knowledge. In general, national level training of research, extension and policy managers involved four components:
  • Communities including researchers, extension, local councils, universities and NGOs/CBOs, and their resources were mobilized to arrest the spread of any outbreak, by delivering information in form of seminars, meetings/workshops/barazas and as radio and television talk shows, in the quest to reach as many people as possible. Public awareness of the disease was raised via posters, pamphlets, brochures, talk shows, drama, workshops/seminars video documentaries and field days. The aim was also to attract more partners and extra resources, and to exploit comparative advantages of participating partners. In order to track progress and assess impact and effectiveness, participatory monitoring and evaluation tools (see below) were developed through farmer-workshops: The two workshop locations were characterized by: representative banana cultivars and overall high disease incidence. A manual was produced in English, French and other vernacular languages (Karamura et al., 2008) and made available on the web and on CDRom. Posters (see figure 2) and brochures were tested, suggested modifications incorporated into final versions and then translated. Each country received 1000 posters (Francophones in French and Anglophones in English), along with the respective electronic versions. This enabled countries to translate the tools into languages of the target sites.
  • Communities including researchers, extension, local councils, universities and NGOs/CBOs, and their resources were mobilized to arrest the spread of any outbreak, by delivering information in form of seminars, meetings/workshops/barazas and as radio and television talk shows, in the quest to reach as many people as possible. Public awareness of the disease was raised via posters, pamphlets, brochures, talk shows, drama, workshops/seminars video documentaries and field days. The aim was also to attract more partners and extra resources, and to exploit comparative advantages of participating partners. In order to track progress and assess impact and effectiveness, participatory monitoring and evaluation tools (see below) were developed through farmer-workshops: The two workshop locations were characterized by: representative banana cultivars and overall high disease incidence. A manual was produced in English, French and other vernacular languages (Karamura et al., 2008) and made available on the web and on CDRom. Posters (see figure 2) and brochures were tested, suggested modifications incorporated into final versions and then translated. Each country received 1000 posters (Francophones in French and Anglophones in English), along with the respective electronic versions. This enabled countries to translate the tools into languages of the target sites.
  • conclusion, strengthening the capacity of stakeholders, especially at the grass-root level, significantly reduced Xanthomonas wilt disease incidence on farm. Those applying the recommendations had 4-6 times lower disease incidence than those that were not (see figure 3). The results showed that the 51,400 trained farmers in target benchmark sites tripled their yields, achieving an estimated extra worth in excess of US$ 67 million. This extrapolates to protecting a regional annual market value of around US$0.75 billion (at the time), as well as enhancing regional food security and nutrition. At the sub-regional level, the rate of reported disease outbreaks went down by 20-40%. Stakeholders identified the need to develop more farmer-friendly methods for sterilizing tools as well as well as kits for the detection of latent infection to arrest long distance transmission. Other significant outcomes included bye-laws, local and national Action Plans for wilt control campaigns; partial disease eradication, and national budgeting for wilt control by some countries., strengthening the capacity of stakeholders, especially at the grass-root level, significantly reduced Xanthomonas wilt disease incidence on farm. Those applying the recommendations had 4-6 times lower disease incidence than those that were not (see figure 3). The results showed that the 51,400 trained farmers in target benchmark sites tripled their yields, achieving an estimated extra worth in excess of US$ 67 million. This extrapolates to protecting a regional annual market value of around US$0.75 billion (at the time), as well as enhancing regional food security and nutrition. At the sub-regional level, the rate of reported disease outbreaks went down by 20-40%. Stakeholders identified the need to develop more farmer-friendly methods for sterilizing tools as well as well as kits for the detection of latent infection to arrest long distance transmission. Other significant outcomes included bye-laws, local and national Action Plans for wilt control campaigns; partial disease eradication, and national budgeting for wilt control by some countries.
