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LTE - the Other 4G - and Impact on Enterprise IT


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LTE, and HSPA+, have emerged as the 4G solution. This whitepaper examines these technologies and the implications on enterprises making mobile broadband decisions in the near term.

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LTE - the Other 4G - and Impact on Enterprise IT

  1. 1. WHITE PAPERLTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise ITCorporate Headquarters +1 650-232-4100iPass Inc. +1 650-232-4111 fx3800 Bridge Parkway www.ipass.comRedwood Shores, CA 94065LTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc.
  2. 2. Table of ContentsAbstract 3Introduction 3The current mobile broadband scene 3Long term evolution of universal terrestrialradio access network 4LTE network overview 5The reasons operators like LTE 6The pretender to the throne – HSPA+ 7The Future of 4G 8So should you move to a 4G network? 8What to consider 9About iPass 10References 10Glossary 11LTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 2
  3. 3. What is 4G and the Impact on Enterprise ITAbstract This paper will discuss the move to 4G, in terms of LTE,WiMAX, LTE, HSPA+, DC-HSPA, 4G, 3G. If this alpha- nu- and the implications on enterprises making mobilemeric soup is somewhat overwhelming, then you are broadband decisions in the near term. Even with theprobably not alone. Most people who are not part of highly touted 4G appearing in markets, there are stillthe industry find the rapidly evolving mobile broadband commercial and technical data constraints, particularlymarket quite daunting. Not only is it influencing the way as networks are pieced together to form enterprisepeople work, it is impacting the corporate IT strategies mobility had carefully put together 2-3 years ago. This year The current mobile broadband scenealone there will be over 300 new mobile broadband de-vices launched: laptop USB cards, smartphones and tab- Currently if you have a mobile broadband card orlets. Already 100 new LTE devices have been announced smartphone, then you are probably using a 3G or infor 2011. In this whitepaper we take a look at two 4G some cases, a 2G network. Most likely this network istechnologies that will need to be considered as you plan one of the types listed in Figure 1. In these cases thefor the coming decade: LTE and HSPA+. Hopefully mak- data rates available just about satisfy the applicationing the alpha-numeric soup more digestible. requirements on a laptop and are more than adequate for all current smartphones. The delivery of vanillaIntroduction email is easily addressed by 2G technologies; it doesTo paraphrase a now very famous movie… In a world not need to be real time.far, far away, we have heard of 4G. Well now that worldis far closer than you may think. For the last five or soyears, industry leaders have been telling us that 4G isjust around the corner. In the last few months, we havehad a plethora of announcements about LTE from Me-troPCS1 , Verizon2, etc. So it now appears appropriate totake a look at the new incumbent to the 4G crown – LTE.Much has been written about WiMAX (WorldwideInteroperability for Microwave Access) in previousliterature, and it is not the intention of this whitepaperto rehash any of those discussions. The purpose hereis to present LTE in a format that is easily understoodand can be used to supplement the decision processon mobile broadband data options going forward. Thenext 12-18 months are going to be a very dynamic timein the mobile broadband arena and setting a 2 or 3 yearstrategy could be quite challenging.In addition to LTE, we also discuss another alternative,HSPA+, which might be more readily and quickly avail-able in some markets. Although LTE is strong in someareas, the European market is only now starting to get Figure 1: Evolution of the mobile data marketinto motion to auction off the desired frequencies that If you want near real time access for web browsing orare optimum for LTE – with lower frequencies being more serious streaming applications, then you havebetter, in the case of LTE. For some, the HSPA+ route probably already moved onto the higher data rate 3Gmight be a very reasonable stop gap measure until LTE networks, in an attempt to overcome latency issues.becomes more readily available. However if you are contemplating using the enterpriseLTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 3
  4. 4. cloud while on the move, then most of the current Long term evolution of universal terrestrialmobile broadband technologies will not easily support radio access networkthat aspiration. To effectively deploy a mobile enterprise Although the heading may seem daunting this is justcloud, higher data rates and lower delays are required, the full name for LTE. As a user of mobile broadbandotherwise the user experience is so bad that no one re- you have been assailed with the term “4G” for at leastalistically wants to use the applications. With the advent the last 5 years. Initially all the emphasis was on theof 4G networks, and in particular LTE, the path to the IEEE standard known as WiMAX, at least in Northfully mobile enterprise may at last become a reality. America. Sprint was one of the first to introduce a 4G3Although most people focus on data rates as THE claim into its promotional advertising when it decided tomeasure of performance, there are quite a few other go with WiMAX as its broadband network features that need to be considered. The However since that initial introduction, the spread oflatency, or how long it takes to deliver the data to or WiMAX has been less than stellar. Sprint had released afrom the network, is a significant consideration. If the set of confusing claims about their 4G direction4. Whilelatency is too long then packets carrying voice are de- WiMAX was stealing the pseudo-4G5 limelight, the 3GPPlayed, significantly impacting the quality of the service. partnership (the folks responsible for GSM, CDMA andYou may have noticed this problem if you have tried to WCDMA) announced their evolutionary plans and souse Skype or other Voice over IP (VoIP) applications on was born LTE. In practice, LTE turned out to be more ofsome 3G networks. This can also translate into poor a revolution rather than evolution.user perception of applications that require a lot of The LTE technology was not only driven from a technol-server side interaction. It is possible to produce mobile- ogy viewpoint, but also from a reduction in operatingonly cloud applications but then features may have to costs to improve profitability in an increasingly competi-be omitted making the experience significantly less tive environment. Both of these factors combined tothan perfect. Tweaking the TCP/IP parameters in the produce a network technology which is much more aptlaptop or smartphone has been the route taken by some for the current mobile world than had been available incompanies, but this only really acts as a Band-Aid to a the past.problem that needs a fundamental solution which is animprovement in latency. The next few sections will examine the new LTE tech- nology and explain a few things the operators may notWith the introduction of WiMAX, the first to claim the 4G want you to know.title, the focus changed to producing the ideal networkto support the required enterprise mobility model. The To set LTE in context as of Feb 2011, there are6 :user requirement drove the application rather than ■■ 180 operators deploying LTEthe network. Now with the introduction of the next 4Gtechnology – LTE – the focus has once again shifted ■■ 17 operators have already deployedto the utopian view of standard cloud applications on ■■ 63 Terminal (USB dongles or Smartphones) devicesdesktop, laptop, tablets and even smartphones, provid- to be launched in 1H11ing employees with a seamless view of their data and It is hard to argue that LTE is merely paperware: thecorporate services. networks are real and you can now buy devices for use on those networks.LTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 4
  5. 5. LTE network overview means is how many bits/s can I squeeze into my fre-LTE began with the premise that the all pervasive IP quency range. In the days of 1G or 2G networks, thingsnetwork would be the underlying transport for the new were not very spectrally efficient. This meant I wouldfledgling network. This immediately moved the network be paying quite a sizeable amount of money to providefrom the old domain of circuit switched connections in bit/s to my user, so the Bits/s/$ would be high. Movinguse since Alexander Graham Bell first asked Mr Watson through the 3G and then to 4G, the efficiency improvedto “come here”, to the packet domain that is now famil- by several orders of magnitude. With the move to 4G,iar to us from the use of VoIP networks. The cost benefit the bits/s/$ has come down significantly.of such a move is quite significant. Voice has now simply In order to really improve those operating expenses,become a very low speed packet data service. The other the network architecture in Figure 3 evolved. As youdriving force was to flatten the network. Figure 2 pro- can see from this network, we