  • conclusion, strengthening the capacity of stakeholders, especially at the grass-root level, significantly reduced Xanthomonas wilt disease incidence on farm. Those applying the recommendations had 4-6 times lower disease incidence than those that were not (see figure 3). The results showed that the 51,400 trained farmers in target benchmark sites tripled their yields, achieving an estimated extra worth in excess of US$ 67 million. This extrapolates to protecting a regional annual market value of around US$0.75 billion (at the time), as well as enhancing regional food security and nutrition. At the sub-regional level, the rate of reported disease outbreaks went down by 20-40%.
  • Stakeholders identified the need to develop more farmer-friendly methods for sterilizing tools as well as well as kits for the detection of latent infection to arrest long distance transmission. Other significant outcomes included bye-laws, local and national Action Plans for wilt control campaigns; partial disease eradication, and national budgeting for wilt control by some countries., strengthening the capacity of stakeholders, especially at the grass-root level, significantly reduced Xanthomonas wilt disease incidence on farm. Those applying the recommendations had 4-6 times lower disease incidence than those that were not (see figure 3). The results showed that the 51,400 trained farmers in target benchmark sites tripled their yields, achieving an estimated extra worth in excess of US$ 67 million. This extrapolates to protecting a regional annual market value of around US$0.75 billion (at the time), as well as enhancing regional food security and nutrition. At the sub-regional level, the rate of reported disease outbreaks went down by 20-40%. Stakeholders identified the need to develop more farmer-friendly methods for sterilizing tools as well as well as kits for the detection of latent infection to arrest long distance transmission. Other significant outcomes included bye-laws, local and national Action Plans for wilt control campaigns; partial disease eradication, and national budgeting for wilt control by some countries.
  • Strengthening the capacity of the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) to sustainably manage the outbreak of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in East and Central Africa

    1. 1. Eldad KARAMURA, SSA Regional Coordinator, Bioversity International, Kampala, Uganda Vincent JOHNSON, Process Manager & Scientific Editor, Bioversity International, Montpellier, France Strengthening the capacity of the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) to sustainably manage the outbreak of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in East and Central Africa Theme 3 - Communication and information exchange between actors Thursday 29th April 2010 Scientific & Technical Information and Rural Development
    2. 2. Project Area 2006
    3. 3. Our challenge <ul><li>To strengthen BXW management capacity and arrest disease spread </li></ul>How? coordinate regional partners to develop novel communications strategy to raise awareness of banana value-chain stakeholders and develop disease management knowledge & skills
    4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>equip stakeholders with skills/knowledge/tools to manage Xanthomonas wilt at farm level </li></ul><ul><li>raise public awareness of disease threat & appropriate control measures </li></ul><ul><li>develop, evaluate, and disseminate information materials to stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>mainstream information on the disease in local and national level training institutions </li></ul><ul><li>establish an early warning/surveillance system </li></ul><ul><li>strengthen farmer capacity to manage clean banana planting material </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate effectiveness of diagnostic & management tools </li></ul><ul><li>facilitate drafting Nation Action Plans for controlling target disease. </li></ul><ul><li>strengthen NARS linkages with regional and international platforms </li></ul>
    5. 5. METHODOLOGY
    6. 6. Trainings in BXW recognition & management Technical content regional and country more visual demonstrations of disease symptoms / management Level High, modifiable, electronic/ hard copies for developing responses appropriate to stage of epidemic (disease-free, frontline and endemic regions) relative to crop phenology Community Moderate- back-stopped. Farmers trainees develop/ present training program for respective target areas trainees develop/ present training program for respective target areas
    7. 7. National training components <ul><li>Overview of Musa pests diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of BXW </li></ul><ul><li>Planning skills for IPM strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Visits to research centres / laboratories </li></ul>
    8. 8. Training impact assessed for each of 6 countries: <ul><li>2 disease-stricken districts selected in similar zones (12) </li></ul><ul><li>From each district, 2 X 25 km 2 selected (24) </li></ul><ul><li>From each site, 4 farms selected (96) </li></ul><ul><li>All sites selected were exposed to Xanthomonas wilt sensitization, training tools and associated messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected by extension staff & statistically analyzed </li></ul>16 15 14 13 4 12 11 10 9 3 2 8 7 6 5 2 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 Farm (96) Site (24) District (12) Country (6)