now only need threevides a flavor of the current, very hierarchical, GSM/3G entities to achieve our network goals. Not only have wenetwork which is a hybrid of the circuit switched domain reduced our operating expenses by about one-third, but(Voice) and packet domain (GPRS). Even in the simplest we have also improved the network performance – inform there are 13 different network entities. All of these very simple terms, fewer nodes need to touch the dataphysical units cost money to run, take up space and so we have a faster response time or lower latency. Theneed to be maintained. Bottomline it is very expensive control for the network is all via IP systems rather thanto run a 2G/3G network, which means that making a traditional database models. Keep in mind that this isprofit and keeping the network going becomes increas- a greatly simplified view of the network, however it is aingly more difficult. fair comparison to existing 2G/3G networks.Figure 2: Existing 2G/3G simplified ArchitectureThe other cost is the number of bit/s you can put intothe radio spectrum you have just bought from your lo- Figure 3: New simplified LTE networkcal licensing body. Most people have probably read thestories about operators paying significant amounts of In order to keep the hardware costs low, it was decidedmoney to license the precious spectrum. Without spec- to use a radio technology that was already well under-trum, you do not have a network! stood from its use in military radio and more recently inGenerally, the licensing terms provide for a fixed period 802.11a WLAN - Orthogonal Frequency Division Mul-of use in a defined frequency range. Clearly to get the tiplexing (OFDM). OFDM is very simple to implementbiggest benefit, an operator will want to put as many in terms of software or hardware. This means that thebits/s as possible into their newly purchased bandwidth. cost of the radio station can be very low. Indeed manyYou may already have heard the term spectral efficiency. of the new generation of radio stations can be definedAlthough it sounds a very complex term, all it really by the software they have loaded. It is therefore veryLTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 5
  6. 6. easy to change the radio technology being used on the even earlier in some cases. Once this is added to thesystem. This is unlike the ‘old days’ when a new radio network, the reason for the existence of 2G and even 3Gwould require a total hardware replacement, some- networks becomes questionable.times euphemistically referred to as a “fork lift up- These are just a few of the enhancements that will begrade.” The basic OFDM system can also be enhanced available with LTE. There are already features that areby the use of multiple antennas, sometimes referred now in the planning stage that will further enhanceto as MIMO (multiple-ins, multiple-outs), power con- the LTE experience; watch out for LTE Advanced. Thetrol and forward error correction coding. With all these other great benefit is that some of the world’s largestenhancements, OFDM turns out to be very spectrally equipment vendors are 100% behind the standard, andefficient based on the current level of technology avail- with over 200+ networks committing to deploy LTE, theable. cost savings due to the volume of network and terminalOne of the other benefits of OFDM is that it is quite easy equipment brings its own pick how much bandwidth you want to use. So withLTE OFDM it is possible to use anywhere from 1.5MHz The reasons operators like LTEup to 20MHz of bandwidth in easy increments. What Even from this very brief introduction to LTE, it is quitedoes this mean? Well it means an operator can initially clear that the LTE network is a significant departureroll out LTE using spare bandwidth. When users are mi- from the previous networks deployed by most opera-grated across to the new system, an operator can start tors. The biggest change has been the flattening of theto take over more spectrum from the previous genera- network architecture. It has very few nodes and reliestions of network, slowly removing bandwidth from a 2G heavily on IP for most of the protocol/control whichor 3G service. This is sometimes referred to as “spec- means that operators can take advantage of the hugetrum refarming.” In this case with, for example, 900MHz pool of Internet engineers out there. The other aspectspectrum, it would be possible to slowly replace the often neglected in most discussions of the LTE network2G technology currently residing there with new LTE is that it allows operators to consider the possibility oftechnology. Since the radio in the new LTE hardware is switching off their 2G and 3G networks in the not-too-software defined, it is simply a matter of upgrading the distant future. Most operators feel that their 2G net-software when the time comes to change the band- works will be gone within a few years, and the spectrumwidth. In some cases this may not even be required. they occupied taken over by LTE. The 3G networks willOne other additional benefit of such an approach is that probably follow suit within a few more years. So by 2015an operator can take advantage of new enhancements most of the 2G and 3G networks could be gone and thein the standard without having to upgrade hardware. So spectrum reused.the lifetime of the new hardware is greatly enhanced. With the flat network and upgraded equipment, theThus far in this discussion there has been no mention operational expenses (OPEX) drop dramatically as canof THE killer network application – voice, although voice be seen from Figure 4. The addition of a very efficientmay soon be linked with video. The voice application radio interface both spectrally and in terms of band-does exist in LTE and goes by the not very exciting acro- width use means that operators are free to choose hownym of VoLTE – Voice over LTE. Because the LTE net- to roll out the network, either slowly in some areas orwork is highly optimized, delivering voice is not a major rapidly in others where they can offer better broadbandproblem although sometimes it does seem to have been experiences, while still maintaining the legacy 2G andan afterthought. In this case, however it is well worth 3G networks. The cost per bit/s is much lower with LTEwaiting for because it will pave the way for HD voice than with the incumbents which means the operatorquality. More simply, it will be possible to put behind can drop the cost to remain competitive if needed orus the highly questionable voice quality introduced by increase profits if they are so inclined. Most operatorsthe compressed speech that was inherited from the are claiming that the ROI for their new LTE network isold fixed telephony network. Most networks that are under 12 months and in some markets under 6 months.deploying will see VoLTE added by the end of 2011 or As the new networks stabilize and the operators takeLTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 6
  7. 7. on the task of driving their new networks it is not un- The issue with HSPA+ is that it suffers from the samereasonable to expect that not only will the data rates issues that plague the current 3G networks. The cover-improve but those rates will be maintained under load. age and performance are not consistent. At the cell edges the data rates, even with HSPA+, may be noWhether the data plans return to the days of fixed all- better than are available with current 3G pricing or whether the tiered approach will However closer to the cell tower, the data rates can bestill be used, it is hard to say. However, the competition quite high, but on average a user may not notice a sig-in the LTE space will be fierce in the coming years, so nificant improvement in their data rates. This problemexpect network pricing to vary significantly as operators is not present in the LTE solution as the data rate isvie to retain their customer base. If all goes well with mostly consistent over the whole cell coverage.the new LTE networks starting in 2012, or sooner insome cases, the drive will be on to begin the move from Another option for improving performance, again based2G/3G to LTE with operators offering incentives to move on the existing 3G technology, is to aggregate moreto the new networks and thereby free up the 2G/3G channels or carrier frequencies together. This approachnetworks for removal in the later part of the decade. In is known as Multi Channel-HSPA (MC-HSPA) or in itscountries with tight spectrum controls, this move may current form Dual Channel-HSPA (DC-HSPA). The im-be much quicker or as the license for the 2G/3G spec- provement in bandwidth is achieved by adding a secondtrum expires in some cases. channel into the original data connection when the ap- plication demands more data. Initially the application on the laptop may only require the bandwidth provided by one channel. However, if needed it is possible to add in another channel to boost the performance even further. This approach benefits from using existing technology and simply adding in the ability to dynamically allocate a second channel. Since there is no increase in the bits used in the bandwidth, the solution does not suffer from the same cell range issues as