    9. 9. Data collection 4-6 months later (on disease incidence on farm) When sites were established. Baseline data of disease incidence & distribution levels organizations participating in the fight against XW participants trained XW task forces formed at different levels Numbers of: management (de-budding; disinfection of tools and destruction of infected materials; setting up an efficient surveillance system, use of clean planting material and other phytosanitary measures. spread (plant to plant, mat to mat, location to location) development (how Xanthomonas wilt enters and develops within plants) Farmers’ knowledge on disease within plant (sectioned banana fingers & pseudostems) bunch male-bud Farmer’s ability to recognize Xanthomonas wilt symptoms: Capacity to distinguish between Xanthomonas wilt and Fusarium wilt Competence levels to recognize and manage the disease: Data characteristics Data type
    10. 10. NARS capacity-gaps addressed: <ul><li>Sharing cross-border information & technologies via exchange visits. </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches designed for different contexts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rwandese/Congolese teams visited Uganda targeting farmer-empowering approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ugandan teams visited Tanzania to learn about stakeholder mobilization and to target policy makers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenyans visited Uganda to learn skills for raising public awareness. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Communication means <ul><li>Communities mobilized to arrest BXW spread, delivering information as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminars/ meetings/ workshops/ barazas and radio & TV talk shows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public awareness of BXW raised via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brochures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clothing-slogans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radio talk-shows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD ROMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>posters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video documentaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bilingual website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field days </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Farmer-workshops: <ul><li>The two workshop locations characterized by: representative banana cultivars & high disease incidence. </li></ul><ul><li>PM&E tools developed </li></ul><ul><li>Manual produced in English, French + vernacular languages - made available on web / CD ROM. </li></ul><ul><li>Posters & brochures piloted, suggested modifications incorporated into final versions - translated. 1000 posters/country with electronic versions. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Outcome <ul><li>training reached 51,400 people (7 times the original target size). </li></ul><ul><li>some farmers didn’t adopt recommendations involving plant destruction . </li></ul>
    14. 14. Farm level Xanthomonas wilt diagnosis & management poster
    15. 15. Evaluation showed that : <ul><ul><li>high farm competencies gained (60-100%) for disease symptoms & control measures, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>farmers couldn’t explain disease spread mechanisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in all countries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>farmers effectively applied de-budding & destruction of infected material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>didn’t apply sterilization of infected tools: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most effective means of disease control. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>constraints of flaming contaminated tools where fire-building constrained, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expense and local scarcity of bactericidal chemicals. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>‘ strengthening the capacity of stakeholders, especially at the grass-root level, significantly reduced Xanthomonas wilt disease incidence on farm’ </li></ul>
    17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Those applying recommendations 4-6 times lower disease incidence than those not (see next slide). </li></ul><ul><li>51,400 trained farmers in target benchmark sites tripled yields </li></ul><ul><li>achieving estimated extra worth in excess of US$ 67 million. </li></ul><ul><li>protecting a regional annual market value of around US$0.75 billion (at the time), </li></ul><ul><li>enhancing regional food security and nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>sub-regionally rate of reported disease outbreaks went down by 20-40%. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Effect of C3P awareness-raising on BXW control levels [ Figures in red italics are not statistically significant ]
    19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>Stakeholders identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need to develop more farmer-friendly methods for sterilizing tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kits for detection of latent infection to arrest long distance transmission. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other significant outcomes included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bye-laws, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>local and national Action Plans for wilt control campaigns; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partial disease eradication, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national budgeting for wilt control by some countries. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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