HSPA+. The additional channel allocation also means that it is possible to gain from transmit diversity in that the data takes two inde- pendent routes to the mobile broadband cards. Since the second channel is only allocated when needed, it means that it can be used by other users when idle. Hence the network is more efficient. It is always a good idea to fully utilize the spectrum allocated to your net- work.Figure 4: OPEX for 2G, 3G and LTE networks The HSPA+ and DC-HSPA routes are, at best, a stopgapThe pretender to the throne – HSPA+ measure and, at worst, a diversion by the operatorsAlthough it may appear that LTE is the only 4G option who have taken this path. It can also be argued as tofor providing mobile broadband solutions to all, there whether or not these enhancements to existing tech-is another technology that some operators are promot- nology are in the spirit of the 4G network drive. In theiring as their 4G offering. Called HSPA+, also known as defense, some operators have been forced down thisEvolved High-Speed Packet Access, this technology is a path by lack of available spectrum for new network in-derivative of the existing 3G WCDMA networks. It uses troduction. If the spectrum to deploy LTE is not availablethe same schemes as 3G and improves the data rates it might be almost impossible to begin the move fromto about 84Mbps using higher modulations (more bits 3G to LTE. A number of operators who have quicklyin the same bandwidth) and some of the same antenna deployed HSPA+ or DC-HSPA7 have also announcedtechniques used by LTE. With even more added features, their intention to deploy LTE as soon as the spectrum isit will be possible to push the data rate even higher; up 600+Mbps if all the features are implemented.LTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 7
  8. 8. As of Feb 2011 there were 76 live HSPA+ networks Indeed just in 2011, there are predicted to be over 400regionally broken down as: million smartphones on the existing 3G and 4G net- works generating data traffic that would be equivalent ■■ North America 8 to 4 billion 2G GSM users! All this data leads to the ■■ Middle East and Asia 12 conclusion that the current 4G networks (WiMAX, LTE ■■ N Europe 20 and HSPA+) may not be able to satisfy the insatiable appetite that is being generated for data services. The ■■ W Europe 21 use of cloud services will certainly drive the data use ■■ Asia-Pac 15 for most enterprises. If smartphones and laptops can ■■ 6 networks support 28Mb/s and higher be configured to support telepresence, that may drive usage even further. It was not that long ago (1994) thatThe Future of 4G it was very hard to find a good use for mobile data!In this whitepaper we have reviewed the new additionsto the 4G family. As both LTE and HSPA+ are relatively MBB Subscriptions Technology Share 2016new incumbents to the 4G arena, they already have 5000quite an extensive evolutionary path ahead of them. As HSPA TD-SCDMA Mobile PC CDMA2000can be seen from Figure 5, the plan is to head towards 4000 & Tablets EV-DOmuch higher data rates on HSPA+ and LTE by 2015. So Mobile WiMax 3000there is a very extensive five year window for LTE and Handheld devicesprobably a three year window for HSPA+. 2000 1000 168 336... HSPA Evolution 84 0 2010 2016 84 42 85% of subscriptions on HSPA and LTE in 2016 126 68 42 28 1 0 Figure 6: Projected growth of Mobile Broadband users by 2016 (Source: Erics- 21 son MWC, Feb 2011) 7 World record: 168 MPS So should you move to a 4G network? LTE As with most things - it depends. Certainly if your con- 150 million people tract is due to expire and your operator offers incentives covered daily 1000 bps to move to 4G, then you should seriously consider that 50 bps 150 bps move. The 2G network is very likely to disappear soon, squeezing users on those networks into a deterioratingFigure 5: Evolutionary paths for HSPA and LTE (Source: Ericsson MWC, Feb 2011) service spiral. Of course operators want to move you off that network. Similarly as the 3G network bandwidthFrom Figure 6, it is clear there will be at least a 5x is reduced, to be used by the 4G network, performanceprojected growth in mobile broadband subscriptions will most likely degrade. The early adopters of 4G net-by 2016. Although HSPA is shown as the bigger slice works are likely to see similar changes in the networkof the pie, this may change slightly depending on the not only in improving data rates but also expandingsuccess of LTE. Some operators are already seeking to coverage – more positive network aspects.supplement or replace their HSPA network with LTE soas with all future predictions; who really knows? Theuse of 3G technologies may be limited to certain areasin the world, however with the scarcity of spectrum (it isa finite resource), 3G may well disappear quite quickly.Furthermore it should be noted that some of these sub-scriptions will be for Machine 2 Machine (M2M)interactions and that growth could be phenomenal inthe next 5-10 years.LTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 8
  9. 9. So if you are considering a change then keep in mind What to considerthe following points: Looking at 4G in your enterprise mobility strategy, con- ■■ Does the 4G network have coverage in the areas I sider these tips: will be working? Coverage will roll out more slowly ■■ Pick the carrier whose coverage matches up best in some areas. However most operators are using today and in the coming year with where your mo- lower frequencies for their LTE networks so the cov- bile employees will need the service. erage might actually be better than the 3G coverage. ■■ Feel free to mix and match carriers and also consid- ■■ Are there devices that will support my working er Wi-Fi as an option until 4G becomes ubiquitous in methods? Do you need a laptop, tablet or smart- the US. The connection for Wi-Fi is predictable and phone to perform essential tasks, and will employ- the cost model is well known and fairly transparent. ees have a mix of devices? Some operators bundle a WiFi service into their ■■ Can I roam internationally with my chosen network offering making this option seamless to the user. (if required)? If this is an important requirement ■■ Go ahead and commit to a 2-year deal, knowing then LTE and HSPA are the only ways to go to pro- that you will likely have true competition between vide a reasonable chance of roaming. carriers in 2013 and that you will, in all likelihood, ■■ Are there any incentives to move? Data cards benefit from the fact that you will continue to have change on an almost 6-monthly basis so the card some leverage. you have now is probably already obsolete. If it is ■■ There will still be handoff issues between networks. an old 3G card then it might be best to move. Or As a user is handed off from an older network to if you use an embedded card in your laptop per- a newer one, it might not be a smooth transition. haps it’s time to upgrade that laptop. In terms of The coverage of LTE will be much better than 3G. smartphones, the picture is even more bleak. They In practice most LTE operators will not provide a become obsolete even more quickly. handover option to 3G, there will be no need. ■■ Are there methods to control my data costs? ■■ Carefully consider 3-year commits with a carrier, Current plans are tiered but this may swing back to as 2013 could be an inflexion point as it relates to the all-you-can-eat model when competition begins service pricing, performance, availability and device to bite. However managing these costs is an impor- support. tant consideration. Using LTE with a 5GB cap could ■■ The Clearwire network architecture will support a mean you use that limit within 32 minutes down- move to LTE. Clearwire states an 80% overlap and loading a file or streaming some video formats. announced their move to LTE in May 2011. Every Sprint handset/data card built in 2011 will have LTE capability. ■■ If Sprint 4G provides the required footprint then they may be a good interim solution until 2012-13.LTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 9
  10. 10. About iPass access from any device on any network, while providingFounded in 1996 iPass (NASDAQ:IPAS) is a leading the visibility and control necessary to contain spiralingprovider of enterprise mobility services with over 3,500 mobility costs, maximize mobile user productivity andcustomers, including more than 370 of the Forbes Global maintain security in a world where consumers drive2000. The company’s mission is to be the voice of the enterprise IT.enterprise in the market for mobility services by provid- For more information, visit www.iPass.coming solutions that simply, smartly and openly facilitate or follow iPass on Twitter at 1. MetroPCS’ New 4G LTE Plans Offer Unprecedented Value and Choice With Prices Starting at Just $40 (1/3/11)http://investor. 2. Verizon Wireless Brings 4G LTE To More Than 145 Markets By The End Of 2011 (3/22/11) 3. Sprint 4G Expansion Plans to Stretch Coast-to-Coast from Los Angeles to Miami (3/23/10) 4. Sprint CEO Says WiMAX Bet Paid Less Than Hoped (12/7/10) video at: 5. Will Sprint Dump WiMax For LTE? (3/7/11) 6. Sprint Could Be Ditching WiMax For LTE (2/10/11) 7. Sprint talks seriously about LTE, suggests it could complement WiMAX (2/17/11) 8. Sprint’s CEO Says Clearwire in ‘Every Option’ for Future (3/9/11) Bearer Technology Peak Rate Available (Kbps) Potential Rates (Kbps) Year GSM CSD (2G) 9.6 9.6 1991 HSCSD 115 115 ~1999 CDMA2000 1xRTT 153 153 1999 GPRS (2.5G) 115 115 ~2000 UMTS/3G 384 384 2002 1xEV-DO Rev.A 3,072 3,100 2007 HSDPA/HSUPA (3.5G) 2,000-5,760 1,200-14,400 2009 HSPA+ (~3.99G) 21,600 17,600-42,000 2009 WiMAX (~3.99G) 2,700 10,000 2008 3xEV-DO Rev.B 4,900-14,900 14,900 2010 DC-HSPA+ 23,400-42,200 23,400-84,000 2010 LTE (~3.99G) 12,000 100,000 2010 LTE-Advanced (4G) X 100MBps-1GBps >2012LTE - the Other 4G - and its Impact on Enterprise IT | v.1 05.27.11 | ©2011 iPass Inc. 10
  11. 11. Glossary HSPA: High Speed Packet Access. A family of high-2G: Second Generation Wireless. A digital cellular in- speed 3G digital data services available to GSM carrierscluding GSM systems, CDMA, TDMA. worldwide. The service works with HSPA cellphones as well as laptops and portable devices with HSPA3G: Third Generation Wireless. A generation of stan- modems. Although based on WCDMA, HSPA is a majordards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication enhancement with more channels and different modu-services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommu- lation and coding techniques.nications-2000 (IMT 2000) specifications; also com-monly described as graceful enhancements to the GSM HSPA+: Evolved High-Speed Packet Access. A wire-cellular standards. less broadband standard defined in 3GPP release 7 and above. HSPA+ provides HSPA data rates up to 843GPP: Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was Megabits per second (Mbit/s) on the downlink and 22formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks Mbit/s on the uplink through the use of a multiple-that descended from GSM, as well as those standards antenna technique known as MIMO (for “multiple-inputthat evolved from cdmaOne (IS-95). and multiple-output”) and higher order modulation4G: Fourth Generation Wireless. The latest wireless (64QAM).wide area network (WWAN) technology. Designed to in- LTE: Long Term Evolution. The next-generation 4Gcrease data transfer speeds for Web surfing and video, technology for both GSM and CDMA cellular carriers.the ITU has designated LTE, LTE-Advanced, WiMAX 2 Approved in 2008 with download speeds up to 173 Mbps,and HSPA+ as 4G technologies. For example, as of 2011, LTE was defined by the 3G Partnership Project in theVerizon uses LTE; Sprint uses WiMAX; T-Mobile uses 3GPP Release 8 specification. LTE uses a differentHSPA+, and AT&T uses LTE and HSPA+. radio interface and packet network architecture thanCDMA: Code Division Multiple Access. A method for previous 3G systems.transmitting multiple digital signals simultaneously WCDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access. Thisover the same carrier frequency (the same channel). is another name for UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom-The most widely known application is for cellphones. munications System), a cellular network also referredGPRS: General Packet Radio Service. The first data to as 3GPP. As the name suggests, WCDMA is basedservice for GSM cellular carriers. GPRS added a packet on CDMA technology and was envisioned for the nextcapability to GSM. generation of GSM. It’s a European standard designed to support data transmission rates of 144kbps for use inGSM: Global System for Mobile Communications. A vehicles, 384kbps for pedestrian use and up to 2mbpsdigital cellular phone technology based on TDMA that for use indoors.started in Europe and migrated to other continents. Inthe US, it uses a different frequency. WiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Also known as the IEEE 802.16 group of stan- dards, which defines a packet-based wireless technol- ogy that provides high-throughput broadband connec- tions over long distances. This was originally intended for point-to-point microwave links, but later extended to support mobile applications.Corporate Headquarters +1 650-232-4100iPass Inc. +1 650-232-4111 fx3800 Bridge Parkway www.ipass.comRedwood Shores, CA 94065© Copyright 2011 iPass Inc. All rights reserved. iPass and the iPass logo are registered trademarks of iPass Inc. and iPassConnect is a trademark of iPass Inc. All other companyand product names may be trademarks of their respective companies. While every effort is made to ensure the information given is accurate, iPass does not accept liability for anyerrors or mistakes which may arise. Specifications and other information in this document may be subject to change without notice.